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Manacus candei1.jpg
Juvenile white-collared manakin
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Pipridae
Genus: Manacus
Brisson, 1760
Type species
Pipra manacus
Linnaeus, 1766

see text

Manacus distribution.svg

Manacus is a genus of passerine birds in the manakin family which are found in the forests of tropical mainland Central and South America, and on Trinidad and Tobago.

The genus Manacus was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 with the white-bearded manakin (Manacus manacus) as the type species.[1][2] The name manacus is from the Dutch manneken "pretty little thing".[3]

The genus contains four species:[4]

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
White-collared Manakin - Sarapiqui - Costa Rica MG 0596 (26585018422).jpg Manacus candei White-collared manakin Costa Rica and Panama
Orange-collared Manakin - Rio Tigre - Costa Rica MG 7859 (26651287556).jpg Manacus aurantiacus Orange-collared manakin panama and Colombia
Stavenn Manacus vitellinus.jpg Manacus vitellinus Golden-collared manakin Colombia and Panama
Manacus manacus.jpg Manacus manacus White-bearded manakin Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad south to Bolivia and northern Argentina

The "Almirante manakin" (Manacus x cerritus) are stereotyped hybrids between the white-collared and the golden-collared species, found in Bocas del Toro Province, Panama (Brumfield et al., 2001; McDonald et al., 2001).

These are small, compact, short-tailed birds with a heavy hooked bill and orange legs. The males have brightly coloured plumage and long puffed throat feathers, whereas the females are the typical manakin dull olive hue.

The females lay two eggs in a shallow cup nest in a tree. Nest-building, incubation for 18–21 days, and care of the young are undertaken by the female alone, since manakins do not form stable pairs.

Manacus manakins feed low in the trees on fruit and some insects, both plucked from the foliage in flight.

Like some other manakin species, this genus has spectacular courtship rituals, in which the males give communal displays in a specially prepared lek. The males jump with their throat feathers erected to form a beard, and give whistles together with the characteristic loud snaps (like a breaking twig) and various buzzing, rustling and whiffling noises made with the wings.

The males of three very closely related species, the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean slopes of Central America, and its Pacific counterparts, the orange-collared and golden-collared manakins, have heavily modified wings with the five outer primaries very narrow for their outer half, and the inner primaries thickened and bowed.


  1. ^ Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode Contenant la Division des Oiseaux en Ordres, Sections, Genres, Especes & leurs Variétés (in French and Latin). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1, p. 44, Vol. 4, p. 442.
  2. ^ Traylor, Melvin A. Jr, ed. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 8. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 260.
  3. ^ Jobling, J.A. (2019). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  4. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Cotingas, manakins, tityras, becards". World Bird List Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 3 April 2019.


  • Brumfield, Robb T.; Jernigan, Robert W.; McDonald, David B.; Braun, Michael J. (2001): Evolutionary implications of divergent clines in an avian (Manacus: Aves) hybrid zone. Evolution 55(10): 2070–2087. PDF fulltext
  • McDonald, David B.; Clay, Robert P.; Brumfield, Robb T. & Braun, Michael J. (2001): Sexual selection on plumage and behavior in an avian hybrid zone: experimental tests of male-male interactions. Evolution 55(7): 1443-1451. PDF fulltext

Further reading[edit]

  • ffrench, Richard (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2.
  • Hilty, Steven L (2003). Birds of Venezuela. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5.
  • Stiles, F. Gary & Skutch, Alexander Frank (1989): A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comistock, Ithaca. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4