Management of depression
This article addresses the management of the mental disorder known as major depressive disorder or often called simply "depression". This syndrome is being diagnosed more frequently in developed countries, where up to 20% of the population is affected at some stage of their lives. According to WHO (World Health Organization), depression is currently fourth among the top 10 leading causes of the global burden of disease; it is predicted that by the year 2020, depression will be ranked second.
Though psychiatric medication is the most frequently prescribed therapy for major depression, psychotherapy may be effective, either alone or in combination with medication. Antidepressant medications fail to consistently demonstrate superiority over placebo pills, or their benefit is small. Likewise, psychotherapy has been unable to demonstrate substantial superiority over no-treatment. Combining psychotherapy and antidepressants may provide a "slight advantage", but antidepressants alone or psychotherapy alone are not significantly different from other treatments, or "active intervention controls". Given an accurate diagnosis of major depressive disorder, in general the type of treatment (psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, alternate or other treatments, or active intervention) is "less important than getting depressed patients involved in an active therapeutic program."
Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice in those under the age of 18, with medication offered only in conjunction with the former and generally not as a first line agent. The possibility of depression, substance misuse or other mental health problems in the parents should be considered and, if present and if it may help the child, the parent should be treated in parallel with the child.
- 1 Psychotherapy
- 2 Pharmaceutical drug treatment
- 3 Medical devices
- 4 Other treatments
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
There are a number of different psychotherapies for depression which are provided to individuals or groups by psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, counselors or psychiatric nurses. With more chronic forms of depression, the most effective treatment is often considered to be a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice in people under 18.
The most studied form of psychotherapy for depression is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), thought to work by teaching clients to learn a set of cognitive and behavioral skills, which they can employ on their own. Earlier research suggested that cognitive behavioral therapy was not as effective as antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression; however, more recent research suggests that it can perform as well as antidepressants in treating patients with moderate to severe depression.
A systematic review of data comparing low-intensity CBT (such as guided self-help by means of written materials and limited professional support, and website-based interventions) with usual care found that patients who initially had more severe depression benefited from low-intensity interventions at least as much as less-depressed patients.
For the treatment of adolescent depression, one published study found that CBT without medication performed no better than a placebo, and significantly worse than the antidepressant fluoxetine. However, the same article reported that CBT and fluoxetine outperformed treatment with only fluoxetine. Combining fluoxetine with CBT appeared to bring no additional benefit in two different studies or, at the most, only marginal benefit, in a fourth study.
Behavior therapy for depression is sometimes referred to as behavioral activation. Studies exist showing behavioral activation to be superior to CBT. In addition, behavioral activation appears to take less time and lead to longer lasting change.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a mindfulness form of CBT, which has its roots in behavior analysis, also demonstrates that it is effective in treating depression, and can be more helpful than traditional CBT, especially where depression is accompanied by anxiety and where it is resistant to traditional CBT.
A review of four studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), a recently developed class-based program designed to prevent relapse, suggests that MBCT may have an additive effect when provided with the usual care in patients who have had three or more depressive episodes, although the usual care did not include antidepressant treatment or any psychotherapy, and the improvement observed may have reflected non-specific or placebo effects.
Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on the social and interpersonal triggers that may cause depression. There is evidence that it is an effective treatment for depression. Here, the therapy takes a structured course with a set number of weekly sessions (often 12) as in the case of CBT; however, the focus is on relationships with others. Therapy can be used to help a person develop or improve interpersonal skills in order to allow him or her to communicate more effectively and reduce stress.
Psychoanalysis, a school of thought founded by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes the resolution of unconscious mental conflicts, is used by its practitioners to treat clients presenting with major depression. A more widely practiced technique, called psychodynamic psychotherapy, is loosely based on psychoanalysis and has an additional social and interpersonal focus. In a meta-analysis of three controlled trials, psychodynamic psychotherapy was found to be as effective as medication for mild to moderate depression.
Pharmaceutical drug treatment
To find the most effective pharmaceutical drug treatment, the dosages of medications must often be adjusted, different combinations of antidepressants tried, or antidepressants changed. Response rates to the first agent administered may be as low as 50%. It may take anywhere from three to eight weeks after the start of medication before its therapeutic effects can be fully discovered. Patients are generally advised not to stop taking an antidepressant suddenly and to continue its use for at least four months to prevent the chance of recurrence.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral), escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex), fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Seroxat), and citalopram, are the primary medications considered, due to their relatively mild side effects and broad effect on the symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as reduced risk in overdose, compared to their older tricyclic alternatives. Those who do not respond to the first SSRI tried can be switched to another. If sexual dysfunction is present prior to the onset of depression, SSRIs should be avoided. Another popular option is to switch to the atypical antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin) or to add bupropion to the existing therapy; this strategy is possibly more effective. It is not uncommon for SSRIs to cause or worsen insomnia; the sedating noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) antidepressant mirtazapine (Zispin, Remeron) can be used in such cases. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia can also help to alleviate the insomnia without additional medication. Venlafaxine (Effexor) may be moderately more effective than SSRIs; however, it is not recommended as a first-line treatment because of the higher rate of side effects, and its use is specifically discouraged in children and adolescents. Fluoxetine is the only antidepressant recommended for people under the age of 18, though, if a child or adolescent patient is intolerant to fluoxetine, another SSRI may be considered. Evidence of effectiveness of SSRIs in those with depression complicated by dementia is lacking.
Tricyclic antidepressants have more side effects than SSRIs (but less sexual dysfunctions) and are usually reserved for the treatment of inpatients, for whom the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, in particular, appears to be more effective. A different class of antidepressants, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors, have historically been plagued by questionable efficacy (although early studies used dosages now considered too low) and life-threatening adverse effects. They are still used only rarely, although newer agents of this class (RIMA), with a better side effect profile, have been developed.
Physicians often add a medication with a different mode of action to bolster the effect of an antidepressant in cases of treatment resistance; a 2002 large community study of 244,859 depressed Veterans Administration patients found that 22% had received a second agent, most commonly a second antidepressant. Lithium has been used to augment antidepressant therapy in those who have failed to respond to antidepressants alone. Furthermore, lithium dramatically decreases the suicide risk in recurrent depression. Addition of atypical antipsychotics when the patient has not responded to an antidepressant is also known to increase the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs, albeit at the cost of more frequent and potentially serious side effects. There is some evidence for the addition of a thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine, in patients with normal thyroid function. Stephen M. Stahl, renowned academician in psychopharmacology, has stated resorting to a dynamic psychostimulant, in particular, d-amphetamine is the "classical augmentation strategy for treatment-refractory depression". However, the use of stimulants in cases of treatment-resistant depression is relatively controversial.
Regulatory status, efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive treatments in depression
|Drug||MHRA approved as an adjunct?||TGA approved as an adjunct?||FDA approved as an adjunct?||Odds ratio for non-response over antidepressant monotherapy||Mean difference for MADRS||Mean difference for HAM-D||Odds ratio for leaving the study early due to any reason||Odds ratio for leaving the study early due to adverse effects||Odds ratio for significant weight gain||Mean difference for weight gain (kg)||Odds ratio for sedation|
|Aripiprazole||No||No||Yes||0.48 (0.37-0.63)||-3.04 (-4.09,0.00)||ND||1.21 (0.86, 1.71)||2.59 (1.18, 5.71)||5.93 (2.15, 16.36)||1.07 (0.30, 1.84)||3.42 (0.66, 17.81)|
|Lithium[a]||No||No. But listed in the Australian Medicines Handbook as an accepted use of lithium treatment.||No||0.47 (0.27-0.81)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Olanzapine||No||No||Yes (in combination with fluoxetine)||0.70 (0.48, 1.02)||-2.84 (-5.84,-0.20)||-7.90 (-16.63, 0.83)||1.22 (0.82, 1.83)||3.51 (1.58, 7.80)||12.14 (0.70, 208.95)||4.58 (4.06, 5.09)||3.53 (1.64, 7.60)|
|Quetiapine||Yes||Yes||Yes||0.66 (0.51, 0.87)||-2.67 (-4.00, -1.34)||-2.67 (-3.79, -1.55)||0.75 (0.26, 2.14)||5.59 (1.47, 21.26)||3.06 (1.22, 7.68)||1.11 (0.56, 1.66)||8.79 (4.90, 15.77)|
|Risperidone||No||No||No||0.57 (0.36, 0.89)||-1.85 (-9.17, 5.47)||-1.69 (-4.13, 0.74)||1.04 (0.59, 1.83)||2.11 (0.79, 5.68)||3.32 (0.99, 11.12)||1.80 (0.95, 2.65)||1.10 (0.31, 3.99)|
Efficacy of medication and psychotherapy
Antidepressants are statistically superior to placebo but their overall effect is low-to-moderate. In that respect they often did not exceed the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence criteria for a "clinically significant" effect. In particular, the effect size was very small for moderate depression but increased with severity, reaching "clinical significance" for very severe depression. These results were consistent with the earlier clinical studies in which only patients with severe depression benefited from either psychotherapy or treatment with an antidepressant, imipramine, more than from the placebo treatment. Despite obtaining similar results, the authors argued about their interpretation. One author concluded that there "seems little evidence to support the prescription of antidepressant medication to any but the most severely depressed patients, unless alternative treatments have failed to provide benefit." The other author agreed that "antidepressant 'glass' is far from full" but disagreed "that it is completely empty". He pointed out that the first-line alternative to medication is psychotherapy, which does not have superior efficacy.
Antidepressants in general are as effective as psychotherapy for major depression, and this conclusion holds true for both severe and mild forms of MDD. In contrast, medication gives better results for dysthymia. The subgroup of SSRIs may be slightly more efficacious than psychotherapy. On the other hand, significantly more patients drop off from the antidepressant treatment than from psychotherapy, likely because of the side effects of antidepressants. Successful psychotherapy appears to prevent the recurrence of depression even after it has been terminated or replaced by occasional "booster" sessions. The same degree of prevention can be achieved by continuing antidepressant treatment.
Two studies suggest that the combination of psychotherapy and medication is the most effective way to treat depression in adolescents. Both TADS (Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study) and TORDIA (Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents) showed very similar results. TADS resulted in 71% of their teen subjects having "much" or "very much" improvement in mood over the 60.6% with medication alone and the 43.2% with CBT alone. Similarly, TORDIA showed a 54.8% improvement with CBT and drugs verses a 40.5% with drug therapy alone.
Research on the antidepressant effects of ketamine infusions at subanaesthetic doses has consistently shown rapid (4 to 72 hours) responses from single doses, with substantial improvement in mood in the majority of patients and remission in some. However, these effects are often short-lived, and attempts to prolong the antidepressant effect with repeated doses and extended ("maintenance") treatment have resulted in only modest success.
The amino acid creatine, commonly used as a supplement to improve the performance of bodybuilders, has been studied for its potential antidepressant properties. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial focusing on women with major depressive disorder found that daily creatine supplementation adjunctive to escitalopram was more effective than escitalopram alone. Studies on mice have found that the antidepressant effects of creatine can be blocked by drugs that act against dopamine receptors, suggesting that the drug acts on dopamine pathways.
S-Adenosyl methionine (SAMe) is available as a prescription antidepressant in Europe and an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the US. Evidence from 16 clinical trials with a small number of subjects, reviewed in 1994 and 1996 suggested it to be more effective than placebo and as effective as standard antidepressant medication for the treatment of major depression.
Tryptophan and 5-HTP
The amino acid tryptophan is converted into 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) which is subsequently converted into the neurotransmitter serotonin. Since serotonin deficiency has been recognized as a possible cause of depression, it has been suggested that consumption of tryptophan or 5-HTP may therefore improve depression symptoms by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. 5-HTP and tryptophan are sold over the counter in North America, but requires a prescription in Europe. Small studies have been performed using 5-HTP and tryptophan as adjunctive therapy in addition to standard treatment for depression. While some studies had positive results, they were criticized for having methodological flaws, and a more recent study did not find sustained benefit from their use. The safety of these medications has not been well studied. Due to the lack of high quality studies and preliminary nature of studies showing effectiveness and the lack of adequate study on their safety, the use of tryptophan and 5-HTP is not highly recommended or thought to be clinically useful.
A variety of medical devices are in use or under consideration for treatment of depression including devices which offer electroconvulsive therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Use of such devices in the United States requires approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after field trials. In 2010 a FDA advisory panel considered the question of how such field trials should be managed. Factors considered were whether drugs had been effective, how many different drugs had been tried, and what tolerance for suicides should be in field trials.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a standard psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from psychiatric illnesses.:1880 ECT is used with informed consent as a last line of intervention for major depressive disorder.
A round of ECT is effective for about 50% of people with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, whether it is unipolar or bipolar. Follow-up treatment is still poorly studied, but about half of people who respond, relapse with twelve months.
Aside from effects in the brain, the general physical risks of ECT are similar to those of brief general anesthesia.:259 Immediately following treatment, the most common adverse effects are confusion and memory loss. ECT is considered one of the least harmful treatment options available for severely depressed pregnant women.
A usual course of ECT involves multiple administrations, typically given two or three times per week until the patient is no longer suffering symptoms ECT is administered under anesthetic with a muscle relaxant. Electroconvulsive therapy can differ in its application in three ways: electrode placement, frequency of treatments, and the electrical waveform of the stimulus. These three forms of application have significant differences in both adverse side effects and symptom remission. After treatment, drug therapy is usually continued, and some patients receive maintenance ECT.
Deep brain stimulation
The support for the use of deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression comes from a handful of case studies, and this treatment is still in a very early investigational stage. In this technique electrodes are implanted in a specific region of the brain, which is then continuously stimulated. A March 2010 systematic review found that "about half the patients did show dramatic improvement" and that adverse events were "generally trivial" given the younger psychiatric patient population than with movements disorders. Deep brain stimulation is available on an experimental basis only in the United States; no systems are approved by the FDA for this use. It is available in Australia.[medical citation needed]
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or deep transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method used to stimulate small regions of the brain. During a TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or "coil" is placed near the head of the person receiving the treatment.:3 The coil produces small electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil via electromagnetic induction. The coil is connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers electric current to the coil.
TMS was approved by the FDA for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder in 2008 and as of 2014 clinical evidence supports this use. The American Psychiatric Association,:46 the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, and the Royal Australia and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists have endorsed rTMS for trMDD.
Vagus nerve stimulation
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) uses an implanted electrode and generator to deliver electrical pulses to the vagus nerve, one of the primary nerves emanating from the brain. It is an approved therapy for treatment-resistant depression in the EU and US and is sometimes used as an adjunct to existing antidepressant treatment. The support for this method comes mainly from open-label trials, which indicate that several months may be required to see a benefit. The only large double-blind trial conducted lasted only 10 weeks and yielded inconclusive results; VNS failed to show superiority over a sham treatment on the primary efficacy outcome, but the results were more favorable for one of the secondary outcomes. The authors concluded "This study did not yield definitive evidence of short-term efficacy for adjunctive VNS in treatment-resistant depression."
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation
Bright light therapy
A meta-analysis of bright light therapy commissioned by the American Psychiatric Association found a significant reduction in depression symptom severity associated with bright light treatment. Benefit was found for both seasonal affective disorder and for nonseasonal depression, with effect sizes similar to those for conventional antidepressants. For non-seasonal depression, adding light therapy to the standard antidepressant treatment was not effective. A meta-analysis of light therapy for non-seasonal depression conducted by Cochrane Collaboration, studied a different set of trials, where light was used mostly in combination with antidepressants or wake therapy. A moderate statistically significant effect of light therapy was found, with response significantly better than control treatment in high-quality studies, in studies that applied morning light treatment, and with patients who respond to total or partial sleep deprivation. Both analyses noted poor quality of most studies and their small size, and urged caution in the interpretation of their results. The short 1–2 weeks duration of most trials makes it unclear whether the effect of light therapy could be sustained in the longer term.
The 2013 Cochrane Collaboration review on physical exercise for depression noted that, based upon limited evidence, it is moderately more effective than a control intervention and comparable to psychological or antidepressant drug therapies. Smaller effects were seen in more methologically rigorous studies. Three subsequent 2014 systematic reviews that included the Cochrane review in their analysis concluded with similar findings: one indicated that that physical exercise is effective as an adjunct treatment with antidepressant medication; the other two indicated that physical exercise has marked antidepressant effects and recommended the inclusion of physical activity as an adjunct treatment for mild–moderate depression and mental illness in general. These studies also found smaller effect sizes in more methodologically rigorous studies. All four systematic reviews called for more research in order to determine the efficacy or optimal exercise intensity, duration, and modality. The evidence for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating some of the neurobiological effects of physical exercise was noted in one review which hypothesized that increased BDNF signaling is responsible for the antidepressant effect.
A review of clinical evidence and guidelines for the management of depression with exercise therapy was published in June 2015. It noted that the available evidence on the effectiveness of exercise therapy for depression suffers from some limitations; nonetheless, it stated that there is clear evidence of efficacy in the reduction of depressive symptoms. The review also noted that patient characteristics, the type of depressive disorders, and the nature of the exercise program all affect the antidepressant properties of exercise therapy.
St John's wort
A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis concluded that "The available evidence suggests that the hypericum extracts tested in the included trials a) are superior to placebo in patients with major depression; b) are similarly effective as standard antidepressants; c) and have fewer side effects than standard antidepressants. The association of country of origin and precision with effects sizes complicates the interpretation." The United States National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health advice is that "St. John’s wort may help some types of depression, similar to treatment with standard prescription antidepressants, but the evidence is not definitive." and warns that "Combining St. John’s wort with certain antidepressants can lead to a potentially life-threatening increase of serotonin, a brain chemical targeted by antidepressants. St. John’s wort can also limit the effectiveness of many prescription medicines."
Depression is sometimes associated with insomnia - (difficulty in falling asleep, early waking, and waking in the middle of the night). The combination of these two results, depression and insomnia will only worsen the situation. Hence, good sleep hygiene is important to help break this vicious circle. This would include measures such as regular sleep routines, avoidance of stimulants such as caffeine and management of sleeping disorders such as sleep apnea.
Total/partial sleep deprivation
Sleep deprivation (skipping a night's sleep) has been found to improve symptoms of depression in 40% - 60% of patients. Partial sleep deprivation in the second half of the night may be as effective as an all night sleep deprivation session. Improvement may last for weeks, though the majority (50-80%) relapse after recovery sleep. Shifting or reduction of sleep time, light therapy, antidepressant drugs, and lithium have been found to potentially stabilize sleep deprivation treatment effects.
- An important note with the data in the above table is that most of the data for lithium is for when it is combined with tricyclic antidepressants.
- "Beyond Blue". Retrieved 2007-04-30.
- Lanier, Eric (2003). "Depression" (Professional Safety). Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Carson VB (2000). Mental health nursing: the nurse-patient journey W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8053-8. pp 423.
- The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy
- Khan, Arif; James Faucett; Pesach Lichtenberg; Irving Kirsch; Walter A. Brown (July 30, 2012). "A Systematic Review of Comparative Efficacy of Treatments and Controls for Depression". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41778. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041778. PMC . PMID 22860015.
- NICE (2005). NICE Guidelines:depression in children and adolescents. London: NICE. p. 5. ISBN 1-84629-074-0. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Thase, ME (1999). "When are psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy combinations the treatment of choice for major depressive disorder?". Psychiatric Quarterly. 70 (4): 333–46. doi:10.1023/A:1022042316895. PMID 10587988.
- Roth, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter (2006). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Alone and in Combination with medication: University of Minnesota and University of Pennsylvania–Vanderbilt University Studies". What Works for Whom?: A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research (2nd ed.). Guilford Press. pp. 76–8. ISBN 978-1-59385-272-6.
- Bower, Peter; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Sutton, Alex; Kendrick, Tony; Richards, David A; Gilbody, Simon; Knowles, Sarah; Cuijpers, Pim; Andersson, Gerhard; Christensen, Helen; Meyer, Björn; Huibers, Marcus; Smit, Filip; van Straten, Annemieke; Warmerdam, Lisanne; Barkham, Michael; Bilich, Linda; Lovell, Karina; Liu, Emily Tung-Hsueh (2013). "Influence of initial severity of depression on effectiveness of low intensity interventions: Meta-analysis of individual patient data". BMJ. 346: f540. doi:10.1136/bmj.f540. PMC . PMID 23444423.
- March J, Silva S, Petrycki S, et al. (August 2004). "Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial". JAMA. 292 (7): 807–20. doi:10.1001/jama.292.7.807. PMID 15315995.
- Goodyer I, Dubicka B, Wilkinson P, et al. (July 2007). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and routine specialist care with and without cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with major depression: Randomised controlled trial". British Medical Journal. 335 (7611): 142. doi:10.1136/bmj.39224.494340.55. PMC . PMID 17556431.
- Goodyer IM, Dubicka B, Wilkinson P, et al. (May 2008). "A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with major depression treated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The ADAPT trial". Health Technol Assess. 12 (14): 1–80. PMID 18462573.
- Domino ME, Burns BJ, Silva SG, et al. (May 2008). "Cost-effectiveness of treatments for adolescent depression: results from TADS". American Journal of Psychiatry. 165 (5): 588–96. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07101610. PMID 18413703.
- Hopko DR, Lejuez CW, LePage JP, Hopko SD, McNeil DW (2004). "A Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression" (PDF). Behavior Modification. 27 (4): 458–469. doi:10.1177/0145445503255489. PMID 12971122.
- Dimidjian, S.; et al. (2006). "Randomized Trial of Behavioral Activation, Cognitive Therapy, and Antidepressant Medication in the Acute Treatment of Adults With Major Depression". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 74 (4): 658–670. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.4.658. PMID 16881773.
- Spates C. R.; Pagoto S.; Kalata A. (2006). "A Qualitative And Quantitative Review of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder". The Behavior Analyst Today. 7 (4): 508–518. doi:10.1037/h0100089.
- Ruiz, F. J. (2010). "A review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) empirical evidence: Correlational, experimental psychopathology, component and outcome studies". International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 10 (1): 125–62.
- "APA website on empirical treatments". Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- Hayes, Steven. "State of the ACT Evidence". ContextualPsychology.org.
- Coelho HF, Canter PH, Ernst E (December 2007). "Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Evaluating current evidence and informing future research". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 75 (6): 1000–05. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.75.6.1000. PMID 18085916.
- Weissman MM, Markowitz JC, Klerman GL (2000). Comprehensive Guide to Interpersonal Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-09566-6.
- Dworetzky J (1997). Psychology. Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. p. 602. ISBN 0-314-20412-1.
- Doidge N, Simon B, Lancee WJ, et al. (2002). "Psychoanalytic patients in the US, Canada, and Australia: II. A DSM-III-R validation study". Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 50 (2): 615–27. doi:10.1177/00030651020500021101. PMID 12206545.
- Durand VM, Barlow D (1999). Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach. Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. ISBN 0-534-34742-8.
- de Maat S, Dekker J, Schoevers R, et al. (June 2007). "Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy, antidepressants, and their combination in the treatment of major depression: A mega-analysis based on three Randomized Clinical Trials". Depression and Anxiety. 25 (7): 565–74. doi:10.1002/da.20305. PMID 17557313.
- Depression Guideline Panel. Depression in primary care. Vol. 2. Treatment of major depression. Clinical practice guideline. No. 5. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1999.
- Sutherland JE, Sutherland SJ, Hoehns JD (March 2003). "Achieving the best outcome in treatment of depression". Journal of Family Practice. 52 (3): 201–09. PMID 12620174.
- Zisook S, Rush AJ, Haight BR, Clines DC, Rockett CB (2006). "Use of bupropion in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors". Biological Psychiatry. 59 (3): 203–10. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.027. PMID 16165100.
- Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, et al. (2006). "Bupropion-SR, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for depression". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (12): 1231–42. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa052963. PMID 16554525.
- Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, Quitkin F, Warden D, Ritz L, Nierenberg AA, Lebowitz BD, Biggs MM, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Rush AJ (2006). "Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (12): 1243–52. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa052964. PMID 16554526.
- Mayers AG, Baldwin DS (December 2005). "Antidepressants and their effect on sleep". Human Psychopharmacology. 20 (8): 533–59. doi:10.1002/hup.726. PMID 16229049.
- Winokur A, DeMartinis NA, McNally DP, Gary EM, Cormier JL, Gary KA (October 2003). "Comparative effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine on sleep physiology measures in patients with major depression and insomnia". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 64 (10): 1224–29. doi:10.4088/JCP.v64n1013. PMID 14658972.
- Lawrence RW (August 2004). "Effect of mirtazapine versus fluoxetine on "sleep quality"". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 65 (8): 1149–50. doi:10.4088/JCP.v65n0818i. PMID 15323610.
- Papakostas GI, Thase ME, Fava M, Nelson JC, Shelton RC (December 2007). "Are antidepressant drugs that combine serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms of action more effective than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating major depressive disorder? A meta-analysis of studies of newer agents". Biological Psychiatry. 62 (11): 1217–27. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.03.027. PMID 17588546.
- Cipriani A, Geddes JR, Barbui C (2007). "Venlafaxine for major depression". British Medical Journal. 334 (7587): 215 (editorial). doi:10.1136/bmj.39098.457720.BE. PMC . PMID 17272528. Retrieved 2008-09-13.
- "Depression in children and young people: identification and management in primary, community and secondary care". NHS National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- Nelson, JC; Devanand, DP (April 2011). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled antidepressant studies in people with depression and dementia.". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 59 (4): 577–85. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03355.x. PMID 21453380.
- Anderson IM (1998). "SSRIS versus tricyclic antidepressants in depressed inpatients: A meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability". Depression and Anxiety. 7 Suppl 1: 11–17. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6394(1998)7:1+<11::AID-DA4>3.0.CO;2-I. PMID 9597346.
- Anderson IM (April 2000). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: A meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability". Journal of Affective Disorders. 58 (1): 19–36. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00092-0. PMID 10760555.
- Krishnan KR (2007). "Revisiting monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 68 Suppl 8: 35–41. PMID 17640156.
- Valenstein M, McCarthy JF, Austin KL, Greden JF, Young EA, Blow FC (2006). "What happened to lithium? Antidepressant augmentation in clinical settings". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (7): 1219–25. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1219. PMID 16816227.
- Bauer M, Dopfmer S (1999). "Lithium augmentation in treatment-resistant depression: Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 19 (5): 427–34. doi:10.1097/00004714-199910000-00006. PMID 10505584.
- Guzzetta F, Tondo L, Centorrino F, Baldessarini RJ (March 2007). "Lithium treatment reduces suicide risk in recurrent major depressive disorder". J Clin Psychiatry. 68 (3): 380–83. doi:10.4088/JCP.v68n0304. PMID 17388706.
- Bender KJ (2008-02-01). "Evidence Grows for Value of Antipsychotics as Antidepressant Adjuncts - Psychiatric Times". Psychiatric Times. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- Nierenberg AA, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, McGrath PJ, Alpert JE, Warden D, Luther JF, Niederehe G, Lebowitz B, Shores-Wilson K, Rush AJ (2006). "A comparison of lithium and T(3) augmentation following two failed medication treatments for depression: A STAR*D report". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (9): 1519–30. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.9.1519. PMID 16946176.
- Stahl, Stephen M. (2011). The Prescriber's Guide (Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology). Cambridge University Press. p. 39.
- Kraus MF, Burch EA (1992). "Methylphenidate hydrochloride as an antidepressant: controversy, case studies, and review". South. Med. J. 85 (10): 985–91. doi:10.1097/00007611-199210000-00012. PMID 1411740.
- Orr, K; Taylor, D (2007). "Psychostimulants in the treatment of depression : a review of the evidence.". CNS Drugs. 21 (3): 239–57. doi:10.2165/00023210-200721030-00004. PMID 17338594.
- British National Formulary (BNF) 65. Pharmaceutical Pr; 2013.
- Therapeutic Goods Administration. TGA eBusiness Services [Internet]. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.; [cited 2013 Sep 13]. Available from: https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au/
- Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products [Internet]. [cited 2013 Sep 13]. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm
- Komossa, Katja; Depping, Anna M; Gaudchau, Andrea; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan (2010). Leucht, Stefan, ed. "Second-generation antipsychotics for major depressive disorder and dysthymia". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD008121. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008121.pub2. PMID 21154393.
- Bauer, M; Dopfmer, S (October 1999). "Lithium augmentation in treatment-resistant depression: meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies.". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 19 (5): 427–34. doi:10.1097/00004714-199910000-00006. PMID 10505584.
- Rossi, S, ed. (2013). Australian Medicines Handbook (2013 ed.). Adelaide: The Australian Medicines Handbook Unit Trust. ISBN 978-0-9805790-9-3.
- Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT (February 2008). "Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration". PLoS Med. 5 (2): e45. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045. PMC . PMID 18303940.
- Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R (January 2008). "Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy". N. Engl. J. Med. 358 (3): 252–60. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa065779. PMID 18199864.
- Elkin I, Shea MT, Watkins JT, Imber SD, Sotsky SM, Collins JF, Glass DR, Pilkonis PA, Leber WR, Docherty JP (1989). "National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. General effectiveness of treatments". Archives of General Psychiatry. 46 (11): 971–82; discussion 983. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810110013002. PMID 2684085.
- Elkin I, Gibbons RD, Shea MT, Sotsky SM, Watkins JT, Pilkonis PA, Hedeker D (1995). "Initial severity and differential treatment outcome in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 63 (5): 841–47. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.63.5.841. PMID 7593878.
- Sotsky SM, Glass DR, Shea MT, Pilkonis PA, Collins JF, Elkin I, Watkins JT, Imber SD, Leber WR, Moyer J (1991). "Patient predictors of response to psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: Findings in the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program". American Journal of Psychiatry. 148 (8): 997–1008. PMID 1853989.
- Turner EH, Rosenthal R (March 2008). "Efficacy of antidepressants". BMJ. 336 (7643): 516–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39510.531597.80. PMC . PMID 18319297.
- Cuijpers P, van Straten A, van Oppen P, Andersson G (August 2008). "Are Psychological and Pharmacologic Interventions Equally Effective in the Treatment of Adult Depressive Disorders? A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry: e1–e11.
- Imel ZE, Malterer MB, McKay KM, Wampold BE (October 2008). "A meta-analysis of psychotherapy and medication in unipolar depression and dysthymia". J Affect Disord. 110 (3): 197–206. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2008.03.018. PMID 18456340.
- Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Smith, Sandy; Ewigman, Bernard (2008). "Treat depressed teens with medication and psychotherapy". The Journal of Family Practice. 57 (11): 735–9a. PMC . PMID 19006622.
- Caddy C, et al. (Apr 2014). "Ketamine as the prototype glutamatergic antidepressant: pharmacodynamic actions, and a systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy". Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 4 (2): 75–99. doi:10.1177/2045125313507739. PMID 24688759.
- Lyoo I. K.; Yoon S.; Kim T. S.; Hwang J.; Kim J. E.; Won W.; Renshaw P. F. (2012). "A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry. 169 (9): 937–945. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010009. PMID 22864465.
- Cunha M. P.; Machado D. G.; Capra J. C.; Jacinto J.; Bettio L. E.; Rodrigues A. L. S. (2012). "Antidepressant-like effect of creatine in mice involves dopaminergic activation". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (11): 1489–1501. doi:10.1177/0269881112447989.
- Mischoulon D, Fava M (November 2002). "Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of depression: a review of the evidence". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76 (5): 1158S–61S. PMID 12420702.
- Shaw, K; Turner, J; Del Mar, C (2002). "Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD003198. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003198. PMID 11869656.
- Ravindran, AV; da Silva, TL (Sep 25, 2013). "Complementary and alternative therapies as add-on to pharmacotherapy for mood and anxiety disorders: a systematic review.". Journal of Affective Disorders. 150 (3): 707–19. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.042. PMID 23769610.
- "FDA Panel Looks at Trials of Devices to Treat Depression" article by Emily P. Walker, Washington Correspondent, MedPage Today Published: October 08, 2010, accessed October 9, 2010
- Rudorfer, MV, Henry, ME, Sackeim, HA (2003). "Electroconvulsive therapy". In A Tasman, J Kay, JA Lieberman (eds) Psychiatry, Second Edition. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1865–1901.
- Beloucif S. Informed consent for special procedures: electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2013 doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e32835e7380 PMID 23385317
- FDA. FDA Executive Summary. Prepared for the January 27–28, 2011 meeting of the Neurological Devices Panel Meeting to Discuss the Classification of Electroconvulsive Therapy Devices (ECT). Quote, p38: "Three major practice guidelines have been published on ECT. These guidelines include: APA Task Force on ECT (2001); Third report of the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Special Committee on ECT (2004); National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE 2003; NICE 2009). There is significant agreement between the three sets of recommendations."
- Dierckx, B.; Heijnen, WT; Van Den Broek, WW; Birkenhäger, TK (2012). "Efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar versus unipolar major depression: A meta-analysis". Bipolar Disorders. 12 (2): 146–150. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.00997.x. PMID 22420590.
- Jelovac A, et al. (Nov 2013). "Relapse following successful electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a meta-analysis". Neuropsychopharmacology. 38 (12): 2467–74. doi:10.1038/npp.2013.149. PMID 23774532.
- Surgeon General (1999). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, chapter 4.
- American Psychiatric Association; Committee on Electroconvulsive Therapy; Richard D. Weiner; et al. (2001). The practice of electroconvulsive therapy: recommendations for treatment, training, and privileging (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89042-206-9.
- Pompili M, et al. (Dec 2014). "Electroconvulsive treatment during pregnancy: a systematic review". Expert Rev Neurother. 14 (12): 1377–90. doi:10.1586/14737175.2014.972373. PMID 25346216.
- Abbott CC, et al. (Mar 2014). "A review of longitudinal electroconvulsive therapy: neuroimaging investigations". J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 27 (1): 33–46. doi:10.1177/0891988713516542. PMID 24381234.
- Marangell LB, Martinez M, Jurdi RA, Zboyan H (September 2007). "Neurostimulation therapies in depression: a review of new modalities". Acta Psychiatr Scand. 116 (3): 174–81. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01033.x. PMID 17655558.
- Emily Underwood (1 November 2013). "Short-Circuiting Depression". Science. 342 (6158): 548–551. doi:10.1126/science.342.6158.548.
- Lakhan SE, Callaway H (2010). "Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder and treatment-resistant depression: systematic review". BMC Research Notes. 3: 60. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-60. PMC . PMID 20202203.
- National Institute of Mental Health. Brain Stimulation Therapies
- NiCE. January 2014 Transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating and preventing migraine
- Michael Craig Miller for Harvard Health Publications. July 26, 2012 Magnetic stimulation: a new approach to treating depression?
- Melkerson, MN (2008-12-16). "Special Premarket 510(k) Notification for NeuroStar® TMS Therapy System for Major Depressive Disorder" (pdf). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Lefaucheur, JP; et al. (2014). "Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)". Clinical Neurophysiology. 125: 2150–2206. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2014.05.021. PMID 25034472.
- George, MS; Post, RM (2011). "Daily Left Prefrontal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Acute Treatment of Medication-Resistant Depression". American Journal of Psychiatry. 168 (4): 356–364. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10060864. PMID 21474597.
(6) Gaynes BN, Lux L, Lloyd S, Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Thieda P, Brode S, Swinson Evans T, Jonas D, Crotty K, Viswanathan M, Lohr KN, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (September 2011). "Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults. Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 33. (Prepared by RTI International-University of North Carolina (RTI-UNC) Evidence-based Practice Center)". AHRQ Publication No. 11-EHC056-EF. Rockville, Maryland: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- American Psychiatric Association (2010). (eds: Gelenberg, AJ, Freeman, MP, Markowitz, JC, Rosenbaum, JF, Thase, ME, Trivedi, MH, Van Rhoads, RS). Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, 3rd Edition
- Kennedy SH, et al. (2009). "Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. IV. Neurostimulation therapies" (PDF). J Aff Disorders. 117: S44–S53. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.043. PMID 19682750.
- The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. (2013) Position Statement 79. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Practice and Partnerships Committee
- Rush AJ, Marangell LB, Sackeim HA, et al. (September 2005). "Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: A randomized, controlled acute phase trial". Biological Psychiatry. 58 (5): 347–54. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.05.025. PMID 16139580.
- Kavirajan, HC; Lueck, K; Chuang, K (8 July 2014). "Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for depression.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 7: CD010521. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010521.pub2. PMID 25000907.
- Golden RN, Gaynes BN, Ekstrom RD, et al. (April 2005). "The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and meta-analysis of the evidence". American Journal of Psychiatry. 162 (4): 656–62. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.4.656. PMID 15800134.
- Tuunainen A, Kripke DF, Endo T (2004). Tuunainen, Arja, ed. "Light therapy for non-seasonal depression". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD004050. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004050.pub2. PMID 15106233.
- Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE (2013). "Exercise for depression". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 9: CD004366. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6. PMID 24026850.
Exercise is moderately more effective than a control intervention for reducing symptoms of depression, but analysis of methodologically robust trials only shows a smaller effect in favour of exercise. When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion is based on a few small trials.
- Mura G, Moro MF, Patten SB, Carta MG (2014). "Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a systematic review". CNS Spectr. 19 (6): 496–508. doi:10.1017/S1092852913000953. PMID 24589012.
Considered overall, the studies included in the present review showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants. ... Conclusions
This is the first review to have focused on exercise as an add-on strategy in the treatment of MDD. Our findings corroborate some previous observations that were based on few studies and which were difficult to generalize.41,51,73,92,93 Given the results of the present article, it seems that exercise might be an effective strategy to enhance the antidepressant effect of medication treatments. Moreover, we hypothesize that the main role of exercise on treatment-resistant depression is in inducing neurogenesis by increasing BDNF expression, as was demonstrated by several recent studies.
- Josefsson T, Lindwall M, Archer T (2014). "Physical exercise intervention in depressive disorders: meta-analysis and systematic review". Scand J Med Sci Sports. 24 (2): 259–272. doi:10.1111/sms.12050. PMID 23362828.
Physical activity has also become increasingly and firmly associated with improvements in mental health and psychological well-being (Mutrie, 2000; Landers & Arent, 2007). In particular, exercise is believed to be effective in preventing depression and also to significantly reduce depressive symptoms in clinical as well as in nonclinical populations (O’Neal et al., 2000; Landers & Arent, 2007). Several correlational studies show that exercise is negatively related to depressive symptoms (e.g., Galper et al., 2006; Hassmén et al., 2000). Moreover, a considerably large number of intervention studies have by now investigated the effect of various exercise programs on depression and the vast majority of them indicate that exercise significantly reduces depression (e.g., Blumenthal et al., 2007; Martinsen et al., 1985; Singh et al., 1997). ... To date, it is not possible to determine exactly how effective exercise is in reducing depression symptoms in clinical and nonclinical depressed populations, respectively. However, the results from the present meta-analysis as well as from seven earlier meta-analyses (North et al., 1990; Craft & Landers, 1998; Lawlor & Hopker, 2001; Stathopoulou et al., 2006; Mead et al., 2009; Rethorst et al., 2009; Krogh et al., 2011) indicate that exercise has a moderate to large antidepressant effect. Some meta-analytic results (e.g., Rethorst et al., 2009) suggest that exercise may be even more efficacious for clinically depressed people. ... In short, our final conclusion is that exercise may well be recommended for people with mild and moderate depression who are willing, motivated, and physically healthy enough to engage in such a program.
- Rosenbaum S, Tiedemann A, Sherrington C, Curtis J, Ward PB (2014). "Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis". J Clin Psychiatry. 75 (9): 964–974. doi:10.4088/JCP.13r08765. PMID 24813261.
This systematic review and meta-analysis found that physical activity reduced depressive symptoms among people with a psychiatric illness. The current meta-analysis differs from previous studies, as it included participants with depressive symptoms with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses (except dysthymia and eating disorders). ... This review provides strong evidence for the antidepressant effect of physical activity; however, the optimal exercise modality, volume, and intensity remain to be determined. ... Conclusion
Few interventions exist whereby patients can hope to achieve improvements in both psychiatric symptoms and physical health simultaneously without significant risks of adverse effects. Physical activity offers substantial promise for improving outcomes for people living with mental illness, and the inclusion of physical activity and exercise programs within treatment facilities is warranted given the results of this review.
- Denham J, Marques FZ, O'Brien BJ, Charchar FJ (February 2014). "Exercise: putting action into our epigenome". Sports Med. 44 (2): 189–209. doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0114-1. PMID 24163284.
Aerobic physical exercise produces numerous health benefits in the brain. Regular engagement in physical exercise enhances cognitive functioning, increases brain neurotrophic proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and prevents cognitive diseases [76–78]. Recent findings highlight a role for aerobic exercise in modulating chromatin remodelers [21, 79–82]. ... These results were the first to demonstrate that acute and relatively short aerobic exercise modulates epigenetic modifications. The transient epigenetic modifications observed due to chronic running training have also been associated with improved learning and stress-coping strategies, epigenetic changes and increased c-Fos-positive neurons ... Nonetheless, these studies demonstrate the existence of epigenetic changes after acute and chronic exercise and show they are associated with improved cognitive function and elevated markers of neurotrophic factors and neuronal activity (BDNF and c-Fos). ... The aerobic exercise training-induced changes to miRNA profile in the brain seem to be intensity-dependent . These few studies provide a basis for further exploration into potential miRNAs involved in brain and neuronal development and recovery via aerobic exercise.
- Phillips C, Baktir MA, Srivatsan M, Salehi A (2014). "Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling". Front Cell Neurosci. 8: 170. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00170. PMC . PMID 24999318.
Moreover, recent evidence suggests that myokines released by exercising muscles affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor synthesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a finding that could lead to the identification of new and therapeutically important mediating factors. ... Studies have demonstrated the intensity of exercise training is positively correlated with BDNF plasma levels in young, healthy individuals (Ferris et al., 2007). Resistance exercise has also been shown to elevate serum BDNF levels in young individuals (Yarrow et al., 2010). Moreover, it has been shown that moderate levels of physical activity in people with AD significantly increased plasma levels of BDNF (Coelho et al., 2014). ... In humans, it has been shown that 4 h of rowing activity leads to increased levels of plasma BDNF from the internal jugular (an indicator of central release from the brain) and radial artery (an indicator of peripheral release; Rasmussen et al., 2009). Seifert et al. (2010) reported that basal release of BDNF increases following 3 months endurance training in young and healthy individuals, as measured from the jugular vein. These trends are augmented by rodent studies showing that endurance training leads to increased synthesis of BDNF in the hippocampal formation (Neeper et al., 1995, 1996). ... Both BDNF and IGF-1 play a significant role in cognition and motor function in humans. ... Multiple large-scale studies in humans have shown that serum levels of IGF-1 are correlated with fitness and as well as body mass indices (Poehlman and Copeland, 1990). Furthermore, animal studies have shown that exercise in rats is associated with increased amounts of IGF-1 in the CSF.
- Heinonen I, Kalliokoski KK, Hannukainen JC, Duncker DJ, Nuutila P, Knuuti J (November 2014). "Organ-Specific Physiological Responses to Acute Physical Exercise and Long-Term Training in Humans". Physiology. 29 (6): 421–436. doi:10.1152/physiol.00067.2013. PMID 25362636.
The Effects of Long-Term Exercise Training
[A] physically active lifestyle has been shown to lead to higher cognitive performance and delayed or prevented neurological conditions in humans (71, 101, 143, 191). ... The production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key protein regulating maintenance and growth of neurons, is known to be stimulated by acute exercise (145), which may contribute to learning and memory. BDNF is released from brain already at rest but increases two- to threefold during exercise, which contributes 70–80% of circulating BDNF (145).
- Ranjbar E, Memari AH, Hafizi S, Shayestehfar M, Mirfazeli FS, Eshghi MA (June 2015). "Depression and Exercise: A Clinical Review and Management Guideline". Asian J Sports Med. 6 (2): e24055. doi:10.5812/asjsm.6(2)2015.24055. PMC . PMID 26448838.
Although recent findings have shown that exercise can decrease depressive symptoms, there are still many questions and limitations to wider application of exercise in depression. For instance, there are deficiencies in methodological planning such as uncontrolled nonrandomized trials, small sample sizes, inadequate allocation concealment, lack of intention-to-treat analyses, non-blinded outcome assessments, and inclusion of subjects without clinical diagnosis that limit the interpretability of research outcomes (53).
Box 1: Patients with Depression Who May Particularly Benefit From Exercise Programs
Box 2: Depressive Disorders Other Than Major Depression That May Benefit From Exercise Programs
Box 3: The Characteristics of an Exercise Program that will Maximize the Anti-depressive Properties
- Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EM, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, Berger Z, Sleicher D, Maron DD, Shihab HM, Ranasinghe PD, Linn S, Saha S, Bass EB, Haythornthwaite JA (January 6, 2014). "Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being". JAMA Intern Med. 174 (3): 357–68. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018. PMID 24395196.
- Gold C, Solli HP, Krüger V, Lie SA (April 2009). "Dose-response relationship in music therapy for people with serious mental disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis". Clin Psychol Rev. 29 (3): 193–207. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.001. PMID 19269725.
- Linde K, Berner MM, Kriston L (2008). "St John's wort for major depression". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD000448. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000448.pub3. PMID 18843608.
- "St John's Wort and depression". Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- "Depression" (PDF). NICE. December 2004.
- Wirz-Justice, A.; Benedetti, F.; Berger, M.; Lam, R.W.; Martiny, K.; Terman, M.; Wu, J.C. (July 2005). "Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders". Psychological Medicine. 35 (7): 939–44. doi:10.1017/S003329170500437X. PMID 16045060.
- Taylor, Gemma; Ann McNeill; Alan Girling; Amanda Farley; Nicola Lindson-Hawley; Paul Aveyard (February 13, 2014). "Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 348: g1151. doi:10.1136/bmj.g1151. PMC . PMID 24524926.
- Giedke, Henner; Schwärzler, Frank (2002). "Therapeutic use of sleep deprivation in depression". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 6 (5): 361–77. doi:10.1053/smrv.2002.0235. PMID 12531127.