Management of dyslexia
Management of dyslexia depends on a multiple of variables; there is no one specific strategy or set of strategies which will work for all who have dyslexia. The following table shows some of the most crucial variables to consider:
|Neurological abilities||Weaknesses and deficits|
Several special education approaches have been developed for students with dyslexia. Adaptive technology, such as specialized computer software, has resulted in recent innovations helpful to many people with dyslexia.
One factor that characterises the field of dyslexia remediation is the stream of alternative therapies for developmental and learning disabilities. These controversial treatments include nutritional supplements, special diets, homeopathy, and osteopathy/chiropractic manipulation.
Writing systems and orthography
A writing system is a type of symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. Where more than one writing system is used for a language, for example for Kurdish, there can be more than one orthography.
Managing dyslexia when using an alphabetic orthography
Most teaching is geared to remediating specific areas of weakness, such as addressing difficulties with phonetic decoding by providing phonics-based tutoring. Some teaching is geared to specific reading skill areas, such as phonetic decoding; whereas other approaches are more comprehensive in scope, combining techniques to address basic skills along with strategies to improve comprehension and literary appreciation. Many programs are multisensory in design, meaning that instruction includes visual, auditory, and kinesthetic or tactile elements; as it is generally believed that such forms of instruction are more effective for dyslexic learners. Despite claims of some programs to be "research based", there is very little empirical or quantitative research supporting the use of any particular approach to reading instruction as compared to another when used with dyslexic children.
Torgesen (2004) emphasized the importance of explicit instruction for remediation as well as the need for intensity that is completely different from regular classroom instruction. To make gains in reading, students need highly structured, sequential interactive activities and close monitoring, directly connecting the known with the new, with sufficient time for practice of new skills to build automaticity and fluency. The size of the instructional group is also important, ideally between 1:1 and 1:3.
National statutory provision and support structures
Each country has adopted and developed a writing system of choice. Each country has their own Statutes relating to the provision of Education, and special educational needs. The statutory provision framework of support in each country is usually complemented by many independent and voluntary support agencies providing more specialised information and support.
- Accessible publishing
- Alternative therapies for developmental and learning disabilities
- Category:Dyslexia research
- Category:Dyslexia researchers
- Inclusion (disability rights)
- Dyslexia interventions
- Special education
- Bull L (2008). "Survey of complementary and alternative therapies used by children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia)". Int J Lang Commun Disord 44 (2): 1. doi:10.1080/13682820802015643. PMID 18608596.
- "Research-Based Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Henry, M.K. (1998). "Structured, sequential, multisensory teaching: the Orton legacy". Annals of Dyslexia 48: 3–26. doi:10.1007/s11881-998-0002-9. ISSN 0736-9387. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- "Orton-Gillingham and Orton-Gillingham Based Reading Instruction: A Review of the Literature -- Ritchey and Goeke 40 (3): 171 -- The Journal of Special Education".
- Connor, C.M.D.; Morrison, F.J.; Fishman, B.J.; Schatschneider, C.; Underwood, P. (2007-01-26). "THE EARLY YEARS: Algorithm-Guided Individualized Reading Instruction". Science 315 (5811): 464–5. doi:10.1126/science.1134513. PMID 17255498. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- Birsh, Judith R. (2005). Research and reading disability. In Judith R. Birsh (Ed), "Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills" (pp. 16-17). Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Baltimore, Maryland. ISBN 978-1-55766-676-5.
- Canadian Dyslexia Association
- Dyslexia Association of Singapore (SG)
- Dyslexia International (DI)
- BBC News - OpenDyslexic font gains ground with help of Instapaper