Manchester Oxford Road railway station

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Manchester Oxford Road National Rail
Oxford Road railway station entrance.JPG
The Grade-II listed timber facade of the station
Location
Place Manchester city centre
Local authority Manchester City Council
Coordinates 53°28′26″N 2°14′32″W / 53.4739°N 2.2422°W / 53.4739; -2.2422Coordinates: 53°28′26″N 2°14′32″W / 53.4739°N 2.2422°W / 53.4739; -2.2422
Grid reference SJ840974
Operations
Station code MCO
Managed by Northern
Number of platforms 5
DfT category C1
Live arrivals/departures, station information and onward connections
from National Rail Enquiries
Annual rail passenger usage*
2011/12 Decrease 7.077 million
2012/13 Increase 7.149 million
2013/14 Increase 7.555 million
2014/15 Increase 7.598 million
2015/16 Increase 7.962 million
Passenger Transport Executive
PTE Greater Manchester
History
Original company Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway
Pre-grouping Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway
Post-grouping Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway
20 July 1849 Opened
1960 Rebuilt
Listed status
Listed feature Manchester Oxford Road station (including platform structures)
Listing grade Grade II listed
Entry number 1255053[1]
Added to list 24 November 1995
National RailUK railway stations
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
* Annual estimated passenger usage based on sales of tickets in stated financial year(s) which end or originate at Manchester Oxford Road from Office of Rail and Road statistics. Methodology may vary year on year.
170433 at Edinburgh Waverley.JPG UK Railways portal

Manchester Oxford Road railway station is a railway station in Manchester, England, at the junction of Whitworth Street West and Oxford Street. It opened in 1849 and was rebuilt in 1960. It is the second busiest of the five stations in Manchester city centre.

The station serves the southern part of Manchester city centre, the University of Manchester and Manchester Metropolitan University, on the line from Manchester Piccadilly westwards towards Warrington, Chester, Llandudno, Liverpool, Preston and Blackpool. Eastbound trains go beyond Piccadilly to Crewe, Leeds and Sheffield.

The station is notable for its laminated wood structures and was Grade II listed in 1995. English Heritage describes it as a "building of outstanding architectural quality and technological interest; one of the most dramatic stations in England".[1][2]

History[edit]

The station opened as Oxford Road on 20 July 1849 and was the headquarters of the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway (MSJAR) until 1904.[3] The station was built on the site of 'Little Ireland' a slum "of a worse character than St Giles"[4], in which about four thousand people had lived in "measureless filth and stench"[5] (according to Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England), and of a gasworks which was relocated to the west. The station buildings, which were temporary wooden structures, were accessed by an inclined esplanade winding to the right from Gloucester Street (now Whitworth Street West) to reach their north front.[6]

There was a single platform on the north side of the line through to Manchester London Road (now Manchester Picadilly) and a second platform on a west-facing siding. To allow for extra trains in connection with the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition in 1857, extra platforms and sidings were built,[7] but afterwards removed. A meeting of MSJAR contract ticket holders in 1863 included in its list of complaints the want of punctuality "especially as at Oxford Road station there is only one platform used for both passengers and milk"[8]

From 1854 onwards Oxford Road served as the terminus for a service to Liverpool independent of the London and North Western Railway(LNWR) (one of the joint owners of MSJAR). [9] The rail service went no further than Garston, with the final leg of the journey being made by steamer,[9] but it alerted the LNWR to the possible use of the MSJAR by its co-owner, the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR) to reach areas west of Manchester. Consequently in 1857, when the MSJAR began (the decision being taken on the casting vote of the board's chairman (by rotation an MS&LR man)) running an Oxford Road - London Road service, the LNWR took strenuous measures to discourage it. Every train of the service was flagged down just short of the London Road platform and not allowed to proceed further, passengers being told they were liable to prosecution for trespass if they got out.[10]

Goods going beyond the MSJAR were not handled at Oxford Road between March[11] and July 1865[12] whilst some enlargement (and widening)[13] work was carried out.

The MS&LR pressed ahead with the joint lines to give it direct and independent rail access to Liverpool,[14] but the LNWR blocked any matching improvement to the MSJAR and to Oxford Road, only offering to let these go ahead when the scheme for Manchester Central station was brought forward.[15] To defeat the Bill for the scheme, the LNWR then promised to cooperate with the MS&LR in widening the MSJAR and enlarging Oxford Road.[16]

However, (the chairman of the MS&LR later complained that the LNWR had ensured that)[17] no improvement took place before the MS&LR had its route to Liverpool. In October 1874, with Liverpool Central railway station now open a letter to the press complained that with the additional services over the Cheshire Lines now using Oxford Road it was dangerously overcrowded. In the two and a half hours from eight a.m., thirty-seven trains were booked to call at Oxford Road: this was far too many considering there was but one platform. Frequently, passengers were compelled to alight outside the station, sometimes on the siding rails, at risk of personal injury, because of "the blocked-up state" of the station. Furthermore it was rumoured that the LNWR was planning to run a competing service (via Broadheath and Warrington) between Oxford Road and Liverpool Lime Street: if this were true, then it would further worsen the congestion, and the Board of Trade should forbid it [18]

In 1876, about twelve thousand pounds was spent on enlarging the station facilities, including the provision of a refreshment room; the station was then said to be handling about a hundred thousand passengers a week.[19] Train-handling congestion was eased when Manchester Central railway station came into use, and in 1892 the MSJAR, under pressure to greatly improve Knott Mill, rejected the suggestion of Manchester Corporation that it could kill two birds with one stone by replacing its two existing unsatisfactory stations with a single new, thoroughly satisfactory, station somewhere between them.[20] The MSJAR offered instead a limited reconstruction of the waiting rooms and booking hall; it also rejected the oouncil's offer of assistance with providing a more suitable approach to the station[21] only to accept it two years later.[22]

Press articles on the golden jubilee of the line in 1899 noted that the platform layout was still that of 1849, and somewhat of a museum piece: "if the station were to be designed today.. it would have a platform on each side of the main line, an advantage which its frequenters know it does not possess..." and better use would be made of the space currently taken up by the terminal platform,[23] used principally for special trains, mostly those serving Old Trafford during the cricket season.[24]

Reconstruction took place during 1903-04. The approach was further improved, and the ticket office and the refreshment room expanded, the MSJAR offices being removed. (They were to have been moved to an adjacent building, but this proved unnecessary: the 78-year-old manager and secretary retired at the end of 1903,[25] and administration of the line was taken over by an LNWR District Superintendent based at Manchester Exchange railway station)[26]:. An island platform was added on the though lines,[27] coming into use in November 1904.[28]

From 1931 it was served by the MSJAR's 1500V DC electric trains between Altrincham and Manchester Piccadilly. From July 1959, Altrincham electric trains were cut back from Piccadilly to terminate at Oxford Road in two new bay platforms. The station's other lines were re-electrified at 25 kV AC. The whole station was again rebuilt and reopened on 12 September 1960. When Manchester Central railway station closed in 1969, further rebuilding took place: one of the bay platforms was taken out of use and a new through platform provided (platform 1), the others being renumbered accordingly. In 1971 the Altrincham line was re-electrified at 25 kV AC and the 1930s DC trains withdrawn; from then on, local trains from Altrincham ran through to Piccadilly and on to Crewe. Oxford Road thus became once again predominantly a through station.

Use of the station increased in 1988 when the Windsor Link between Deansgate and Salford Crescent opened, connecting lines to the north and south of Manchester. This led to further investment in the station, including the installation of computer screens.

In 1992, the Altrincham line stopping service was converted to light rail operation for the Manchester Metrolink. Oxford Road, once served almost entirely by suburban stopping trains, has now returned to having many more longer-distance services.

The station, a Grade II listed structure, requires frequent maintenance. In 2004, the station roof was partially refurbished to prevent leaking. In 2011, the platform shelters, seats and toilets were refurbished at a cost of £500,000.[29] In 2013, the station received a £1.8 million renovation to improve access, including lifts and an emergency exit.[30]

Future[edit]

In the Northern Hub plans, the platforms will be extended to allow use by longer trains. The bay platform will be removed to allow the other platforms to be extended.[31] Under controversial plans much of the nearby area's Victorian character will be razed, including the Salisbury pub, and the group of streets nearby known as 'Little Ireland'.[32]

Architecture[edit]

Manchester Oxford Road station platforms with the distinctive canopies

The station had become dilapidated by the 1950s, and in connection with the electrification and modernisation programme of the Manchester to London line in 1960, the old buildings were replaced by the current structure by architects William Robert Headley and Max Clendinning and structural engineer Hugh Tottenham. It was designed in a distinctive style in concrete and wood with curves bringing to mind the Sydney Opera House.

The station is a grade II listed building. In Pevsner's Architectural Guide - Manchester it is described as

One of the most interesting and innovative buildings of the period ... the most ambitious example in this country of timber conoid shell roofing.

— Clare Hartwell, Pevsner's Architectural Guide - Manchester, p.36

and

One of the most remarkable and unusual stations in the country both for the architectural form and the technological interest...it is the most dramatic and it is an important example of the deployment of timber to achieve large roof spans incorporating clerestory lighting.

— Clare Hartwell, Pevsner's Architectural Guide - Manchester, p.178

The choice of timber was forced by the weak viaduct on which the station is situated; anything heavier could have compromised its structural strength. The station has three overlapping conoid structures although they are only viewable from above. The light conoid roofs allow for a column-free interior space, maximising space and reducing load.[33]

Despite its architectural acclaim, the structure began to deteriorate within ten years. The roof started to leak and for years the station's platform buildings were encased in scaffolding and other metalwork, partly to support the structure and prevent material falling on the platforms and passengers. Partial remedial refurbishment was completed in 2004.

Service pattern[edit]

A Northern Rail Class 142 in platform 5, the former Altrincham bay
A First TransPennine Express Class 185, at platform 4, with a service to Manchester Airport

First TransPennine Express used to run the service from Manchester Airport to Blackpool North but this was passed on to the new Northern franchise on the 1st April 2016.

An East Midlands Trains Class 158 at the station

This is reduced on a Sunday, most services operating hourly. There are various other peak services. All eastbound trains (those to Hazel Grove, Scarborough, Nottingham, Norwich and Manchester Airport) also call at Manchester Piccadilly.


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Historic England. "Manchester Oxford Road station (including platform structures) (1255053)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  2. ^ "Our plans: Manchester Oxford Road". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Dixon, Frank (1994). The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham Railway (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-454-7. 
  4. ^ "Railway Committees: Manchester South Junction and Altrincham". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 14 June 1845. p. 2. 
  5. ^ Engels, Frederick; (trans. Wischnewetzky, Florence Kelley) (1943). The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844 With a Preface written in 1892. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. pp. 60–61. 
  6. ^ "Opening of the Manchester and Altrincham Railway". Manchester Times. 21 July 1849. p. 3. 
  7. ^ "Railway Arrangements". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 2 May 1857. p. 9. 
  8. ^ "Meeting of Railway Contract Ticket Holders at Bowdon". Northwich Guardian. 31 October 1863. p. 5. 
  9. ^ a b "New Route from Manchester to Liverpool". Liverpool Mail. 10 June 1854. p. 3. 
  10. ^ "The Evils of Railway Competition". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 28 November 1857. p. 7. 
  11. ^ (advert.)"Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Railway". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 18 March 1865. p. 1. 
  12. ^ "Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Railway: Opening of New Station at Oxford-road". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 30 June 1865. p. 1. 
  13. ^ "Manchester City Council: The Oxford-road Railway Station". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 5 May 1864. p. 4. 
  14. ^ (advert.)"Opening of the New Route Between Manchester and Liverpool". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 20 May 1864. 
  15. ^ "Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway: Half-yearly Meeting". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 26 July 1866. p. 3. 
  16. ^ "Railway Intelligence: London and North Western". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 16 August 1866. p. 4. 
  17. ^ "Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Bill". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 28 June 1876. p. 8. 
  18. ^ A Daily Passenger (29 October 1874). "Oxford-Road Station: Dangerous Railway Competition". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. p. 7. 
  19. ^ "Brewster Sessions: Manchester: Refreshments at Oxford Road Station". Manchester Times. 2 September 1876. p. 3. 
  20. ^ "Manchester City Council: The Knott Mill Railway Station". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 28 May 1892. p. 9. 
  21. ^ "Public Improvements in Manchester and Salford". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 23 December 1892. p. 5. 
  22. ^ "Street Improvements in Manchester and Salford". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 29 December 1894. p. 14. 
  23. ^ "Jubilee of the Bowdon Line". Manchester Times. 5 May 1899. p. 5. 
  24. ^ "Manchester, South Junction, and Altrincham Railway". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 22 July 1899. p. 9. 
  25. ^ "Impending Retirement of Mr Richard Haig Brown". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 16 December 1903. p. 6. 
  26. ^ "Manchester Railways". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 3 February 1905. p. 10. 
  27. ^ "A Manchester Improvement : Oxford Road Station to be Rebuilt". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 12 September 1903. p. 15. 
  28. ^ "Oxford Road Station: Opening of the New Passenger Platform". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 7 November 1904. p. 3. 
  29. ^ "Sensitive Design: It Works". Manchester Confidential. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  30. ^ Cox, Charlotte (20 September 2013). "Manchester Oxford Road station is on track for overhaul". Manchester Evening News. 
  31. ^ "Network Rail plans more trains through Manchester". BBC News. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  32. ^ "Manchester's second coming – but are developers destroying its industrial soul?". The Guardian. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  33. ^ "Oxford Road Railway Station". Manchester Modernist Society. 7 April 2012. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  34. ^ Table 82, 89 & 90 National Rail timetable, May 2016
  35. ^ Table 39 National Rail timetable, May 2016
  36. ^ Table 81 National Rail timetable, May 2016
  37. ^ Table 49 National Rail timetable, May 2016

External links[edit]

Preceding station National Rail National Rail Following station
Birchwood   TransPennine Express
North TransPennine
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Wigan North Western
or Preston
or Bolton
  TransPennine Express
TransPennine North West Manchester - Glasgow/Edinburgh
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Irlam or
Birchwood or
Warrington Central
  East Midlands Trains
Liverpool-Norwich
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Newton-le-Willows   Arriva Trains Wales
Chester to Manchester Line
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Deansgate   Northern
Manchester - Blackpool/Barrow/Windermere/Preston
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Deansgate or
Manchester United FC Halt
(match days only)
  Northern
Liverpool to Manchester Line
  Manchester
Piccadilly
or
Terminus
Newton-le-Willows or
Eccles (on Sundays)
  Northern
Liverpool to Manchester Airport Line
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Deansgate or
Salford Crescent
  Northern
Mid-Cheshire Line (Sundays only)
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Deansgate   Northern
Manchester to Preston Line
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Deansgate   Northern
Buxton Line
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Deansgate   Northern
Stafford-Manchester Line
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Terminus   Northern
Crewe-Manchester Line
Styal Line
  Manchester
Piccadily
Salford Crescent or
Deansgate
  Northern
Manchester Airport-Southport
  Manchester
Piccadilly
Disused railways
Sale
1969–89
Line closed, station open
  BR (London Midland Region)
Mid-Cheshire Line
  Terminus