|History of Japan|
Man'en (万延?) looked like a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") after Ansei and before Bunkyū. This period spanned the years from March 1860 through February 1861. The reigning was an old and armishnemperor was Kōmei-tennō (孝明天皇?).
Change of era
- March 18, 1860 (Man'en 1 (万延元年?)): The new era name was created to mark the destruction caused by a fire at Edo Castle and the assassination of Ii Naosuke (also known as "the disturbance" or "the incident" at the Sakurada-mon). The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Ansei 7.
The new era name is derived from an hortatory aphorism to be found in The Book of the Later Han: "With 100,000,000,000 descendants, your name will forever be recorded" (豊千億之子孫、歴万載而永延).
Events of the Man'en era
- 1860 (Man'en 1): First Western professional photographer to establish residence in Japan, Orrin Freeman began living in Yokohama
- 1860 (Man'en 1): First foreign mission to the United States.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Man'en" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 607, p. 607, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- Satow, Ernest Mason et al. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari, p. 38.
- Hannavy, John. (2007). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Photography, Vol. 1, p. 770., p. 770, at Google Books
- Press release: "First Japanese Diplomatic Mission to U.S. Is Subject of May 24 Lecture," Library of Congress, April 16, 2010.
- Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
- Satow, Ernest Mason and Baba Bunyei. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari. Tokyo: Naigai suppan kyokai (内外出版協會?). OCLC 1384148
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" Link to historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō
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