Manchu literature

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Manchu literature refers to works written in Manchu which became a literary language after the creation of the Manchu script in 1599. Romance of the Three Kingdoms was translated by Dahai.[1] Dahai translated Wanbao quanshu 萬寶全書.[2]

Hong Taiji sponsored the translations of many Chinese language histories and classics in his newly declared Qing dynasty.

The majority of literary works in Manchu during the Qing dynasty consisted of officially sanctioned translations of Chinese Confucian classics and political works, and later translations of Chinese novels and texts on medicine, history, religion.[3] There were few Manchu archetypal literary works.[4]

The German sinologist Eric Hauer argued that the Manchu translations of Chinese classics and fiction were done by experts familiar with their original meaning and with how best to express it in Manchu. Because Manchu is easy to learn, these translations enable the student to use the Manchu versions of the classics to verify the meaning of the Chinese text, for instance, the Manchu translation of the Peiwen yunfu or the language of difficult Chinese novels, such as Jin Ping Mei. [5]Most original material produced in Manchu were histories and documentary texts relating to military and foreign affairs on the northern frontiers which were handled by the Lifan Yuan, such as campaigns against the Dzungars.

Many Chinese medical texts were translated into Manchu under the Qianlong Emperor.[6]

List of works[edit]

Works translated into Manchu[edit]

Classics and Histories[edit]

  • History of Liao 遼史 ᡩᠠᡳᠯᡳᠶᠣᠣ
    ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ

    ᠰᡠᡩᡠᡵᡳ
    Wylie: Dailiyan gurun i suduri, Möllendorff: Dailiyan gurun i suduri.
  • History of Jin 金史 ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ
    ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ

    ᠰᡠᡩᡠᡵᡳ
    Wylie: Aisin gurun i suduri, Möllendorff: Aisin gurun i suduri.
  • History of Yuan 元史 ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ
    ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ

    ᠰᡠᡩᡠᡵᡳ
    Wylie: Yuwan gurun i suduri, Möllendorff: Yuwan gurun i suduri.
  • Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋 ᠨᡳᠶᡝᠩᠨᡳᠶᡝᡵᡳ
    ᠪᠣᠯᠣᡵᡳ

    ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ
    Wylie: Niengniyeri polori i pitghe, Möllendorff: Niyengniyeri bolori i bithe.
  • Four Books 四書 were translated in 1683 into Manchu as ᡥᠠᠨ

    ᠠᡵᠠᡥᠠ
    ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳᡩᠠᡵᡳ
    ᡤᡳᠶᠠᠩᠨᠠᡥᠠ
    ᠰᡟ
    ᡧᡠ
    Wylie: Han i araha inenggidari giyangnaha sze shu, Möllendorff: Han i araha Inenggidari giyangnaha sy šu, Translation: The Four books with the daily readings.
  • General History of China 通鑒綱目 or 通鑑綱目 ᡨᡠᠩ
    ᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ
    ᡬᠠᠩ
    ᠮᡠ
    Wylie: Tung giyan g'ang mu, Möllendorff: Tung giyan g'ang mu
  • The Art of War 孫子兵法 ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ
    ᠪᠠᡳᡨᠠ
    ᠪᡝ
    ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ
    Wylie: Tchauhai paita pe gisurengge, Möllendorff: Coohai baita be gisurengge, Discourse on the art of War
  • Book of History 書經 was translated in 1760 as ᡥᠠᠨ

    ᠠᡵᠠᡥᠠ
    ᡠᠪᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡥᠠ
    ᡩᠠᠰᠠᠨ

    ᠨᠣᠮᡠᠨ
    Wylie: Han i araha upaliyampuha dasan i nomun, Möllendorff: Han i araha ubaliyambuha dasan i nomun. 御製繙譯書經
  • Book of Odes 詩經 ᡥᠠᠨ

    ᠠᡵᠠᡥᠠ
    ᡠᠪᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡠᡥᠠ
    ᡳᡵᡤᡝᠪᡠᠨ

    ᠨᠣᠮᡠᠨ
    Wylie: Han i araha upaliyampuha irgepun i nomun, Möllendorff: Han i araha ubaliyambuha irgebun i nomun.
  • Three Character Classic 三字經 was translated in 1796 as ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
    ᠨᡳᡴᠠᠨ
    ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ

    ᡴᠠᠮᠴᡳᠮᡝ
    ᠰᡠᡥᡝ
    ᠰᠠᠨ

    ᡤᡳᠩ
    ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ
    Wylie: Manchu nikan ghergen i kamtsime sughe San tsz' ging pitghe, Möllendorff: Manju nikan hergen-i kamcime suhe San ze ging ni bithe, Translation: The three character classic, in Manchu and Chinese.

Military manuals[edit]

The first Manchu translations of Chinese works were the Liu-t'ao 六韜, Su-shu 素書, and San-lueh 三略- all Chinese military texts dedicated to the arts of war due to the Manchu interests in the topic, like Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War.[7][8][9] The military related texts which were translated into Manchu from Chinese were translated by Dahai.[10] Manchu translations of Chinese texts included the Ming penal code and military texts were performed by Dahai.[11] These translations were requested of Dahai by Nurhaci.[12] The military text Wu-tzu was translated into Manchu along with Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War.[13] Chinese history, Chinese law, and Chinese military theory classical texts were translated into Manchu during the rule of Hong Taiji in Mukden with Manchus placing significance upon military and governance related Chinese texts.[14] A Manchu translation was made of the military themed Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms.[15][16] Chinese literature, military theory and legal texts were translated into Manchu by Dahai and Erdeni.[17] The translations were ordered in 1629.[18]:xxxvi[19] The translation of the military texts San-lüeh, Su-shu, and the Ta Ming hui-tien (the Ming law) done by Dahai was ordered by Nurhaci.[20] While it was mainly administrative and ethical guidance which made up most of San-lüeh and Su Shu, military science was indeed found in the Liu-t'ao and Chinese military manuals were eagerly translated by the Manchus and the Manchus were also attracted to the military content in Romance of the Three Kingdoms which is why it was translated.[21] The Art of War was translated into Manchu as ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ
ᠪᠠᡳᡨᠠ
ᠪᡝ
ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ
Wylie: Tchauhai paita be gisurengge,[18]:39[22] Möllendorff: Coohai baita de gisurengge, Discourse on the art of War.[23] Another later Manchu translation was made by Aisin Gioro Qiying.[24]

Novels[edit]

Plays[edit]

Works issued in multilingual copies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Claudine Salmon (13 November 2013). Literary Migrations: Traditional Chinese Fiction in Asia (17th-20th Centuries). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-981-4414-32-6.
  2. ^ Richard J. Smith (23 October 2015). The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-4422-2194-9.
  3. ^ Norman 2003, pp. 485-6.
  4. ^ ed. Idema 2007, p. 211.
  5. ^ Hauer (1930), p. 162-163.
  6. ^ Hanson 2003, p. 114.
  7. ^ Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1975. p. 53.
  8. ^ Durrant, Stephen. 1977. “Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts”. Early China 3. [Cambridge University Press, Society for the Study of Early China]: 52–54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23351361.
  9. ^ Durrant, Stephen. 1977. “Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts”. Early China 3. [Cambridge University Press, Society for the Study of Early China]: 53. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23351361?seq=2.
  10. ^ Sin-wai Chan (2009). A Chronology of Translation in China and the West: From the Legendary Period to 2004. Chinese University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-962-996-355-2.
  11. ^ Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
  12. ^ Wakeman, Jr., Frederic (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.
  13. ^ Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1977. p. 53.
  14. ^ Claudine Salmon (13 November 2013). Literary Migrations: Traditional Chinese Fiction in Asia (17th-20th Centuries). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-981-4414-32-6.
  15. ^ Cultural Hybridity in Manchu Bannermen Tales (zidishu). ProQuest. 2007. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-0-549-44084-0.
  16. ^ West, Andrew. "The Textual History of Sanguo Yanyi: The Manchu Translation". Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  17. ^ Arthur W. Hummel (1991). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period: 1644-1912. SMC publ. p. vi. ISBN 978-957-638-066-2.
  18. ^ a b Shou-p'ing Wu Ko (1855). Translation (by A. Wylie) of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language (by Woo Kĭh Show-ping, revised and ed. by Ching Ming-yuen Pei-ho) with intr. notes on Manchu literature.
  19. ^ Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language; with introductory notes on Manchu Literature: (translated by A. Wylie.). Mission Press. 1855. pp. xxxvi–.
  20. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/DAHAI.html
  21. ^ Durrant, Stephen. 1979. “Sino-manchu Translations at the Mukden Court”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (4). American Oriental Society: 653–61. doi:10.2307/601450. https://www.jstor.org/stable/601450?seq=2 pp. 654-656.
  22. ^ http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b31043252.pdf
  23. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai (1890). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Kelly & Walsh. pp. 40–.
  24. ^ http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp178_art_of_war.pdf p. 82

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]