Manchán of Mohill

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Manchan of Mohill)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Saint Manchan
Monk 125a.jpg
Detail of marginal image of a monk
Missionary, Monk
BornBefore AD 464
Ireland or Wales
Diedc. 535 – c. 538
probably Mohill, Ireland
Venerated in
Major shrine"Shrine of Manchan"
Feast14 February
PatronageSt. Manchan's school,
Monaghan day,
Mohill, co. Leitrim
Monastery of Mohill *
monastery of Inisnag *
other churches *
invoked against plague
(* destroyed, or ruins)

Manchan[n 1] of Mohill,[n 2] (fl. AD 464–538), was an early Christian saint credited with founding many early Christian churches in Ireland. His life is obscured because many people named Manchan are found among the monastically-inclined Medieval Irish Christians, and the name is a diminutive of Irish: Manach Latin: Monachus, a monk.[5][n 3] Manchan probably died of famine during volcanic winters caused by the extreme weather events of 535–536, which preceded the 6th century Justinian plague of Mohill. The Shrine of Manchan is a remarkable and unique example of Irish Urnes style art, adapted to Ringerike style, skillful in design and execution.[7] Saint Manchan's feast day is celebrated 14 February by Orthodox Catholics, Roman Catholics, and Anglicans.[8]

Life[edit]

The life of Manchan of Mohill is clouded by obscurity and his genealogy widely debated.[n 4] The multiplicity of Saints named Manchan suggests the name is a diminutive of Irish: Manach (Latin: Monachus, Im manchaine[n 3]) a monk.[13][14][15] Some sources identify him as Manchan of Mondrehid,[16][17][18][19][20][21] a claim challenged,[8][22] but many others identify him with Manchan of Lemanaghan (died A.D. 664).[2][9][11][16][23][24][25][26][27][n 5] An exiled "Manchan the Master" at the monastery of Mawgan[n 6] named in the "life of David of Wales"[35][36] flourished before Manchan of Mohill.[34] John Colgan decided "that for want of authentic documents to prove the contrary, he must consider them as different persons" as feasts and chronologies disagree.[37]

Colgan says that for want of authentic documents to prove the contrary, he must consider them as different persons.[38]

On the authority of Colgan, and the scribes of Iona Abbey who recorded his death as 538 AD in the Annals of Tigernach, Manchán of Mohill must be considered a distinct "Manchan",[16][39] born in Ireland or Wales and flourishing c. 464 – c. 538.[40] He belonged to the "first order of Patrician clergy", active missionary priests accompanying or following Saint Patrick, typically Britons or Irish ordained by him and his successors.[41][42][n 7] Chronologies of the earliest Irish christian tradition have Manchan allied to Saint Senan (died 544),[44][n 8] contemporary with Saint Berchan and Saint Sinchell the elder (died 549), and a successor of Caillín at Fenagh.[45][46]

Manchan of Mohill, uniquely among Mainchíns, founded many early Christian churches,[16][25][13][47][48][49][50][51] alluded to by the Martyrology of Donegal as "Latin: Manchani Maethla, cum sociis suis" (meaning Manchán of Mohill and his companions),[8] and the Martyrology of Gorman as "Latin: cum sociis" ("with allies").[52]

When or where he commenced his religious course is unknown.[16] However the translator of the Annals of Clonmacnoise disbelievingly recorded "the Coworbes of Saint Manchan [at Lemanaghan] say that he was a Welshman and came to this kingdom at one with Saint Patrick".[10][30][53][n 9] Persons of this name from Wales include Meugan (Maucan or Moucan) mentioned in the "11th-century life of Cadoc" of Llancarfan in Glamorganshire,[55][56] and Mannacus of Holyhead whose feast day falls on 14 October.

The sanctity of Manchán of Mohill is recorded.[45][57][4][58] The Mostyn Manuscript No. 88 in the National Library of Wales records several Meugan festivals including the 14 February festival of Manchan of Mohill.[58] The "Martyrology of Donegal" records "Latin: c. sexto decimo kal. martii. 14. Mainchein, of Moethail",[8] and the "Martyrology of Gorman" notes "Manchéin of Moethail, Feb. 14".[52] The Irish Annals identify Manchan of Mohill, uniquely among all Mainchíns, as the Saint whose relics are venerated by the "Shrine of Manchan of Moethail",[57] perhaps jointly.[59]

the Coworbes of Saint Manchan say that he was a Welshman and came to this kingdom at one with Saint Patrick.[60]

Churches[edit]

Well-defined Manchan route:- Mohill–Liathmore, County Tipperary–InisnagWales?[n 10]

Confirmed Manchan of Mohill church sites are –

Probable church sites of Manchan of Mohill would include-

The twelve Conchennaighi with the two Sinchells in Cill Achidh, The Conchennaighi with Manchan of Leithmor, [I invoke]",[n 14][76]

Conjectural church locations of Manchan of Mohill might include-

  • Mondrehid (Irish: Mion Droichid) in Laois- O'Hanlon, Ware, and Ussher claim Manchan of Mohill founded the church.
  • Wales- The "Coarbs of Lemanaghan" claimed Manchan was Welshman who arrived with Saint Patrick.

Famine and death[edit]

A man lying dead, from the plague, church and flames in background

The Irish Annals record a cluster of deaths for person(s) named Mochta (died 534 or 535), Mocta/Mauchteus (d. 537), and Manchán (d. 538). These entries could correlate to the one person,[n 17] but one entry is unequivocal- "AD 538: Manchán of Maethail fell (Irish: Manchan Maethla cecídit)".[40][78] Manchán probably died as a result of famines caused by the extreme weather events of 535-536. The Irish Annals cite the weather events, and resulting famine, as "the failure of bread" giving the years 536AD, 538AD, and 539AD.[79][80][81]

Christian veneration of Manchán[edit]

The 6th-century events probably had significant impact on Christianity across Ireland, the dramatic events perhaps illustrating the divinity and sanctity of Manchán to his followers. The remains of Manchan were probably preserved for a long time in the Monastery of Maothail-Manachan before being enshrined.[82][83]

Protection from plague[edit]

Manchán was probably venerated for protection from plague considering his 538 death during worldwide famine, and preceded a deadly plague at Mohill.[p 1]

Kilkenny[edit]

In County Kilkenny, Manchan of Mohill is recorded as patron saint of the ancient monastery at Ennisnag. Nearby, Kilmanaheen townland preserves his name.

Leitrim[edit]

In county Leitrim, Manchán is venerated as patron saint of Mohill-Manchan parish since the foundation of the Monastery of Maothail-Manachan and the Justinian plague of Mohill. John O'Donovan visiting 19th century Mohill, claimed "Monahan's (or St. Manchan's) Well is still shown there",[3] though the location of his holy well is forgotten. From 1935 to 2015 the GAA football park in Mohill, which officially opened on 8 May 1939, was called after him.[66] Mohill GAA teams preserve his name. St Manchan's Primary School in Mohill, costing €2.5m was opened in 2010.[85]

Manchán's fair (Monaghan day)[edit]

Until the late 20th century, the renowned Monaghan day festival of Manchán, was held in Mohill each year on the feast day of the Saint,[3] or rather on the "Twenty fifth of February".[86][87] The date of the ancient fair of Manchán moved to February 25 in the New Calendar from 14 February in the Old Calendar, c. 1753. The plot of the acclaimed novel by John McGahern, titled "Amongst Women", revolves around "Monaghan day" in Mohill, county Leitrim. The fair day was also infamous as the backdrop for organized faction fights in the 19th century.[86]

Shrine of Manchán[edit]

In the 12th century, "Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair commenced his reign by creating shrines for the relics of St. Manchan of Moethail" and Saint Comman of Roscommon.[57][88] The Annals of the Four Masters states "AD 1166: The shrine of Manchan, of Maethail was covered by Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, and an embroidering of gold was carried over it by him, in as good a style as a relic was ever covered in Ireland".[57][89][a 1] His shrine (Irish: Scrin-Manchain Maothla) could be a lost relic,[90] but is likely identical to the Shrine associated with Manchán of Lemanaghan[91] despite Manchán of Maethail being named as the saint being venerated.[16][92]

The shrine of Manchan is an impressive box of yew wood with gilted bronze and enamel fittings, a house-shaped shrine in the form of a gabled roof, originally covered with silver plates of which traces still remain. It stands 19 inches tall, covering a space dimensioned 24x16 inches, raised by short legs and clearing the ground surface by two and a half inches. The legs slot into metal shoes, attached to metal rings probably to be attached to carrying-poles when the shrine was leading a procession.[91] Animal patterns of beasts and serpent fill the bosses and borders of the shrine,[93] and one side has a decorative equal-armed cross with bosses.[94] The animal ornament on the principal faces of the relic reveals influences of Irish Urnes style adapted to Ringerike style.[91][95] The reincarnation of centuries-old Irish metalworking techniques, such as the juxtaposition of red and yellow enamel, is seen on the shrine, and the Cross of Cong.[96] Before the Vikings there were already varied ethnic types in Ireland, and a long disappearing "Mediterranean" stratum of architecture and costume identifiable as "Iberian" is evidenced by the Shrine of Manchan and the Book of Kells.[97] Hewson, referring to theories of Charles Piazzi Smyth, observed the two upper compartments would have held two groups of six figurines and the two lower compartments held two groups of seven figurines, and the total represented a monthly cycle of 26 days divided into two cycles.[98]

Shrine of Manchan, ten figures on front, incl. Olaf II of Norway, with axe
Illustration, replica shrine of Manchin

The ten figures adorning the shrine are newer, probably 13th century.[91] It is believed the half-round cast-bronze figure carrying an axe on the Manchan Shine, is an early representation of Olaf II of Norway (Saint Olaf), considering the sub-Viking context of the art, and iconographical association of a man with axe.[99] In 1861, an "appliqué" figure of gilt, cast copper-alloy, 13.7cm high, 2.75cm wide, and 1.7 cm thickness, was reportedly found at the grave-yard of Clonmacnoise, and presented with a short beard and moustache, a pointed decorated hat covering his ears, hands flat on his bare chest, with a pleated decorated kilt, one missing leg, and was very similar those remaining on the shrine of Manchan, so is assumed to have fallen off.[100] Margaret Stokes claimed a robed figurine holding a book, found buried near Saint John's Abbey at Thomas Street, Dublin, bears resemblance to the Manchan shrine figures, but "of much finer workmanship and evidently earlier date", but unfortunately she fails to expand further.[101]

The dress and personal adornment of lay and chieftain costume of 13th-century Irish people is reflected by the figures.[102] The wearing of the "celt" (anglicized "kilt", pron. 'kelt'[103]), similar to the present-day Scottish highland kilt, was very common in Ireland, and all figures on the shrine of Manchán have highly long ornamented, embroidered, or pleated, "kilts"[100][104][105] reaching below their knees, as kilts were probably worn by both ecclesiastical and laypersons.[106] The wearing of full beards (Irish: grenn, feasog) was only acceptable for the higher classes (nobles, chiefs, warriors),[106] and it was disgraceful to present with hair and beard trimmed short. Reflecting this, all the shrine of Manchán figures have beards cut rectangularly, or Assyrian style, usually with no moustache.[106]

shrine of Saint Manchan, front
shrine of Saint Manchan, back
shrine of Saint Manchan, end

The technical and stylistic similarities to the "Cross of Cong group",[a 2] confirms without doubt the shrine of Manchan was crafted at the "well-defined and original" fine-metal workshop active in twelfth century county Roscommon.[93][95][107][108][109][110][111][112][113] The shrine was likely commissioned by Bishop "Domnall mac Flannacain Ui Dubthaig", of Elphin,[114] one of the richest episcopal see's in Medieval Ireland,[111] and created by the master gold-craftsman named Irish: Mael Isu Bratain Ui Echach ("Mailisa MacEgan"), whom John O'Donovan believed was Abbot of Cloncraff in county Roscommon,[115][111] though firm evidence for this identification is lacking.[116] The founder and patron saint of this workshop, might have been St. Assicus of Elphin.[117] Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair was apparently patron of the relic,[57] though it was monasteries rather than dioceses which commissioned metal reliquaries.[94]

The pertinent question is the sacral function and spiritual identity underlying the shrine. Keane suggested the shrine represents a "miniature Ark", an object to be carried on "men's shoulders", an emblem of death to Noah, and those enclosed in the Ark, with their release, on delivery of the Ark, celebrated as Resurrection. Another thought-provoking theory proposes the shrine had a political context, representing an attempt by royal patrons to visually cementing political alliances through the purposeful conflation of two neighbouring saints, both conveniently named "Manchan".[59] Murray (2013) believes, the argument these reliquaries are multivalent is compelling, when necessary evidence is presented.[118]

  • The shrine of Saint Manchan "is inventive", drawing on "a variety of traditions, including the archaic forms of the tomb-shrines to create a new and powerful statement of the saint's significance in the twelfth century".[59]
  • "The crucified figure in the sculptures from a Persian Rock Temple may assist in explaining the mummy-like figures on the Irish shrine. The similarity of the design would seem to confirm the idea that the figures were intended to signify the inmates of the Ark, undergoing the process of mysterious death, which was supposed to be exhibited in Arkite ceremonies".[119]
  • "There is a case for the equation of tent and shrine. "papilio", whence "pupall", is primarily the word for butterfly and came to mean tent from a physical resemblance, i.e. from the fact that the wings in two planes meet at an angle. The term .. Piramis (pyramis), literally "pyramid", and .. the presence of a bearer at each angle, is surely intended to suggest the Ark of the Covenant, a proto-reliquary; pyramis has more than one meaning or connotation .. I suggest that tent-shaped slab shrines were pyramides too".[120]

There is doubt to which Irish saint the shrine is dedicated.[121] Stokes wondered if the Annals of the Four Masters identified the wrong Mainchín.[39] O'Hanlon and others felt a strong inference can be made that Manchan of Mohill and Manchán of Lemanaghan are identical.[2][9][11][16][23][24][25][n 13]

Graves suggested the shrine was transferred from Mohill for some unrecorded reason.[5][7] In support of this theory, the English were suppressing Monasteries in Ireland from 1540, and in 1590 Mohill was occupied by an "immense" English army.[57][114][122] Confused folklore credits Mohill priests saving the shrine from iconoclasts by fleeing the Monastery of Mohill-Manchan to County Offaly-

  • "In 1621 [sic], when St. Manchan's monastery was suppressed, some of the fugitive monks succeeded in bringing the shrine back to Le-Manchan".[66]
  • "When Mohill Abbey was destroyed in the twelfth century [sic], the holy Shrine would have been carried back to Leamonaghan".[65][26]

The association with Clonmacnoise and Clonfert might also be strong as the smaller heads on the shrine (figurines dated 13th century) are considered similar to those "on the underside of the abaci of the chancel arch at the Nun's church, Clonmacnoise, and the portal at clonfert".[123] Before 1590 the Shrine of Manchan was hidden somewhere in Ireland, and Mícheál Ó Cléirigh writing in 1630 recorded the shrine at Lemanaghan, then situated in an impassable bog.[124][28][67][125] Today the shrine is preserved at Boher Catholic church in County Offaly.[126]

when St. Manchan's monastery was suppressed, some of the fugitive monks succeeded in bringing the shrine back to Le-Manchan".[127]

Lost biography of Manchan[edit]

James Ussher claimed to have "Vita Manchan Mathail" (Life of St. Manchan of Mohill) written by Richard FitzRalph showing Manchan fl.c. 608, a member of Canons Regular of Augustinian, patron of seven churches, and granted various glebes, lands, fiefs, and tithe to the Monastery of Mohill-Manchan since 608.[43][14][128] However, there was no such thing as Canons Regular order of Augustinian, glebes, tithes back in the 5th–7th centuries, so these contemporary concepts would not illuminate the life of any Saint Manchan.[37][43] John O'Donovan, James Henthorn Todd, and others, tried unsuccessfully to locate this book.[43] Ussher's claims strongly influenced antiquarian speculation of his life story.[27][n 18]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Manchan notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Manchan name variants are: Irish: Manchán, Mancháin, Manchein, Mainchéin, Middle English: Manachain, Mainchin, Manachain, Managhan, Monahan, Latin: Manchianus, Mancenus, Manichchaeus,[1] [2] Monahan,[3] Welsh: Maucannus, Maucann, Mancan, Mancen, Maucan or Moucan.
  2. ^ Mohill name variants historically includes Irish: Maothail, Maethail, Middle English: Moithla, Moethla, Maethla, Moyghell, Moghill,[4] and Latin: Mathail, Nouella.[1]
  3. ^ a b "Im manchaine: Under monastic rule "Im manchaine"; lit. 'in monkship'. Manchaine (deriv. from manach: monachus) also means the duties or services rendered by monks."[6]
  4. ^ Plausible but objectionable pedigrees are assigned to Manchan of Mohill by both Cronnelly and O'Cleary- "Manchan mac Siollan mac Conal mac Luchain mac Conal Anglonaig mac Feice mac Rosa mac Fachta mac Seanchada mac Aille Ceasdaig mac Rory (King of Ireland)".[9][10] Giraudon (2010) says "for some, he would be the son of Daga, for the others, of Innaoi. His mother's name was Mella and he had two sisters, Grealla and Greillseach".[11] The oldest genealogy from the Book of Leinster is ambiguous- "Manchan Léith m Sillain m Conaill m Luachain m Laga m Conaill Anglonnaig m Fheic m Rosa. Mella mater eius".[12] Léith refers to 'Leigh in Tipperary' or 'Lemanaghan in Offaly' both probable Manchan church-sites.
  5. ^ An alleged multiplicity of "Manchán's of Lemanaghan" confuses matters.[28] Colgan (1647) claimed two Manchán of Lemanaghan lived in the 7th century, one dying c. 664 and the other flourishing 694,[5] but Monahan and O'Donovan disputed the claim.[29][23]
  6. ^ [n 1] The similarity of "Welsh: Maucan" to "Maucen (of Whithern)" has been used to argue Candida Casa was in Wales, not Scotland.[30] Patrick Moran and William Skene claim a Manchan (Mancenus, Manchenius, "the Master") studied at Candida Casa,[31][32] but other sources say Manchan was the surname of "Nennio" or "Monen" (flourished 520), Bishop and "Master" of Candida Casa.[33][34]
  7. ^ Colgan conjectured Manchan of Mohill was contemporary with a Saint Menath (Monach? Mancen?) a disciple of St. Patrick.[43]
  8. ^ According to "The Miracles of Senan" poem, Saint Manchan and Saint Berchan were duty-bound to come avenge any wrong done to Senan's churches. The Miracles of Senan poem says- "Eralt comes thither with (good) augury, and a host of the saints of Luigne, Manchan comes by dear God's will, and Berchan with his companies".
  9. ^ The writer Thomas Cahill claimed Manchan of Offaly was a convert of Saint Patrick.[54]
  10. ^ In ancient times people preferred long distance travel by sea and inland-waterways because overland "conditions were difficult, often dangerous, and long-distance travel by road was generally slow and uncomfortable". The key rivers serving the Manchan route were the River Shannon, the Rinn river in county Leitrim, the Munster River and Kings River serving Tipperary/Kilkenny, and the River Nore serving County Waterford and the south-east generally.
  11. ^ One source claims "The patron saint of Ennisnag was St Mogue-Moling,"Mo'Aod Og" .. his feast day was celebrated here on the 14h of February",[64] but Máedócs feast day is 29 January. Manchan, patron of Inisnag, feast day is 14 February.[63]
  12. ^ Kilmanaheen in county Kilkenny must not be confused with "Kilmanach" (Irish: Manach Droichit) or "Kilnamanagh" in Kilkenny/ Tallaght.
  13. ^ a b John O'Donovan stated that "Manchan was an intimate friend of Caillín, the Executor of his Will and his successor in the Abbacy of Fenagh. He was the son of Innaoi and his Festival was celebrated at Liath-Manchain on 24 January".[23] Giraudon says- "[from french] Saint Manchàn lived in the sixth or seventh century of our era. He was born in Mohill, County Leitrim. He spent most of his life in Leamanachan".[11] O'Hanlon states- "a very strong inference might be drawn, that the St. Manchan of Mohill having so many churches subject to him was probably identical with the St. Manchan of Lemanagan; even, although, the places were somewhat apart, and although the festivals fell on different days."[16]
  14. ^ a b "Tuaim nEirc" is interpreted as Lemanaghan [68] but no evidence is presented for this identification. "Tuaim nEirc" could refer to "Irish: Baile Uí nEirc" townland adjacent to Léith Mhór in county Tipperary.
  15. ^ According to the Book of Fenagh an elderly Caillin (fl. AD464)[57]) wished to die at Liath Mhór (24 km from the town named Callan) with Manchan returning his remains to Fenagh 12 years after his death. This text connects Manchan of Mohill with Liath-Mhoir in Tipperary long before Saint Mochaemhog of Leithmor (d. 646).
  16. ^ The 'Irish Litanies, described by Mícheál Ó Cléirigh as "an authoritative old ancient vellum book", includes a poem stanza stating- "the twelve Conchennaighi with the two Sinchells in Cill Achidh [I invoke], The Conchennaighi with Manchan of Leithmor, [I invoke]",.[74] "Conchennaighi", meaning "dog/hound headed",[75] could reference the Conmhaícne (Conmac, son of the hound). Conversely "Manchan of Mohill" an "Sinchell the Elder" are supposedly connected with "Conmhaícne Rein" of Leitrim, though Ó Concheanainn were supposedly a minor tribe of Corca Mogha around Kilkerrin in NE Galway. However, the meaning of the word 'Conchennaighi' is unclear.
  17. ^ The Annals of the Four Masters states- "A.D. 534, Saint Mochta, Bishop of Lughmhagh, disciple of St. Patrick, resigned his spirit to heaven on the nineteenth day of August."[57] The Annals of Ulster state- "A.D. 535, The falling alseep of Mochta, disciple of Saint Patrick, on the 13th of the Kalends of September. Thus he himself wrote in his epistle: Mauchteus, a sinner, priest, disciple of St Patrick, sends greetings in the Lord’ .....A.D. 537, Or here, the falling asleep of St Mochta, disciple of Patrick".[77]
  18. ^ Manchanus, founder of the monastery of regular canons at Mohil in the county of Leitrim, died in the year 652. His life is supposed to have been written by Richard, Archbishop of Armagh. The Ulster annals call him Manchenus; and others Manichaeus: Whereupon it is observed that the heretic Manichees and Menahem, (2 Kings xv. 14.) King of Israel have their names from the same original word, signifying The Comforter. Nazarenus begs of his Megaletor, to enquire among his learned acquaintance of the Irish college at Louvain, who is Manchanus, a writer who shines much in the margin of his famous four gospels; concerning whom, says he, though there be many of this name, I have my own conjectures. Having just learned what this fanciful writer thought of Marianus, Columbanus &c. I imagined that he was of opinion that Manchanus must have been a fervent or lover of the isle of Man: But his learned friend, and mine, Mr. Wanley, lately informed me, that he only guessed that Manchanus was a corruption of Monanchanus and that the man whose praises are in his four gospels, was a canon regular of Monaghan. The reader will judge, whether Archbishop Usher's conjectures, or Mr. Toland's are the more probable".[21]

Plague notes[edit]

  1. ^ From the mid-6th century, prayers to Saint Manchan would beg salvation from the horrors of plague and natural disaster. Ann Dooley noted "prayers of saints are a powerful factor in protecting their clients from harms such as the plague, and showing the ability of Irish tradition of sainthood to pick up on the social responsibilities for children left without any legal standing in a stricken community where normal family law has broken down".[84]

Shrine notes[edit]

  1. ^ And the Annals of the Four Masters states "AD 1170: The relics of Comman, son of Faelchu, were removed from the earth by Gilla-Iarlaithe Ua Carmacain, successor of Comman, and they were enclosed in a shrine with a covering of gold and silver.[57][89][37]
  2. ^ The 'Cross of Cong', 'the Aghadoe crosier', 'shrine of the Book of Dimma' and the 'shrine of Manchan' are grouped as originating at the same Roscommon workshop. The "Smalls Sword", dating to c. 664, recently discovered in Wales and shows similar Urnes ornamentation.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Twemlow 1955, pp. 1081–1145.
  2. ^ a b c Reynolds 1932, pp. 65–69.
  3. ^ a b c Ó Donnabháin 1828, pp. 12.
  4. ^ a b Catholic Record Society of Ireland 1912, pp. 345.
  5. ^ a b c Graves 1874, pp. 136.
  6. ^ Skene 1877, pp. 492.
  7. ^ a b Jewitt 1876, pp. 134.
  8. ^ a b c d O'Clery et al. 1864, pp. 516.
  9. ^ a b c Cronnelly 1864, pp. 99.
  10. ^ a b O'Cleary, et. al. 1856, pp. 277.
  11. ^ a b c d e Giraudon 2010, pp. 1.
  12. ^ Mac Domhnaill, Färber 2015, pp. 1555.
  13. ^ a b Lanigan 1829, pp. 31.
  14. ^ a b Harleian Trustees 1759, pp. 66.
  15. ^ Wall 1905, pp. 83.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i O'Hanlon 1875, pp. 521.
  17. ^ Mac Geoghegan, O'Kelly 1844, pp. 171.
  18. ^ Lewis 1837, pp. 376.
  19. ^ Monahan 1886, pp. 380.
  20. ^ Wenman-Seward 1795, pp. 99.
  21. ^ a b Nicolson 1776, pp. 36.
  22. ^ Colgan 1647, pp. 14 February.
  23. ^ a b c d e O'Donovan 1838, pp. Letter25.
  24. ^ a b Healy 1912, pp. 565.
  25. ^ a b c Monahan 1865, pp. 212.
  26. ^ a b c d St. Manchan's School Tubber 2010, pp. history.
  27. ^ a b Mc Hugh 1938, pp. 280–381.
  28. ^ a b O'Clery et al. 1864, pp. 27.
  29. ^ Monahan 1886, pp. 353.
  30. ^ a b Harris Slover 1927, pp. 91.
  31. ^ Moran 1879, pp. 138.
  32. ^ Skene 1877, pp. 49.
  33. ^ Scott 1918, pp. 94,163.
  34. ^ a b O'Hanlon 1869, pp. 21.
  35. ^ Harris Slover 1927, pp. 109.
  36. ^ Baring-Gould, Fisher 1907, pp. 288.
  37. ^ a b c Lanigan 1829, pp. 30–32.
  38. ^ John LaniganAn Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, 1829, pages 30–32.
  39. ^ a b Stokes 1868, pp. 287.
  40. ^ a b Mac Niocaill 2010.
  41. ^ Joyce 1906, pp. 135–6.
  42. ^ Harris Slover 1927.
  43. ^ a b c d O'Hanlon 1875, pp. 520.
  44. ^ Plummer 2008, pp. 27.
  45. ^ a b Ó Donnabháin 1828, pp. 307.
  46. ^ Ganly 1865, pp. 439.
  47. ^ Mears 1722, pp. 379.
  48. ^ Comerford 1755, pp. 138.
  49. ^ Cobbett 1827, pp. 213.
  50. ^ Cobbett 1834, pp. 230.
  51. ^ Walsh 1854, pp. 519.
  52. ^ a b Gormáin, Stokes 1895, pp. 380.
  53. ^ Kehnel 1997, pp. 310.
  54. ^ Cahill 1995, p. 152.
  55. ^ Baring-Gould, Fisher 1907, pp. 481.
  56. ^ Farmer 2011, pp. 281.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i AFM.
  58. ^ a b Baring-Gould, Fisher 1907, pp. 480.
  59. ^ a b c Overbey 2012, pp. 41.
  60. ^ Clarke Harris Slover Early Literary Channels Between Ireland and Britain, 1927, pages 5–111.
  61. ^ Jennings 1959, pp. 52.
  62. ^ MacNamee 1954, pp. 120–2.
  63. ^ a b O'Hanlon 1875, pp. 522, 524.
  64. ^ Sheridan, Kirwan 2011, pp. kk-spen.
  65. ^ a b c St. Manchan's School Tubber-Moate 2006, pp. manchan.
  66. ^ a b c d Irish Press & 8 May 1939, pp. 7.
  67. ^ a b Mc Dermott 2001, pp. 23.
  68. ^ O'Clery et al. 1864, pp. 261.
  69. ^ Ó Donnabháin 1828, pp. 13,291.
  70. ^ O' Rian 2016, pp. 27.
  71. ^ Lanigan 1829, pp. 57.
  72. ^ Nugent 2009, pp. 133.
  73. ^ Plummer 2010, pp. Sources.
  74. ^ Plummer 2010, pp. 64.
  75. ^ eDIL s.v. coinchenn.
  76. ^ Charles Plummer "Irish Litanies"
  77. ^ Bambury, Beechinor 2000, pp. U535.1, U537.3.
  78. ^ Stokes 1895, pp. 136.
  79. ^ Mac Niocaill 2010, pp. T538.1.
  80. ^ Bambury, Beechinor 2000, pp. U536.3, U539.1.
  81. ^ Mac Airt 2000–2008, pp. AI537.1.
  82. ^ O'Hanlon 1875, pp. 522.
  83. ^ Mark Redknap 2001, pp. 12.
  84. ^ Dooley 2007, pp. 225.
  85. ^ St. Manchan's School Mohill 2010.
  86. ^ a b Boyd 1938, pp. 226.
  87. ^ St. Manchan's School Mohill 2016.
  88. ^ Lynch, Kelly 1848, pp. 75.
  89. ^ a b O'Cleary, et. al. 1856, pp. 1157.
  90. ^ Lucas 1986, pp. 12.
  91. ^ a b c d Corkery 1961, pp. 6–8.
  92. ^ Harbison 1999, p. 50.
  93. ^ a b De Paor 1979, pp. 49–50.
  94. ^ a b Harbison 2001, pp. 113.
  95. ^ a b Ó Floinn 1987, pp. 179–187.
  96. ^ Harbison 2001, pp. 106.
  97. ^ Allen 1960, pp. 37.
  98. ^ Hewson 1870, pp. 98,xcviii.
  99. ^ Wilson & 2014, pp. 141–145.
  100. ^ a b Murray 2003, pp. 177.
  101. ^ Stokes 1894, pp. 113.
  102. ^ Graves 1874, pp. 146.
  103. ^ W J Edmondston Scott 1934, p. 126.
  104. ^ Stokes, 1868 & quoting a Petrie manuscript, pp. 285.
  105. ^ Obadiah Westwood 1879, pp. 37.
  106. ^ a b c Joyce 1903, pp. 182, 183, 203.
  107. ^ Murray 2003, pp. 178.
  108. ^ Hourihane 2012, pp. 225.
  109. ^ Edwards 2013, pp. 147.
  110. ^ Karkov, Ryan, Farrell 1997, pp. 269.
  111. ^ a b c Kelly 1909, pp. 1.
  112. ^ Herbermann 1909, pp. 394.
  113. ^ Royal Irish Academy 1983, pp. 68.
  114. ^ a b Hennessy 2008.
  115. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.) 1977, pp. 190.
  116. ^ Murray 2006, pp. 53.
  117. ^ Kelly 1902, pp. 291–292.
  118. ^ Murray 2013, pp. 280.
  119. ^ Keane 1867, pp. 348.
  120. ^ Bourke 2012, pp. 5.
  121. ^ Chicago Tribune 1894, pp. 30.
  122. ^ Hynes, 1931 & 45–46.
  123. ^ Franklin 2012, pp. 118.
  124. ^ Graves 1874, pp. 137.
  125. ^ Kendrick, Senior 1937.
  126. ^ Costello 1909, pp. 152.
  127. ^ Mohill and Tubber (Kilmonaghan) parish folklore The Irish Press", 8th May 1939, page 7.
  128. ^ O'Donovan, O'Flanagan 1929, pp. 82.

Sources[edit]

Manchan[edit]

  • Corkery, Sean (1961). "The Shrine of Saint Manchan". The Furrow (The Furrow ed.). 12 (3): 6–8. JSTOR 27658066. (subscription required)
  • Graves, James (1874). "The Church and Shrine of St. Manchán". The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland. 3 (18): 134–50. JSTOR 25506649. (subscription required)
  • Reynolds, D (1932). "Journal Ardagh and Clonmacnoise Antiquaties Society I". iii (St. Manchan (Managhan) of Mohill and Lemanaghan (Offaly) ed.): 65–69. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Giraudon, Professeur Daniel (2010). "La vache merveilleuse de Saint Manchàn" (PDF) (7 March 2010 ed.). Center for Breton and Celtic Research.

Martyrologies[edit]

Ecclesiastical[edit]

Annals[edit]

Art and relics[edit]

Local folklore[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Further reading[edit]