Manchester (UK Parliament constituency)
|Former Borough constituency|
for the House of Commons
(now Greater Manchester)
|Number of members||1832–1868: Two|
|Replaced by||Manchester East|
Manchester North East
Manchester North West
Manchester South West
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
Manchester was a Parliamentary borough constituency in the county of Lancashire which was represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Its territory consisted of the city of Manchester.
Manchester had first been represented in Parliament in 1654, when it was granted one seat in the First Protectorate Parliament. However, as with other boroughs enfranchised during the Commonwealth, it was disenfranchised at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
The subsequent growth of Manchester into a major industrial city left its lack of representation a major anomaly, and demands for a seat in Parliament led to a mass public meeting in August 1819. This peaceful rally of 60,000 pro-democracy reformers, men, women and children, was attacked by armed cavalry resulting in 15 deaths and over 600 injuries, and became known as the Peterloo Massacre.
Reform was attempted unsuccessfully by Lord John Russell, whose bills in 1828 and 1830 were rejected by the Commons. The city was finally enfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832, and at the 1832 general election, Manchester returned two Members of Parliament (MPs). The Reform Act 1867 increased this in 1868 to three Members of Parliament.
Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the constituency was abolished with effect from the 1885 general election, when the city was split into six new single-member divisions: East, North, North East, North West, South, and South West.
Members of Parliament
|Election||1st Member||1st Party||2nd Member||2nd Party||3rd Member||3rd Party|
|1832||Mark Philips||Whig||Charles Poulett-Thomson||Whig||2 seats until 1868|
3 seats from 1868 to 1885
|1839 by-election||Robert Hyde Greg||Whig|
|1841||Thomas Milner Gibson||Radical|
|1857||John Potter||Whig||James Aspinall Turner||Whig|
|1858 by-election||Thomas Bazley||Whig|
|1867 by-election||Jacob Bright||Liberal|
|1874||William Romaine Callender||Conservative|
|1876 by-election||Jacob Bright||Liberal|
|1883 by-election||William Houldsworth||Conservative|
|1885||Constituency abolished (1885)|
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Elections in the 1880s
- Caused by Birley's death.
|Turnout||45,305 (est)||74.0 (est)||+9.5|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing|
Elections in the 1870s
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+3.0|
- Caused by Callender's death.
|Conservative||William Romaine Callender||19,649||25.3||+7.6|
|Turnout||38,843 (est)||64.5 (est)||+5.2|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+1.5|
Elections in the 1860s
|Liberal||Ernest Charles Jones||10,662||14.9||N/A|
|Turnout||28,620 (est)||59.3 (est)||+2.6|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||N/A|
|Liberal win (new seat)|
- Seat increased to three members.
|Conservative||John Marsland Bennett||6,420||42.2||N/A|
- James' death caused a by-election. Bright was an advanced Liberal, and Henry was a Whig liberal.
|Turnout||12,206 (est)||56.7 (est)||−12.8|
Elections in the 1850s
|Liberal||James Aspinall Turner||7,300||28.6||−0.2|
|Turnout||12,747 (est)||69.5 (est)||−6.1|
- Caused by Potter's death.
|Whig||James Aspinall Turner||7,854||28.8||N/A|
|Radical||Thomas Milner Gibson||5,588||20.5||−8.9|
|Turnout||13,634 (est)||75.6 (est)||+5.3|
|Whig gain from Radical||Swing||N/A|
|Whig||Thomas Milner Gibson||5,762||29.4||N/A|
|Turnout||9,785 (est)||70.3 (est)||N/A|
Elections in the 1840s
|Radical||Thomas Milner Gibson||Unopposed|
|Radical gain from Whig|
|Radical||Thomas Milner Gibson||Unopposed|
- Caused by Gibson's appointment as Vice-President of the Board of Trade
|Radical||Thomas Milner Gibson||3,575||27.3|
|Turnout||6,539 (est)||60.4 (est)|
|Radical gain from Whig||Swing|
Elections in the 1830s
|Whig||Robert Hyde Greg||3,096|
|Conservative||William Ewart Gladstone||2,281|
|Whig||Samuel Jones Loyd||1,832|
|Tory||John Thomas Hope||1,560|
- Ward, David (27 December 2007). "New plaque tells truth of Peterloo killings 188 years on". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Ltd. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)
- Craig, F. W. S. (1989) . British parliamentary election results 1832–1885 (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 206. ISBN 0-900178-26-4.
- Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S., ed. The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 184–185. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. pp. 182, 221. Retrieved 26 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. pp. 205, 223. Retrieved 26 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Sherborne Mercury". 9 September 1839. p. 1. Retrieved 26 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard". 7 September 1839. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 26 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- Hawkins, Angus (2015). "'Parliamentary Government' and its Critics". Victorian Political Culture: 'Habits of Heart and Mind'. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780198728481. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "The Milner-Gibsons". The Milner-Gibsons (1806-1986). August 3, 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Jenkins, Terry. "Parties, Politics and Society in Mid-Victorian Britain" (PDF). St Ambrose College. p. 2. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Hawkins, Angus (Winter 2009–10). "Celebrating 1859: Party, Patriotism and Liberal Values" (PDF). Journal of Liberal History. 65: 11. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Douglas, David C., ed. (2006). English Historical Documents. New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library. p. 26. ISBN 0-203-19907-3. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Silver, Arthur (1966). Manchester Men & Indian Cotton 1847-72. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 17. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Trevelyan, George Macaulay (1913). The Life of John Bright. London: Constable and Company. p. 259. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Taylor, Antony (1997). "'The Best Way to Get What He Wanted': Ernest Jones and the Boundaries of Liberalism in the Manchester Election of 1868". Parliamentary History. 16 (2): 185–204. doi:10.1111/j.1750-0206.1997.tb00225.x. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)
|url=(help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
- "Borough of Manchester Election, 1876". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 12 February 1876. p. 1. Retrieved 6 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Manchester". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 15 November 1867. p. 4. Retrieved 2 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Representation of Manchester - Candidature of Mr Mitchell Henry". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. Manchester. 26 November 1867. p. 1. Retrieved 2 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Manchester". Westmorland Gazette. Cumbria. 16 November 1867. p. 5. Retrieved 2 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Manchester". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 30 April 1859. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 28 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Manchester". Wolverhampton Chronicle and Staffordshire Advertiser. 4 May 1859. p. 7. Retrieved 28 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Stonehaven Journal". 20 July 1852. p. 2. Retrieved 28 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).