Manchu literature refers to works written in Manchu which became a literary language after the creation of the Manchu script in 1599. Romance of the Three Kingdoms was translated by Dahai. Dahai translated Wanbao quanshu 萬寶全書.
The majority of literary works in Manchu during the Qing dynasty consisted of officially sanctioned translations of Chinese Confucian classics and political works, and later translations of Chinese novels and texts on medicine, history, religion. There were few Manchu archetypal literary works.
The German sinologist Eric Hauer argued that the Manchu translations of Chinese classics and fiction were done by experts familiar with their original meaning and with how best to express it in Manchu. Because Manchu is easy to learn, these translations enable the student to use the Manchu versions of the classics to verify the meaning of the Chinese text, for instance, the Manchu translation of the Peiwen yunfu or the language of difficult Chinese novels, such as Jin Ping Mei. Most original material produced in Manchu were histories and documentary texts relating to military and foreign affairs on the northern frontiers which were handled by the Lifan Yuan, such as campaigns against the Dzungars.
List of works
Works translated into Manchu
Classics and Histories
- History of Liao 遼史 ᡩᠠᡳᠯᡳᠶᠣᠣ
ᠰᡠᡩᡠᡵᡳ Wylie: Dailiyan gurun i suduri, Möllendorff: Dailiyan gurun i suduri.
- History of Jin 金史 ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ
ᠰᡠᡩᡠᡵᡳ Wylie: Aisin gurun i suduri, Möllendorff: Aisin gurun i suduri.
- History of Yuan 元史 ᠶᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᠰᡠᡩᡠᡵᡳ Wylie: Yuwan gurun i suduri, Möllendorff: Yuwan gurun i suduri.
- Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋 ᠨᡳᠶᡝᠩᠨᡳᠶᡝᡵᡳ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Wylie: Niengniyeri polori i pitghe, Möllendorff: Niyengniyeri bolori i bithe.
- Four Books 四書 were translated in 1683 into Manchu as ᡥᠠᠨ
ᡧᡠ Wylie: Han i araha inenggidari giyangnaha sze shu, Möllendorff: Han i araha Inenggidari giyangnaha sy šu, Translation: The Four books with the daily readings.
- General History of China 通鑒綱目 or 通鑑綱目 ᡨᡠᠩ
ᠮᡠ Wylie: Tung giyan g'ang mu, Möllendorff: Tung giyan g'ang mu
- The Art of War 孫子兵法 ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ
ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ Wylie: Tchauhai paita pe gisurengge, Möllendorff: Coohai baita be gisurengge, Discourse on the art of War
- Book of History 書經 was translated in 1760 as ᡥᠠᠨ
ᠨᠣᠮᡠᠨ Wylie: Han i araha upaliyampuha dasan i nomun, Möllendorff: Han i araha ubaliyambuha dasan i nomun. 御製繙譯書經
- Book of Odes 詩經 ᡥᠠᠨ
ᠨᠣᠮᡠᠨ Wylie: Han i araha upaliyampuha irgepun i nomun, Möllendorff: Han i araha ubaliyambuha irgebun i nomun.
- Three Character Classic 三字經 was translated in 1796 as ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Wylie: Manchu nikan ghergen i kamtsime sughe San tsz' ging pitghe, Möllendorff: Manju nikan hergen-i kamcime suhe San ze ging ni bithe, Translation: The three character classic, in Manchu and Chinese.
The first Manchu translations of Chinese works were the Liu-t'ao 六韜, Su-shu 素書, and San-lueh 三略- all Chinese military texts dedicated to the arts of war due to the Manchu interests in the topic, like Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War. The military related texts which were translated into Manchu from Chinese were translated by Dahai. Manchu translations of Chinese texts included the Ming penal code and military texts were performed by Dahai. These translations were requested of Dahai by Nurhaci. The military text Wu-tzu was translated into Manchu along with Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War. Chinese history, Chinese law, and Chinese military theory classical texts were translated into Manchu during the rule of Hong Taiji in Mukden with Manchus placing significance upon military and governance related Chinese texts. A Manchu translation was made of the military themed Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Chinese literature, military theory and legal texts were translated into Manchu by Dahai and Erdeni. The translations were ordered in 1629.:xxxvi The translation of the military texts San-lüeh, Su-shu, and the Ta Ming hui-tien (the Ming law) done by Dahai was ordered by Nurhaci. While it was mainly administrative and ethical guidance which made up most of San-lüeh and Su Shu, military science was indeed found in the Liu-t'ao and Chinese military manuals were eagerly translated by the Manchus and the Manchus were also attracted to the military content in Romance of the Three Kingdoms which is why it was translated. The Art of War was translated into Manchu as ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ
ᡤᡳᠰᡠᡵᡝᠩᡤᡝ Wylie: Tchauhai paita be gisurengge,:39 Möllendorff: Coohai baita de gisurengge, Discourse on the art of War. Another later Manchu translation was made by Aisin Gioro Qiying.
- Jin Ping Mei 金瓶梅 ᡤᡳᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Wylie: Gin p'ing mei pitghe, Möllendorff: Gin ping mei bithe
- The Carnal Prayer Mat 肉蒲團 ᡰᡝᠣ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Wylie: Jeo p'u tuwan i pitghe, Möllendorff: žeo pu tuwan i bithe
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms 三國演義 ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ Möllendorff: Ilan gurun-i bithe
- Water Margin 水滸傳 Möllendorff: Sui hū bithe
- Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio 聊齋誌異 Möllendorff: Sonjofi ubaliyambuha Liyoo jai jy i bithe
Works issued in multilingual copies
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- Claudine Salmon (13 November 2013). Literary Migrations: Traditional Chinese Fiction in Asia (17th-20th Centuries). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-981-4414-32-6.
- Richard J. Smith (23 October 2015). The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-4422-2194-9.
- Norman 2003, pp. 485-6.
- ed. Idema 2007, p. 211.
- Hauer (1930), p. 162-163.
- Hanson 2003, p. 114.
- Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1975. p. 53.
- Durrant, Stephen. 1977. “Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts”. Early China 3. [Cambridge University Press, Society for the Study of Early China]: 52–54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23351361.
- Durrant, Stephen. 1977. “Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts”. Early China 3. [Cambridge University Press, Society for the Study of Early China]: 53. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23351361?seq=2.
- Sin-wai Chan (2009). A Chronology of Translation in China and the West: From the Legendary Period to 2004. Chinese University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-962-996-355-2.
- Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
- Wakeman, Jr., Frederic (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.
- Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1977. p. 53.
- Claudine Salmon (13 November 2013). Literary Migrations: Traditional Chinese Fiction in Asia (17th-20th Centuries). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-981-4414-32-6.
- Cultural Hybridity in Manchu Bannermen Tales (zidishu). ProQuest. 2007. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-0-549-44084-0.
- West, Andrew. "The Textual History of Sanguo Yanyi: The Manchu Translation". Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- Arthur W. Hummel (1991). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period: 1644-1912. SMC publ. p. vi. ISBN 978-957-638-066-2.
- Shou-p'ing Wu Ko (1855). Translation (by A. Wylie) of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language (by Woo Kĭh Show-ping, revised and ed. by Ching Ming-yuen Pei-ho) with intr. notes on Manchu literature.
- Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language; with introductory notes on Manchu Literature: (translated by A. Wylie.). Mission Press. 1855. pp. xxxvi–.
- Durrant, Stephen. 1979. “Sino-manchu Translations at the Mukden Court”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (4). American Oriental Society: 653–61. doi:10.2307/601450. https://www.jstor.org/stable/601450?seq=2 pp. 654-656.
- Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai (1890). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Kelly & Walsh. pp. 40–.
- http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp178_art_of_war.pdf p. 82
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle and Evelyn S. Rawski (1993). "A Profile of the Manchu Language in Ch'ing History". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 53 (1): 63–102. doi:10.2307/2719468. JSTOR 2719468.
- Durrant, Stephen (Fall 1977). "Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts". Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 3: 52–54. doi:10.1017/S0362502800006623. JSTOR 23351361.
- Elliott, Mark (2013). "Why Study Manchu?". Manchu Studies Group.
- Hanson, Marta (2003). "The "Golden Mirror" in the Imperial Court of the Qianlong Emperor, 1739-1742". Early Science and Medicine. 8 (2): 111–147. doi:10.1163/157338203x00035. JSTOR 4130134.
- Hauer, Erich (1930). "Why the Sinologue Should Study Manchu" (PDF). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 61: 156–164.
- von Möllendorff, P. G. (1890). "Essay on Manchu Literature". Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 24-25: 1–45. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Norman, Jerry (2003). "The Manchus and Their Language (Presidential Address)". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 123 (3): 483–491. doi:10.2307/3217747. JSTOR 3217747.
- Wade, Thomas Francis (1898). Herbert Allen Giles (ed.). A catalog of the Wade collection of Chinese and Manchu books in the library of the University of Cambridge. University Press.
- A Catalogue of the Collection of Chinese and Manchu Books Given to the University of Cambridge. The University Press. 1898.
- James Summers, ed. (1872). Descriptive catalogue of the Chinese, Japanese, and Manchu books.
- Toh, Hoong Teik, and 卓鴻澤. 2007. “Translation, Poetry and Lute Tunes Some Manchu Writings of Mingsioi and Jakdan”. Central Asiatic Journal 51 (2). Harrassowitz Verlag: 223–46. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41928458.