Manchester Victoria station

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Manchester Victoria National Rail Manchester Metrolink
Manchester Victoria station 19-10-2009 12-11-47kopie.jpg
Station frontage of Manchester Victoria, constructed in 1909
Location
Place Manchester city centre
Local authority City of Manchester
Coordinates 53°29′14″N 2°14′33″W / 53.4872°N 2.2424°W / 53.4872; -2.2424Coordinates: 53°29′14″N 2°14′33″W / 53.4872°N 2.2424°W / 53.4872; -2.2424
Grid reference SJ839989
Operations
Station code MCV
Managed by Northern
Number of platforms 6
DfT category B
Live arrivals/departures, station information and onward connections
from National Rail Enquiries
Annual rail passenger usage*
2011/12 Increase 6.782 million
2012/13 Increase 6.851 million
2013/14 Increase 7.241 million
2014/15 Increase 7.282 million
2015/16 Increase 7.630 million
Passenger Transport Executive
PTE Greater Manchester
Zone City (D)
History
1844 Opened
1902 Extended
1993–96 Northern portion reconstructed
2014–15 Renovated
Listed status
Listed feature Victoria Station including concourse to rear with restaurant and booking hall
Listing grade Grade II listed
Entry number 1254725[1]
Added to list 20 June 1988
National RailUK railway stations
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
* Annual estimated passenger usage based on sales of tickets in stated financial year(s) which end or originate at Manchester Victoria from Office of Rail and Road statistics. Methodology may vary year on year.
170433 at Edinburgh Waverley.JPG UK Railways portal

Manchester Victoria station in Manchester, England is a combined mainline railway station and Metrolink tram stop. Situated to the north of the city centre on Hunts Bank, close to Manchester Cathedral, it is adjoined to Manchester Arena which was constructed on part of the former station site in the 1990s. Opened in 1844, Victoria is Manchester's third busiest railway station after Piccadilly and Oxford Road and the second busiest station managed by Northern after Oxford Road.

The station hosts local and regional services to destinations in Northern England, such as Rochdale, Bradford, Leeds, Newcastle, Huddersfield, Halifax, Wigan, Southport, Blackpool and Liverpool using the original Liverpool to Manchester line. Most trains calling at Victoria are operated by Northern, except for TransPennine Express services from Liverpool to Newcastle and during engineering works, when some trains are diverted from Piccadilly.

Manchester Victoria is a major interchange for the Metrolink light rail system. Several former railway lines into the station have been converted to tram operation. The line to Bury was converted in the early 1990s in the first phase of Metrolink construction and the line through Oldham to Rochdale was converted during 2009–2014. Trams switch to on-street running when they emerge from Victoria Station and continue southwards through the city centre to Piccadilly or Deansgate-Castlefield.

In 2009, Victoria was voted the worst category B interchange station in the United Kingdom.[2] The station underwent a two-year £44 million modernisation programme which was completed in August 2015.[3][4] Renovation entailed electrification of lines through the station, renewed Metrolink stop with an additional platform, restoration of listed features, upgraded retail units, and a new roof.[5][6] In the Northern Hub proposals, Victoria will become the rail hub for trans-Pennine services when the Ordsall Chord is completed in 2018, and passenger numbers are expected to rise to 12 million when the station serves more destinations.[7]

History[edit]

Railway Clearing House map of central Manchester railways in 1910
Part of the original 1844 station building, photographed in 1989, originally it had a single storey, the second storey was added in the 1860s.

Origins[edit]

The Manchester and Leeds Railway (M&LR) was founded in 1836 and the company began building its line between Manchester and Leeds in 1837. Originally its line terminated at Manchester Oldham Road which opened on 3 July 1839. The company realised it would be advantageous to join its line to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) creating a through route from Liverpool to Yorkshire with a joint station serving the centre of Manchester.[8] In 1839 Samuel Brooks, vice-chairman of the M&LR, bought land at Hunt's Bank close to the cathedral and presented it to the company for the new station. The site was on the north bank of the River Irk, between the workhouse to the north which had opened in 1793 and Walker's Croft Cemetery to the south. After several years of negotiations between the companies, work started in 1842. The M&LR built an extension from Miles Platting to the station which opened on 1 January 1844. On this date, the Oldham Road terminus was closed to passenger services and became a goods station. The new station had a 852 ft (260 m) long single platform which handled M&LR trains to Leeds and elsewhere at its eastern end. The L&MR extended its line from Ordsall to Victoria and its trains operated from the western end from 4 May 1844, on which date its Liverpool Road station terminus became a goods station.[9][10]

The station was named Victoria in 1843. Its long, single-storey building designed by George Stephenson and completed by John Brogden was approached by a wooden footbridge over the River Irk before the river was culverted.[11][12] Most of the original 1844 station buildings are standing including part of the original façade on Hunt's Bank.[13]

The L&MR became part of the Grand Junction Railway in 1845, which in turn amalgamated with other railways to create the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) in 1846, and the M&LR amalgamated with other railways to create the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR) the following year. The headquarters of the L&YR were based alongside Victoria.[14]

Platforms 11 (left) and 12 (right), looking west towards Manchester Exchange in 1964

Expansion[edit]

By the mid-1840s six railway companies operated from the station connecting Manchester to London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Leeds and Sheffield. Victoria Station dominated the Long Millgate area and was one of the biggest passenger stations in Britain.

Victoria underwent several phases of expansion as traffic grew. In 1865, four bay platforms were built on the eastern side on land reclaimed from the cemetery, and another was built on the western side, a second through platform was built at the northern side, and the station's facilities were expanded by the construction of a new east wing of the station building.[15] Two decades later, the L&YR purchased the workhouse north of the station and its site was used to build another bay and five through platforms which came into use in 1884.[16] That same year, the LNWR opened its own station, Manchester Exchange immediately to the west on the opposite side of the River Irwell, and vacated Victoria.[17]

The station's bay platforms 6-10 in 1968, only the two on the right still exist.
Overlooking the station concourse in 2012 before re-development in 2014.

Victoria reached its maximum extent of 17 platforms in 1904 when the station was enlarged with extra bay platforms to the south. The present station façade, designed by William Dawes, was built in 1909.[18] The cast-iron train sheds behind the façade were 700 yards (640 m) long.

Because the station handled large amounts of parcel and newspaper traffic, an overhead parcels carrier system was constructed in 1895. It consisted of an electrically powered trolley suspended from an overhead track operated by an airborne attendant. A large basket could be raised and lowered from the trolley to distribute parcels and newspapers across the station. The system operated until 1940.[19][20]

The L&YR merged with the LNWR on 1 January 1922. A year later, the merged company became the largest constituent of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS). From 16 April 1929, Victoria and Exchange station were linked by the westward extension of platform 11 over the Irwell bridge. It joined Exchange's platform 3 creating Europe's longest platform at 2,238 feet (682 m) and could accommodate three trains.[21][22] Exchange Station closed in 1969 and its services were transferred to Victoria.[23] The Exchange Station site opposite the cathedral was for many years used as a car park, until redevelopment of the site began in 2015.[24]

The station suffered bomb damage during the Manchester Blitz in World War II. On 23 December 1940, several bombs hit the station destroying the parcels office, and a large part of the roof over platforms 12 to 16. The parcels office was rebuilt, but the damaged parts of the roof were taken down and not replaced.[25] The station came into the ownership of British Railways in 1948.

Picc-Vic tunnel and Metrolink[edit]

Proposals to build an underground station, Victoria Low Level as part of the Picc-Vic tunnel project emerged in the early-1970s.[26] The scheme proposed creating a direct rail link between Victoria and Manchester Piccadilly via a tunnel and creating several underground stations in Manchester city centre. Platforms 1–4 at Victoria were taken out of use in 1973 in anticipation of the tunnel coming to the surface in that part of the station.[27]

The tunnel project was cancelled in the late 1970s because of high costs, and in the 1980s transport planners turned to light rail as a lower-cost option. As a result, the stations were linked by the Manchester Metrolink system which opened in 1992. A street-level tramway was built across the city centre linking the stations and two converted rail lines to Altrincham and Bury.[28] The tram stop at Victoria replaced the former Bury Line platforms and the tram line was extended into the streets through a new entrance in the side of the station.[29]

Downsizing[edit]

The station in 1988. Showing the former tracks, platforms and trainshed, which were removed to make way for the Manchester Arena

In the 1980s and 90s, British Rail concentrated Manchester services into Manchester Piccadilly. In 1989, the Windsor Link chord in Salford opened, enabling many of Victoria's services from the north to be diverted to Piccadilly and in the same year, trans-Pennine services were also transferred.[30][31] Victoria was reduced to six platforms, and part was sold for development. Between 1992 and 1994, the Manchester Arena was built over the northern part of the station site. Three of the five through tracks between platforms 11 and 12 were removed, along with platforms 12-17. The station was reduced to four through tracks and four through platforms, three of which were built to replace the removed platforms 12-14. They are covered by the Arena which was joined to the station by means of a raft above them. The Arena is accessed via stairs on Hunts Bank and from the station concourse. Following reconstruction, the platforms were renumbered; platforms 1 and 2 are bay platforms facing east (formerly platforms 9 and 10), and the through platforms are 3 to 6 (platform 3 was formerly platform 11). The through platforms are used by mid-distance services.[23][32]

Renovation[edit]

Completed new roof at Victoria in October 2015
Station concourse following completion of the new roof.

In 2009 Victoria was identified as the worst category B interchange station because of its dilapidated fabric and environment. The Transport Secretary, Lord Adonis, announced that, with nine others, it would receive a share of £50 million for a refurbishment programme.[33] Victoria's £5m share of the 'Better Stations' Network Rail funding for improvements was cancelled in the June 2010 budget cuts,[34] but replacement funding was arranged.[35] On 16 February 2010 Network Rail announced its intention to refurbish the station as part of the Northern Hub improvement proposals turning it into an interchange for local and regional services throughout north-west England.[citation needed] In August 2010, Network Rail announced the work would go ahead, despite the withdrawal of the £5 million funding.[36] Station improvements included an ETFE roof, restoration of its walls, exterior canopy and period features, new platforms for additional services, improved access to the Manchester Arena and improved retail and dining facilities.[37]

Work to refurbish the station began in April 2013.[38] The old roof was dismantled in autumn 2013.[39] Installation of the £17 million roof began in May 2014 and final roof beam was lifted into position on 13 October 2014. Installation of the ETFE sheeting was completed in spring 2015, and the station upgrade was completed in August 2015,[4] with the official reopening that October.[40]

The Ordsall Chord will link Victoria to Piccadilly and additional platforms will be built by 2019 to provide extra capacity.[41] It is anticipated that, after re-routing services, passenger numbers will increase to 12 million by 2019, compared with 6.6 million in 2011/12.[42] The chord will allow trains to run directly between Piccadilly and Victoria, shortening journey times on TransPennine Express routes between Manchester Airport and Newcastle, Middlesbrough, Hull and Scarborough. An express service from Liverpool Lime Street to Newcastle via Victoria is operated by TransPennine Express. Reinstatement of the south and west curve at Todmorden on the Caldervale Line facilitated a direct service between Victoria and Burnley Manchester Road Station for the first time in almost fifty years. As part of Network Rail's electrification strategy, overhead electric wires will be erected from Victoria to Liverpool, Preston via Bolton, and Blackpool, and on the North TransPennine route to York via Leeds, allowing most services to be operated by electric traction.[37]

Layout[edit]

Manchester Victoria has six railway platforms and the Metrolink stop has four (four platform faces on three tracks). Two railway platforms are bays numbered 1 & 2 for terminating trains arriving from the east, and four are through platforms numbered 3-6 at the northern side of the station. The Metrolink platforms are parallel to, and south of the bay platforms. Only the bay and Metrolink platforms are under the new roof, the through platforms 4, 5 and 6 are mostly covered by Manchester Arena.

Layout map of Manchester Victoria

Architecture and memorials[edit]

The original M&LR single-storey offices facing Hunt's Bank Approach were built in the Italianate style in sandstone ashlar with slate roofs in 1844. They were later enlarged and given a second storey. William Dawes built the station's larger extension for the L&YR in 1909. It is at right-angles to the north end of the old station giving the enlarged station an L-shaped plan. Facing Victoria Station Approach, its façade is in the Edwardian neo-Baroque style, four storeys high and 31 bays to the rounded corner at the south-east end. The ground floor windows have rounded heads and those on the floors above are square. The ornate glass and iron canopy along the façade displays the names of destinations that the station served in Art Nouveau lettering.[1] The canopy was damaged by the Provisional IRA's 1996 bomb and was restored four years later.[43]

Heritage features in the concourse were restored during the 2013-15 renovation, they include the café with its glass dome and mosaic lettering which was originally the first class dining room, the adjacent bookstall,[1][44] and the original 1909 wood-panelled booking hall. In the entrance is a large, white glazed tiled map showing the former network of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.[1]

Underneath the map is a bronze World War I war memorial with effigies of Saint George and Saint Michael at each end which was installed in 1923.[44][45] At the south end of the concourse is the 'soldier's gate' which opened to the former fish docks from where thousands of soldiers departed for World War I and where a bronze plaque was erected to commemorate them. The gateway was restored in 2015 and a steel screen inserted featuring a map of World War I Commonwealth grave cemeteries in Northern France and Belgium.[46]

The station received Grade II listed building status in 1988.[1]

National Rail services[edit]

Tiled Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway map
TransPennine Express train at platform 4.
Northern Class 158 unit at bay platform 1.

Manchester Victoria is served by two train operating companies, Northern and TransPennine Express for its Liverpool to Newcastle service. It is occasionally used by CrossCountry services during engineering works. The Chat Moss route to Liverpool is operated by TransPennine Express Class 185s DMUs and Northern Class 319 EMUs The Ribble Valley Line to Blackburn and Clitheroe is operated by Class 156, Class 150 with Class 153 strengthening services at peak times . Leeds Calder Valley services are usually operated by Class 158 Sprinter DMUs

Sometimes night services between Manchester Airport and York operate via Victoria, but do not call and continue via Ashton-under-Lyne to rejoin the usual route at Stalybridge or continue via Rochdale and Hebden Bridge before reaching Huddersfield.

Service summary[edit]

Westbound services[edit]

Eastbound services[edit]

Preceding station   National Rail National Rail   Following station
TransPennine Express
Terminus Northern
Caldervale Line
Northern
Huddersfield Line
Northern
Northern
Manchester-Preston Line
Terminus
Northern
Ribble Valley Line
Northern
Manchester-Southport Line
Northern
Manchester-Kirkby Line
Monday-Saturday only
Northern
Manchester-Liverpool Line
  Historical Railways  
Terminus L&YR
L&YR
London and North Western Railway
Manchester-Liverpool Line
Terminus

Victoria tram stop[edit]

Victoria
Metrolink
Manchester Victoria Metrolink platforms.JPG
Victoria tram stop in October 2015
Victoria is located in Manchester_Metrolink
Victoria
Victoria
Location of Victoria in Greater Manchester
Location
Place Manchester city centre
Local authority City of Manchester
Coordinates 53°29′15″N 2°14′30″W / 53.4874°N 2.2418°W / 53.4874; -2.2418
Grid reference SJ840990
Platforms 4
Fare zone information
Metrolink Zone D (City)
Present status In operation
History
Conversion to Metrolink operation 6 April 1992
WikiProject UK Trams Banner.jpg UK Trams portal

Manchester Victoria is an interchange with the city's Metrolink light rail system. The stop is at the northern edge of the system's City Zone and the start of the Bury and Oldham and Rochdale Lines.

A tram entering Victoria from the city-centre streets.

The tram platforms opened on 6 April 1992 for services to Bury which replaced the long-established heavy rail service. The tram platforms were built on the site of the former railway platforms 5 to 8, the terminus of the Bury line. The line was extended into the city-centre streets via a sharp curve south from the platform ends and out through a new entrance in the wall at the side of the station;[29][47] The system operates on some British Rail lines that have been converted to light rail operation and on-street tram tracks. In October 2009 the Oldham Loop Line was closed for conversion to a Metrolink line. It was completed in March 2014 after reopening in stages to Rochdale town centre.[48][49]

The 1992 Metrolink platforms consisted of an island platform containing platforms B and C, and a side platform for Bury bound trams lettered A, which was later taken out of use due to leaks in the station roof.[47]

The Metrolink platforms at Victoria closed on 21 February 2014 and were rebuilt in a different configuration to allow for increased services.[50] The rebuilt stop reopened on 18 February 2015. The new configuration has two island platforms serving three tracks, with platform faces lettered A, B, C and D; the outer platforms A and D are for through trams, south and northbound respectively, and the centre platforms B & C, which both serve the same track, accommodate terminating services.[51][52][53] The stop is one of the most used on the Metrolink network.[54]

Metrolink services[edit]

As of 2017, Metrolink services run through Victoria to Altrincham, Bury, East Didsbury, Oldham and Rochdale and Piccadilly. Services mostly run every six to twelve minutes on all routes.[55][56]

Preceding station   Manchester metrolink logo.PNG Manchester Metrolink   Following station
towards East Didsbury
East Didsbury – Shaw and Crompton Line
East Didsbury – Rochdale Town Centre Line
towards Altrincham
Altrincham – Bury Line
towards Bury
towards Piccadilly
Bury – Piccadilly Line

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 19 August 1918, an electric train collided with the buffers, injuring 29 people.[57][58]
  • On the early morning of 10 December 1947 a train of 20 tank wagons loaded with petrol ran out of control while descending the bank towards Victoria. To avoid a collision with another train, it was diverted into the empty bay platform 7, where it crashed through the buffers at 25 mph, mounted the concourse, and came to a rest just short of the booking office. Swift action was taken to prevent an outbreak of fire. The train driver was killed in the collision, the fireman was injured and the guard suffered from shock.[59][60]
  • On 25 April 1994, two vehicles of a freight train derailed while passing through new platform six, which had opened that day. The derailed vehicles damaged the platform edging stones along most of its length, putting it out of use until it was repaired.[61]
  • On 15 June 1996 a large truck bomb was detonated about 400 metres from the station by the Provisional IRA. The blast shattered many windows along the station's facade, and glass fell onto the glass canopy causing it serious damage. The station was closed for several days. The blast also damaged the glass and steel roof over the concourse and platforms, which resulted in the removal of much of the glasswork and cladding.[43][62]
  • On 18 October 2016, a panel of the roof, which had been built the year before, collapsed under the weight of rain water, causing minor injury to two people.[63] The damage was blamed on seagulls weakening the structure by pecking at the roof.[64]
  • On 22 May 2017, the station was evacuated and closed and services were cancelled following the bombing at Manchester Arena which is partially above the station.[65] The explosion took place in the public area linking the station to the Arena immediately above the station's through platforms,[66] causing structural damage to the station which was closed resulting in significant disruption to train and tram services.[67] The station reopened to traffic on 30 May 2017, following the police investigation and repairs to the fabric of the building.[68]

References[edit]

Footnotes
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e Historic England. "Victoria Station including concourse to rear with restaurant and booking hall (1254725)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  2. ^ "Is Victoria UK's worst station?". BBC News. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Manchester Victoria station's restoration works start". BBC News. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Manchester Victoria upgrades to be finished this month
  5. ^ "Engineering work at Manchester Victoria stops trains". BBC News. 15 November 2013. 
  6. ^ "Manchester Victoria Metrolink station closes for upgrade". BBC News. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  7. ^ "Manchester Victoria Station". Arcadis. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  8. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 1-5.
  9. ^ Ferneyhough 1980, p. 105
  10. ^ Goode, C.T. (1986). The Railways of Manchester. pp. 19,30–31. ISBN 0-9508239-8-8. 
  11. ^ Marshall, J.D. (1970). The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, volume 1. David and Charles. p. 56. ISBN 0-7153-4352-1. 
  12. ^ Wells, Jeffrey (2000). The Eleven Towns Railway. Railway and Canal Historical Society. p. 74. 
  13. ^ "Victoria Station". manchesterhistory.net. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  14. ^ Wray 2004, p. 21.
  15. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 30-33.
  16. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 36-41.
  17. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 59-62.
  18. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 73-91.
  19. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 64-72.
  20. ^ "Overhead parcels carrier, 1919". National Railway Museum. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  21. ^ Joyce, J. (1982), Roads and Rails of Manchester 1900-1950, Ian Allan Ltd, p-23 ISBN 0-7110-1174-5
  22. ^ Marshall, John (1970), The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, volume 2, Newton Abbot: David & Charles, p=67 ISBN 0-7153-4906-6
  23. ^ a b "A Brief Rail History of Manchester". Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  24. ^ "Manchester Exchange station". Disused Stations. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  25. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 124-125.
  26. ^ SELNEC Picc-Vic Line, SELNEC PTE, October 1971  publicity brochure
  27. ^ Wray 2004, p. 120.
  28. ^ Coward, Andy. "Winning Station". PressReader.com. Rail Magazine. Retrieved 17 April 2017. 
  29. ^ a b Wray 2004, p. 128.
  30. ^ "A Brief Rail History of Manchester: 1980s developments". Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  31. ^ Holt, Geoffery (1986). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain, Volume 10, The North West. David St John Thomas. p. 244. ISBN 0-946537-34-8. 
  32. ^ Wray 2004, pp. 126-129.
  33. ^ Weaver, Matthew (17 November 2009). "Off the rails: Britain's 10 worst stations named and shamed". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  34. ^ "Manchester Victoria station's £30m revamp now uncertain". BBC News. 25 May 2010. 
  35. ^ "£50m revamp for 'worst stations'". BBC News. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009. 
  36. ^ "Victoria revamp to get go-ahead despite cash blow". Manchester Evening News. 4 August 2010. 
  37. ^ a b "North West electrification". Network Rail. n.d. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  38. ^ "Manchester Victoria station's restoration works start". BBC News. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  39. ^ "Manchester Victoria station redevelopment". Railway Technology. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  40. ^ "Manchester Victoria reopens after £44m upgrade". BBC News. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015. 
  41. ^ "Manchester Victoria – Timeline". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. 
  42. ^ "Report for Resolution – Manchester Victoria Station" (PDF). Manchester City Council. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  43. ^ a b Wray 2004, p. 130.
  44. ^ a b "A bright new Victoria station". Rail Engineer. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  45. ^ Wray 2004, p. 111.
  46. ^ "Manchester Victoria station officially reopens after £44m overhaul". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  47. ^ a b "Victoria Metrolink stop". TheTrams. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  48. ^ "A Brief Rail History of Manchester". LRTA. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  49. ^ "Metrolink History 1". LRTA. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  50. ^ "Metrolink: Time to make Victoria posh" (Press release). Transport for Greater Manchester. 6 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  51. ^ "Manchester Victoria Metrolink stop reopens in £44m upgrade". BBC News. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  52. ^ "Metrolink in the City Centre". Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  53. ^ "Manchester Victoria Station Metrolink Platforms". Geograph.org. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  54. ^ "Transport Statistics Greater Manchester 2016 Public Transport Section". TfGM. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017. 
  55. ^ "Metrolink tram times". Transport for Greater Manchester. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  56. ^ "Metrolink route map (pdf)" (PDF). TfGM. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  57. ^ Wray 2004, p. 105.
  58. ^ "Accident at Manchester Victoria on 19th August 1918". railwaysarchive.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  59. ^ Wray 2004, p. 121.
  60. ^ "Ministry of Transport report into the accident" (PDF). railwaysarchive.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  61. ^ Wray 2004, p. 129.
  62. ^ "Victoria: the rebirth of a railway station". Rail Magazine. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  63. ^ "Injuries after Manchester Victoria Station roof collapse". BBC News. 18 October 2016. 
  64. ^ "Hungry seagulls blamed for Manchester Victoria station roof collapse". ITV news. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  65. ^ "Deaths, injuries after reports of explosion at Ariana Grande concert at Manchester Arena: Police". ABC News. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  66. ^ Chivers, C.L. (24 May 2017). "Found at the Scene in Manchester: Shrapnel, a Backpack and a Battery". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  67. ^ "Structural damage to Victoria Station after bomb". ITV News. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  68. ^ "Manchester attack: Victoria railway station reopens". BBC news. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 

Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • "Manchester Victoria rebuild is approaching completion". RAIL. No. 341. EMAP Apex Publications. 7–20 October 1998. p. 11. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699. 

External links[edit]