Manado

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Manado
City of Manado
Kota Manado
Manado Waterfront.JPG
Bunaken01.JPG
Kalasey Beach Manado.JPG
Manado airport3.JPG
Manado town square.jpg
Manado Skyline.jpg
Clockwise, from top, left to right: The city's seafront skyline, Bunaken National Park, Kalasey Beach, main terminal of Sam Ratulangi International Airport, Manado Town Square, and Soekarno Bridge
Coat of arms of Manado
Nickname(s): 
Kota 1001 Gereja
(City of 1001 Churches)
Motto(s): 
Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou
(Men live to help others live)
(Minahasan)
Location within North Sulawesi
Location within North Sulawesi
Manado is located in Manado
Manado
Manado
Location in Downtown Manado, Sulawesi, and Southeast Asia
Manado is located in Sulawesi
Manado
Manado
Manado (Sulawesi)
Manado is located in Indonesia
Manado
Manado
Manado (Indonesia)
Manado is located in Southeast Asia
Manado
Manado
Manado (Southeast Asia)
Coordinates: 1°29′35″N 124°50′28.54″E / 1.49306°N 124.8412611°E / 1.49306; 124.8412611Coordinates: 1°29′35″N 124°50′28.54″E / 1.49306°N 124.8412611°E / 1.49306; 124.8412611
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceNorth Sulawesi
Founded14 July 1623; 398 years ago (1623-07-14)
Government
 • MayorAndrei Angouw
 • Vice MayorRichard Sualang
Area
 • Total162.53 km2 (62.75 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)[2]
 • Total451,916
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (ICST)
Area code+62 431
Vehicle registrationDB
WebsiteManadoKota.go.id

Manado (Indonesian pronunciation: [maˈnado]) is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. It is the second largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar, with the 2020 Census giving a population of 451,916 distributed over a land area of 162.53 km2.[3] The Manado metropolitan area has a population of 1.2 million as of 2018.[4] The city is located adjacent to the Bay of Manado, and is surrounded by a mountainous area.[5]

Manado is among Indonesia's top-five tourism priorities.[6] The city is served by Sam Ratulangi International Airport, which has direct international flights to the Philippines, Singapore, and China, as well as many domestic destinations.[7] Bunaken National Park is one of the city's most famous tourist attractions. The city is also known for its Christian-majority population, and holds the country's biggest Christmas celebration annually.[8] It is also recognised as one of the most tolerant and peaceful cities in Indonesia.[9]

Etymology[edit]

The name Manado is derived from the Sangir language word manaro, meaning 'on the far coast' or 'in the distance', and originally referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua (Old Manado).[10] The name for Manado in the Sangir language is Manaro.

History[edit]

The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by French cartographer Nicolas Desliens, which shows the island of Manarow (today's Manado Tua). Before Europeans arrived in North Sulawesi, the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced Islam to its inhabitants. The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, ruling over the Minahasa people, and establishing a factory in Wenang.

Meanwhile, the Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain as a centre of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies, the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[11] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo.[12]

Map of Manado in 1679

Spain renounced its possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[13] Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch, and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later.

The Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658. As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianisation by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk (Old church), which still stands, and is now called Gereja Sentrum. HMS Dover captured Manado in June 1810. The Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. In 1859, the English biologist Alfred Wallace visited Manado and praised the town for its beauty.

In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted to the Diocese of Manado.

The Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942.[14] The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II.

In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado. When Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

In 1962, the People's Representative Council declared Manado as the official capital city of North Sulawesi Province.

Geography[edit]

Manado has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification, as there is no real dry season. The wettest month is January, with an average rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in), while the driest is September with an average rainfall of 121 millimetres (4.8 in).[15] The abundance of rain seems to be influenced by the monsoon. As its location is near the equator, the temperature seems constant throughout the year. The hottest month is August with an average temperature of 26.6 °C (79.9 °F), while the coolest months are January and February with an average temperature of 25.4 °C (77.7 °F).[16] Unlike other cities in Indonesia, the temperature seems to be cooler.[weasel words]

Climate data for Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.4
(84.9)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86.0)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
30.1
(86.2)
30.9
(87.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.7
(78.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79.0)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79.0)
Average low °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
21.9
(71.4)
21.2
(70.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 427
(16.8)
361
(14.2)
338
(13.3)
266
(10.5)
268
(10.6)
277
(10.9)
170
(6.7)
121
(4.8)
149
(5.9)
256
(10.1)
290
(11.4)
365
(14.4)
3,288
(129.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 129 119 155 168 168 144 176 210 179 172 157 152 1,929
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[15][17][18][16][19]
Manado mean sea temperature[20]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F)

Administrative Districts[edit]

Manado and its bay taken from Tinoor village
Fisherman village in Sindulang

The city is divided into eleven districts (kecamatan). These are tabulated below with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census[21] and 2020 Census.[22] The new districts of Bunaken Kepulauan (Bunaken Islands) and Paal Dua were established in 2012. The table also includes the location of the district administrative centres.

District
(kecamatan)
Area
in km2
Population
Census
2010[23]
Population
Census
2020[24]
Admin
centre
Malalayang 17.96 54,959 61,890 Malalayang Satu
Sario 1.99 23,198 21,740 Sario
Wanea 8.47 56,962 59,760 Wanea
Wenang 3.47 32,796 32,600 Tikala Kumaraka
Tikala 6.69 69,734 30,170 Tikala Baru
Paal Dua 9.38 (a) 44,020 Ranomuut
Mapanget 53.58 53,194 63,280 Paniki Bawah
Singkil 4.87 46,721 52,730 Singkil
Tuminting 5.26 52,089 53,760 Bitung Karang Ria
Bunaken 32.00 20,828 25,670 Molas
Bunaken Kepulauan 18.88 (b) 6,300 Bunaken
Totals 162.53 410,481 451,916

Notes:
(a) the 2010 population of Paal Dua District is included in the figure for Tikala District, from which it was cut out in 2013.
(b) the 2010 population of Bunaken Kepulauan District is included in the figure for Bunaken District, from which it was cut out in 2013.

The boundaries of Manado city are as follows:

Demographics[edit]

Ethnicity and languages[edit]

Minahasa women, circa 1940s

Currently, the majority of Manado city residents are from the Minahasa ethnic group, because Manado is located in Minahasan lands. The indigenous people of Manado are from the Tombulu people. The Tombulu language is spoken widely in several urban villages within Manado, for example: Wenang (Wenang / Mahawenang - kolintang), Tumumpa (down), Mahakeret (yelling), Tikala Ares (Walak Ares Tombulu, where the word 'ares' means punishable), Ranotana (ground water), Winangun (built), Wawonasa (wawoinasa - sharpened above), Pinaesaan (unity place), Pakowa (Tree of Treasure), Teling (fur / bamboo to make equipment), Titiwungen (excavated), Tuminting (from the word Ting-Ting: a bell, the inserted syllable -um- changing the noun to a verb, so Tuminting: ringing bell), Pondol (Edge), Wanea (from the word Wanua: meaning the country), etc. While the Malalayang area has residents mainly from the Bantik people, other indigenous groups in Manado today are from the Sangir, Gorontalo, Mongondow, Babontehu, Talaud, Tionudese, Siau, and Borgo peoples. There are also Arabian peranakan communities, mainly in the Kampung Arab area which is near Pasar '45 and has become a destination for religious tourism. Other ethnicities represented include Javanese, Chinese, Batak, Makassar, and Moluccans. A small Jewish community also exists.

GPdI church in Manado

Manado Malay is the main language spoken in Manado. It is a Malay-based creole. Some of the loan words in the Minahasan vernacular are derived from Dutch, Portuguese, and other foreign languages.

Religion[edit]

Protestant Christianity is the major religion in Manado, constituting around 76 percent of all residents, Islam comes second forming about 10 percent, Catholicism comes in third forming around 10 percent, and the rest follow Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism, each coming in at less than 1 percent each, according to the 2020 national census.[25] In addition, about 20 Indonesian Jews live in Manado.[26]

Even so, heterogeneous, but the people of Manado really appreciate the attitude of tolerant, harmonious, open and dynamic life. Therefore, the city of Manado has a relatively conducive social environment, and is known as one of the most relatively safe cities in Indonesia. When Indonesia was vulnerable to political upheaval around 1999, and riots hit cities in Indonesia, Manado city was said to be relatively safe. This is shown through the slogan of the people of Manado: Torang samua basudara, which means We are all family. And also through the words of Dr. Sam Ratulangi: "Sitou, Timou, Tumou, Tou", which roughly translates to 'Man lives to educate others'.

Transportation[edit]

Sam Ratulangi International Airport of Manado is one of the main entry ports to Indonesia. In 2005, no fewer than 15,000 international passengers entered Indonesia via the city's airport, its connected to several Indonesian cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Makassar, and others. Other public transportation in Manado are:

  1. Trans Kawanua (bus)
  2. Perum DAMRI buses serving airport to Manado
  3. Bus serving Tomohon to Manado

Manado–Bitung Toll Road connects the city with Bitung. Terminal Malalayang, or Malalayang Bus Terminal serves as the main gateway for long-distance buses in Manado.

Main sights[edit]

Panoramic view of Manado

Manado is home to some of the biggest and most influential churches in the province, with many of them located along the iconic Sam Ratulangi Street.[27]

Tourism[edit]

Snorkeling around Bunaken

Cuisine[edit]

Fish Woku
RW (dog meat) and Tinorangsak (pork meat) is main common meat used in Minahasan cusisine

Food typical of Manado include Tinutuan, which consists of various kinds of vegetables. Tinutuan is not mush, as so far people have said it as Manado porridge. In addition to Tinutuan, there is Cakalang Fufu, a smoked skipjack ('Katsuwonus pelamis'), roa fish (exocoetidae or torani; Parexocoetus brachypterus), Kawok which is food based from rat meat of forest / White (Maxomys hellwandii); Paniki (meat-based dishes bat; Pteropus pumilus) and RW (abbreviated of Rinte Wuuk) is local name of the dog meat, Swine pig (1 pig is burnt by rotating on the embers), usually served at parties, Babi Putar (made from pork mixed with manado spices and rolled burned in bamboo). There is also a typical drink from the area of Manado and its surroundings are saguer which is a kind of wine or palm wine derived from enau / aren tree (Arenga pinnata), which is then fermented. This saguer has an alcohol content, Cap Tikus (high alcoholic beverage with average 40% more ethyl alcohol content derived from saguer distillation process depends on technique in different villages in Minahasa).

Manado styled Nasi Kuning

Woku is a type of bumbu (spice mixture) found in Manado cuisine of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It has rich aroma and spicy taste. Woku consist of ground spices paste; red ginger, turmeric, candlenut, and red chili pepper, mixed with chopped shallot, scallion, tomato, lemon or citrus leaf, and turmeric leaf, lemon basil leaf, and bruised lemongrass. Rub main ingredients (chicken or fish) with salt and lime juices, and marinate for 30 minutes. All spices are cooked in coconut oil until the aroma came up and mixed together with the main ingredients, water, and a pinch of salt, well until all cooked well.

Other typical food of Manado city which is also quite famous is Nasi Kuning which taste and its presentation is different from yellow rice in other area because it is spiked with abon of cakalang rica fish and presented in parcel using sugar palm leaves. In addition, there are also grilled fish roasted head. Dabu-dabu is a very popular typical of Manado sauce, made from a mixture of red chillies, cayenne pepper, sliced red onion, and freshly diced tomatoes, and finally given a mixture of soy sauce.

Sister cities[edit]

Language[edit]

The local language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area is a creole of the Malay language called Manado Malay. It exhibits significant influence of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch, for example:

  • Chair in Indonesian is kursi, in the Minahasa it is called kadera (cadeira - Portuguese word for chair).
  • Horse in Indonesian is kuda, a word of Sanskrit origin. In the town of Tomohon, a horse is called kafalio ('cavalo - Portuguese', "caballo - Spanish).
  • But in Indonesian is tetapi, in Manado it is called mar (maar- Dutch word for but).

While there is not much known about the origin of ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, currently the orthography used for indigenous Minahasan languages closely matches that used for Indonesian.

Notable people[edit]

Leading figures in Indonesian history
Important figures in Manadonese history
Other community figures
Sportspeople and actors

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik. Jakarta, 2013.
  2. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  4. ^ "Sulawesi Utara Dalam Angka 2019".
  5. ^ "In the shadows of volcanoes: Manado Bay and its harbour". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  6. ^ "Kembangkan 5 Destinasi Prioritas, Jokowi Tekankan Soal Kebersihan | Ekonomi". 21 November 2019.
  7. ^ https://bisnis.tempo.co/read/1252709/ap-i-besok-garuda-indonesia-layani-rute-manado-davao-filipina/full&view=ok
  8. ^ Christian
  9. ^ "Wali Kota Kaget Manado Jadi Kota Paling Toleran di Indonesia".
  10. ^ Willem H. Makaliwe, 1981, A preliminary note on genealogy and intermarriage in the Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 137, p. 245
  11. ^ Wahr, C.R. Minahasa (history) Website
  12. ^ Wahr, C. R. Minahasa (history) Website
  13. ^ Milburn, William (1813). Oriental commerce: containing a geographical description of the principal places in the East Indies, China, and Japan, with their produce, manufactures, and trade. New York: Black, Parry & Co. pp. 406.
  14. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Fall of Menado, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  15. ^ a b "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ a b "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ "Station 97014". Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Klimatafel von Manado / Nord-Celebes (Sulawesi) / Indonesien" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  21. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  22. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  23. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  24. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  25. ^ "Data Sensus Penduduk 2020 untuk Sulawesi Utara".
  26. ^ "On remote island in Muslim-majority Indonesia, Jewish community lives in shadows".
  27. ^ "Great Churches of Manado". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  28. ^ "The lakes of Sulut: Danau Tondano and Linow". Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  29. ^ "Christ Blessing and the Waruga". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  30. ^ "Off to Bunaken". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  31. ^ "Livin' la vida Bunaken's way". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  32. ^ "Bunaken's blue, blue seas". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  33. ^ "Manado Boulevard Carnaval - Digelar Rutin". 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.

External links[edit]