Manchester (UK Parliament constituency)

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Manchester
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
County Lancashire
(now Greater Manchester)
Major settlements Manchester
18321885
Number of members 1832–1868: Two
1868–1885: Three
Replaced by Manchester East
Manchester North
Manchester North East
Manchester North West
Manchester South
Manchester South West
Created from Lancashire
1654–1660
Type of constituency Borough constituency

Manchester was a Parliamentary borough constituency in the county of Lancashire which was represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Its territory consisted of the city of Manchester.

History[edit]

Manchester had first been represented in Parliament in 1654, when it was granted one seat in the First Protectorate Parliament. However, as with other boroughs enfranchised during the Commonwealth, it was disenfranchised at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

The subsequent growth of Manchester into a major industrial city left its lack of representation a major anomaly, and demands for a seat in Parliament led to a mass public meeting in August 1819. This peaceful rally of 60,000 pro-democracy reformers, men, women and children, was attacked by armed cavalry resulting in 15 deaths and over 600 injuries,[1] and became known as the Peterloo Massacre.

Reform was attempted unsuccessfully by Lord John Russell, whose bills in 1828 and 1830 were rejected by the Commons. The city was finally enfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832, and at the 1832–33 general election, Manchester returned two Members of Parliament (MPs). The Reform Act 1867 increased this in 1868 to three Members of Parliament.

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the constituency was abolished with effect from the 1885 general election, when the city was split into six new single-member divisions: East, North, North East, North West, South, and South West.

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1654–1660[edit]

Election 1st Member
1654 Charles Worsley
1656 Richard Radcliffe

MPs 1832–1885[edit]

Election 1st Member[2] 1st Party[3] 2nd Member 2nd Party 3rd Member 3rd Party
1832 Mark Philips Whig Charles Poulett-Thomson Whig 2 seats until 1868
3 seats from 1868 to 1885
1839 by-election Robert Hyde Greg Whig
1841 Thomas Milner Gibson Radical[4][5][6][7][8]
1847 John Bright Radical
1857 John Potter Whig[9][10] James Aspinall Turner Whig[9][10]
1858 by-election Thomas Bazley Whig[11]
1859 Liberal Liberal
1865 Edward James Liberal
1867 by-election Jacob Bright Liberal
1868 Hugh Birley Conservative
1874 William Romaine Callender Conservative
1876 by-election Jacob Bright Liberal
1880 John Slagg Liberal
1883 by-election William Houldsworth Conservative
1885 Constituency abolished (1885)

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

By-election, 6 Oct 1883: Manchester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Houldsworth 18,188 74.5 +29.4
Liberal Richard Pankhurst 6,216 25.5 −29.4
Majority 11,972 49.1 N/A
Turnout 24,404 46.2 −27.8 (est)
Registered electors 52,831
Conservative hold Swing +29.4
  • Caused by Birley's death.
General Election 1880: Manchester (3 seats)[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Slagg 24,959 27.5 +2.6
Liberal Jacob Bright 24,789 27.4 +3.3
Conservative Hugh Birley 20,594 22.7 −3.0
Conservative William Houldsworth 20,268 22.4 −2.9
Majority 4,195 4.6 N/A
Turnout 45,305 (est) 74.0 (est) +9.5
Registered electors 61,234
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

By-election, 19 Feb 1876: Manchester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Jacob Bright 22,770 52.0 +3.0
Conservative Francis Powell[13] 20,985 48.0 −3.0
Majority 1,785 4.1 N/A
Turnout 43,755 70.5 +6.0
Registered electors 62,074
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +3.0
  • Caused by Callender's death.
General Election 1874: Manchester (3 seats)[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Hugh Birley 19,984 25.7 +4.1
Conservative William Romaine Callender 19,649 25.3 +7.6
Liberal Thomas Bazley 19,325 24.9 +3.3
Liberal Jacob Bright 18,727 24.1 +5.8
Majority 324 0.4 −1.4
Turnout 38,843 (est) 64.5 (est) +5.2
Registered electors 60,222
Conservative hold Swing −0.2
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +1.5
Liberal hold Swing −1.3

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868: Manchester (3 seats)[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Hugh Birley 15,486 21.6 N/A
Liberal Thomas Bazley 14,192 19.8 −12.6
Liberal Jacob Bright 13,154 18.3 −4.5
Conservative Joseph Hoare 12,684 17.7 N/A
Liberal Ernest Charles Jones 10,662 14.9 N/A
Liberal Mitchell Henry 5,236 7.3 N/A
Turnout 28,620 (est) 59.3 (est) +2.6
Registered electors 48,256
Majority 1,294 1.8 N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
Majority 830 1.2 −3.5
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal win (new seat)
  • Seat increased to three members.
By-election, 27 November 1867: Manchester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Jacob Bright 8,160 53.6 +30.8
Conservative John Marsland Bennett[14] 6,420 42.2 N/A
Liberal Mitchell Henry[15] 643 4.2 N/A
Majority 1,740 11.4 +6.7
Turnout 15,223 70.7 +14.0
Registered electors 21,542
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • James' death caused a by-election. Bright was an advanced Liberal, and Henry was a Whig liberal.[16]
General Election 1865: Manchester (2 seats)[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Bazley 7,909 32.4 +2.8
Liberal Edward James 6,698 27.4 N/A
Liberal Jacob Bright 5,562 22.8 N/A
Liberal Abel Heywood 4,242 17.4 −4.0
Majority 1,136 4.7 −2.6
Turnout 12,206 (est) 56.7 (est) −12.8
Registered electors 21,542
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1859: Manchester (2 seats)[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Bazley 7,545 29.6 −1.1
Liberal James Aspinall Turner 7,300 28.6 −0.2
Liberal Abel Heywood 5,448 21.4 N/A
Conservative Joseph Denman[17][18] 5,201 20.4 N/A
Majority 1,852 7.3 −1.0
Turnout 12,747 (est) 69.5 (est) −6.1
Registered electors 18,334
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
By-election, 17 November 1858: Manchester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Thomas Bazley Unopposed
Whig hold
  • Caused by Potter's death.
General Election 1857: Manchester (2 seats)[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig John Potter 8,368 30.7 N/A
Whig James Aspinall Turner 7,854 28.8 N/A
Radical Thomas Milner Gibson 5,588 20.5 −8.9
Radical John Bright 5,458 20.0 −8.0
Majority 2,266 8.3 N/A
Turnout 13,634 (est) 75.6 (est) +5.3
Registered electors 18,044
Whig gain from Radical Swing N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 1852: Manchester (2 seats)[12][19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Thomas Milner Gibson 5,762 29.4 N/A
Radical John Bright 5,475 28.0 N/A
Conservative George Loch 4,364 22.3 N/A
Conservative Joseph Denman 3,969 20.3 N/A
Majority 1,111 5.7 N/A
Turnout 9,785 (est) 70.3 (est) N/A
Registered electors 13,921
Radical hold Swing N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General election of 1847

In the 1847 general election, both candidates were elected unopposed:

General Election 1841: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Mark Philips 3,695
Whig Thomas Milner Gibson 3,615
Conservative George Murray 3,115
Conservative Willam Entwistle 2,692
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing

Elections in the 1830s[edit]

Manchester by-election, 1839
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Robert Hyde Greg 3,096
Conservative George Murray 2,959
Whig Colonel Thomson 93
Majority 137
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1837: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Poulett-Thomson 4,158
Whig Mark Philips 3,750
Conservative William Ewart Gladstone 2,281
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
Manchester by-election, 1835
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Poulett-Thomson 3,205
Conservative B Braidley 1,839
Majority 1,366
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1835: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Poulett-Thomson 3,355
Whig Mark Philips 3,163
Conservative B Braidley 2,535
Whig Charles Wolseley 583
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1832: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Mark Philips 2,923
Whig Charles Poulett-Thomson 2,068
Whig Samuel Jones Loyd 1,832
Tory John Thomas Hope 1,560
Whig William Cobbett 1,305
Majority
Turnout

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ward, David (27 December 2007). "New plaque tells truth of Peterloo killings 188 years on". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Ltd. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  2. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)
  3. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1989) [1977]. British parliamentary election results 1832–1885 (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 206. ISBN 0-900178-26-4.
  4. ^ Hawkins, Angus (2015). "'Parliamentary Government' and its Critics". Victorian Political Culture: 'Habits of Heart and Mind'. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780198728481. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  5. ^ "The Milner-Gibsons". The Milner-Gibsons (1806-1986). August 3, 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  6. ^ Jenkins, Terry. "Parties, Politics and Society in Mid-Victorian Britain" (PDF). St Ambrose College. p. 2. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  7. ^ Hawkins, Angus (Winter 2009–10). "Celebrating 1859: Party, Patriotism and Liberal Values" (PDF). Journal of Liberal History. 65: 11. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  8. ^ Douglas, David C., ed. (2006). English Historical Documents. New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library. p. 26. ISBN 0-203-19907-3. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  9. ^ a b Silver, Arthur (1966). Manchester Men & Indian Cotton 1847-72. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 17. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b Trevelyan, George Macaulay (1913). The Life of John Bright. London: Constable and Company. p. 259. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  11. ^ Taylor, Antony (1997). "'The Best Way to Get What He Wanted': Ernest Jones and the Boundaries of Liberalism in the Manchester Election of 1868". Parliamentary History. 16 (2): 185–204. doi:10.1111/j.1750-0206.1997.tb00225.x. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  13. ^ "Borough of Manchester Election, 1876". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 12 February 1876. p. 1. Retrieved 6 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  14. ^ "Manchester". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 15 November 1867. p. 4. Retrieved 2 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  15. ^ "Representation of Manchester - Candidature of Mr Mitchell Henry". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. Manchester. 26 November 1867. p. 1. Retrieved 2 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  16. ^ "Manchester". Westmorland Gazette. Cumbria. 16 November 1867. p. 5. Retrieved 2 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  17. ^ "Manchester". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 30 April 1859. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 28 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  18. ^ "Manchester". Wolverhampton Chronicle and Staffordshire Advertiser. 4 May 1859. p. 7. Retrieved 28 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  19. ^ "Stonehaven Journal". 20 July 1852. p. 2. Retrieved 28 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).