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ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون
Mandaeans 03.jpg
Mandeans in prayer
Total population
60,000[1] - 70,000[2]
Regions with significant populations
 Iran5,000–10,000 (2009)[4]
 Syria1,250 families[7]
 United States2,500[10]-3,200[11]
 Canada1,500[citation needed]
 United Kingdom1,000[14]
Ginza Rabba, Qolusta, Mandaean Book of John, Haran Gawaita
Mandaic as liturgical language
Neo-Mandaic, Arabic and Persian

Mandaeans (Arabic: ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون‎, romanizedaṣ-Ṣābiʾah al-Mandāʾiyūn (Sabian-Mandaeans)) are an ethnoreligious group, native to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia who are followers of Mandaeism. They were possibly the earliest to practice baptism[17] and are the last surviving Gnostics from antiquity. The Mandaeans were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic and Modern Persian.

In the aftermath of the Iraq War of 2003, the Mandaean community of Iraq, which used to number 60,000–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East.[18] The other community of Iranian Mandaeans has also been dwindling as a result of religious persecution over those two decades.[4][19][20] By 2007, the population of Mandaeans in Iraq had fallen to approximately 5,000.[21]

There are estimated to be 60,000–100,000 Mandaeans worldwide.[22] About 10,000 Mandaeans live in Sweden and Australia, making them the countries with the most Mandaeans.[23] There are about 2,500 Mandaeans in Jordan, the largest Mandaean community in the Middle East outside of Iraq and Iran.[24]


The name 'Mandaean' is said to come from the Mandaic word manda meaning "knowledge".[25]

In Muslim countries, Mandaeans are mostly called Sabians (Arabic: ٱلصَّابِئَة‎, romanizedaṣ-Ṣābiʾah).[26]



There are several indications of the ultimate origin of the Mandaeans. Early religious concepts and terminologies recur in the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Yardena (Jordan) has been the name of every baptismal water in Mandaeism.[27] The Mandaic language is a dialect of southeastern Aramaic with Palestinian and Samaritan Aramaic,[28][29] as well as Akkadian influences and is closely related to Syriac and especially Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language. They formally refer to themselves as Nasurai (Nasoraeans).[30] A priest holds the title of Rabbi[31] and a place of worship is called a Mashkhanna.[32] According to Mandaean sources such as the Haran Gawaita, the Nasurai inhabited the areas around Jerusalem and the River Jordan in the 1st century CE.[33][34] There is archaeological evidence that attests to the Mandaean presence in pre-Islamic Iraq.[35][36] Some scholars, including Kurt Rudolph, connect the early Mandaeans with the Jewish sect of the Nasoraeans.[36] It appears that Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was partly influenced by the Mandaeans.[37]

According to the Mandaean Synod of Australia:[38]

Mandaeans are followers of John the Baptist. Their ancestors fled from the Jordan Valley about 2000 years ago and ultimately settled along the lower reaches of the Tigris, Euphrates and Karun Rivers in what is now Iraq and Iran. Baptism is the principal ceremony of the Mandaean religion and may only take place in a freshwater river.

Early Persian periods[edit]

A number of ancient Aramaic inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century CE were uncovered in Elymais. Although the letters appear quite similar to the Mandaean ones, it is doubtful whether the inhabitants of Elymais were Mandaeans.[39] Under Parthian and early Sasanian rule, foreign religions were tolerated. The situation changed by the ascension of Bahram I in 273, who under the influence of the zealous Zoroastrian high priest Kartir persecuted all non-Zoroastrian religions. It is thought that this persecution encouraged the consolidation of Mandaean religious literature.[39] The persecutions instigated by Kartir seems to temporarily erase Mandaeans from recorded history. Traces of their presence can still however be found in the so-called Mandaean magical bowls and lead strips which were produced from the 3rd to the 7th centuries.[39]

Islamic Caliphates[edit]

The Mandaeans reappeared at the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia, when their leader, Anush Bar-Danqa, appeared before Muslim authorities showing them a copy of the Ginza Rabba, the Mandaean holy book, and proclaiming the chief Mandaean prophet to be John the Baptist, who is also mentioned in the Quran by the name Yahya ibn Zakariya. After this, the Muslim Empire provided them acknowledgement as the Quranic Sabians, who are part of People of the Book, people who followed a legal minority religion. Mandaeans appeared to have flourished during the early Islamic period, as attested by the voluminous expansion of Mandaic literature and canons. Tib near Wasit is particularly noted as an important scribal centre.[39] Yaqut al-Hamawi describes Tib as a town inhabited by Nabatean (i.e. Aramaic speaking) Sabians who consider themselves to be descendants of Seth.[39]

The status of the Mandaeans became an issue for the Abbasid caliph al-Qahir Billah. To avoid further investigation by the authorities, the Mandaeans paid a bribe of 50,000 dinars and were left alone. It appeared that the Mandaeans were even exempt from paying the Jizya, otherwise imposed upon non-Muslims.[39]

Late Persian and Ottoman periods[edit]

Early contact with Europeans came about in the mid-16th century, when Portuguese missionaries encountered Mandaeans in Southern Iraq and controversially designated them "Christians of St. John". In the next centuries Europeans became more acquainted with the Mandaeans and their religion.[39]

The Mandaeans suffered persecution under the Qajar rule in the 1780s. The dwindling community was threatened with complete annihilation, when a cholera epidemic broke out in Shushtar and half of its inhabitants died. The entire Mandaean priesthood perished and Mandaeism was restored due to the efforts of few learned men such as Yahia Bihram.[39] Another danger threatened the community in 1870, when the local governor of Shushtar massacred the Mandaeans against the will of the Shah.[39] As a result of these events the Mandaeans retired to the more inaccessible Central Marshes of Iraq.[citation needed]

Modern Iraq and Iran[edit]

Following the First World War, the Mandaeans were still largely living in rural areas in the lower parts of British protected Iraq and Iran. Owing to the rise of Arab nationalism, Iraqi Mandaeans were Arabised at an accelerated rate, especially during the 1950s and '60s. The Mandaeans were also forced to abandon their stands on the cutting of hair and forced military service, which are strictly prohibited in Mandaeaism.[40]

The 2003 Iraq War brought more troubles to the Mandaeans, as the security situation deteriorated. Many members of the Mandaean community, who were known as goldsmiths, were targeted by criminal gangs for ransoms. The rise of Islamic extremism forced thousands to flee the country, after they were given the choice of conversion or death.[41] It is estimated that around 90% of Iraqi Mandaeans were either killed or have fled after the American-led invasion.[41]

The Mandaeans of Iran lived chiefly in Ahvaz, Iranian Khuzestan, but have moved as a result of the Iran–Iraq War to other cities such as Tehran, Karaj and Shiraz. The Mandaeans, who were traditionally considered as People of the Book (members of a protected religion under Islamic rule), lost this status after the Islamic Revolution. However, despite this, Iranian Mandaeans still maintain successful businesses and factories in areas such as Ahwaz. In April 1996, the cause of the Mandaeans' religious status in the Islamic Republic was raised. The parliament came to the conclusion that Sabians were included in the protected status of People of the Book alongside Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians and specified that, from a legal viewpoint, there is no prohibition against Muslims associating with Mandaeans, who are often regarded as being the Sabians mentioned explicitly in the Quran. That same year, Ayatollah Sajjadi of Al-Zahra University in Qom posed three questions regarding the Mandaeans' beliefs and seemed satisfied with the answers. These rulings however, did not lead to Mandaeans regaining their more officially recognized status as People of the Book.[42] In 2009, Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwā recognizing the Mandaeans as People of the Book (ahl-il-kitāb) (2009, Question 321).[43]


Ganzibra Dakheel Edan (1881–1964), High Priest of the Mandaeans
Mandaean Beth Manda (Mashkhanna) in Nasiriya, southern Iraq, 2016

Iraqi Mandaeans[edit]

See also: Mandaeans in Iraq (Arabic Wikipedia)

Pre-Iraq War, the Iraqi Mandaean community was centered in Baghdad. The Mandeans originate, however, from southern Iraq in cities such as Nasiriyah, Amarah, and Basra. Many also live across the border in Southwestern Iran in the cities of Ahvaz and Khorramshahr.[44] Mandaean emigration from Iraq began during Saddam Hussein's rule, but accelerated greatly after the American-led invasion and subsequent occupation.[45] Since the invasion Mandaeans, like other Iraqi ethno-religious minorities (such as Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidi, Roma and Shabaks), have been subjected to violence, including murders, kidnappings, rapes, evictions, and forced conversions.[45][46] Mandaeans, like many other Iraqis, have also been targeted for kidnapping since many worked as goldsmiths.[45] Mandaeism is pacifistic and forbids its adherents from carrying weapons.[45][47]

Many Iraqi Mandaeans have fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaean community in Iraq faces extinction.[48][49] Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, fewer than 5,000 to 10,000 remain there as of 2007. In early 2007, more than 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans were refugees in Syria and Jordan as a result of the Iraq War. .[50] As of 2019, an Al-Monitor study estimated the Iraqi Mandaean population to be 3,000, 400 of which lived in the Erbil Governorate.[9]

Iranian Mandaeans[edit]

The number of Iranian Mandaeans is a matter of dispute. In 2009, there were an estimated 5,000 and 10,000 Mandaeans in Iran, according to the Associated Press.[4] Alarabiya has put the number of Iranian Mandaeans as high as 60,000 in 2011.[51]

Until the Iranian Revolution, Mandaeans were mainly concentrated in the Khuzestan Province, where the community used to coexist with the local Arab population. Other than the main cities of Ahvaz and Khorramshahr, Mandaean communities also existed in towns such as Chogha Zanbil in Shush County, Shushtar, and Abadan.[39] They were mainly employed as goldsmiths, passing their skills from generation to generation.[51] After the fall of the shah, its members faced increased religious discrimination, and many emigrated to Europe and the Americas.

In Iran, the Gozinesh Law (passed in 1985) has the effect of prohibiting Mandaeans from fully participating in civil life. This law and other gozinesh provisions make access to employment, education, and a range of other areas conditional upon a rigorous ideological screening, the principal prerequisite for which is devotion to the tenets of Islam.[52] These laws are regularly applied to discriminate against religious and ethnic groups that are not officially recognized, such as the Mandaeans, Yarsanis and Baháʼís.[53]

In 2002, the US State Department granted Iranian Mandaeans protective refugee status. Since then, roughly 1,000 have emigrated to the US,[4] now residing in cities such as San Antonio, Texas.[54] On the other hand, the Mandaean community in Iran has increased over the last decade,[citation needed] because of the exodus from Iraq of the main Mandaean community, which used to be 50,000–70,000 strong.[55]

Other Middle Eastern Mandaeans[edit]

Following the Iraq War, the Mandaean community dispersed mostly throughout Jordan, Syria and Iran. Mandaeans in Jordan number 49 families and have about 2,500 population.[24][7] in Syria there are as many as 1,250 families.[7]


There are small Mandaean diaspora populations in Sweden (c. 7,000), Australia (6,906 in 2016),[56] the US (c. 2,500), the UK (c. 1,000), and Canada.[48][57][58][59][60][61] Sweden became a popular destination because a Mandaean community existed there before the war and the Swedish government has a liberal asylum policy toward Iraqis. Of the 7,000 Mandaeans in Sweden, 1,500 live in Södertälje.[57][62] The scattered nature of the Mandaean diaspora has raised fears among Mandaeans for the religion's survival. Mandaeism does not allow conversion, and the religious status of Mandaeans who marry outside the faith and their children is disputed.[4][46]

The status of the Mandaeans has prompted a number of American intellectuals and civil rights activists to call upon the US government to extend refugee status to the community. In 2007, The New York Times ran an op-ed piece in which Swarthmore professor Nathaniel Deutsch called for the Bush administration to take immediate action to preserve the community.[50] Iraqi Mandaeans were given refugee status by the US State Department in 2007. Since then, more than 2500 have entered the US, many settling in Worcester, Massachusetts.[4][63] The community in Worcester is believed to be the largest in the United States and the second largest community outside the Middle East.[11] About 2,600 Mandaeans from Iran have been settled in Texas since the Iraq War.[64]

On September 15, 2018, the first ever purpose-built Beth Manda in Europe was consecrated in Dalby, Scania, Sweden named Beth Manda Yardna.[65][66]


Darfash, symbol of the Mandaean faith

Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community, practicing Mandaeism, which is a monotheistic, Gnostic, and ethnic religion[67]: 4 [68]: 4 [69] (Aramaic manda means "knowledge," as does Greek gnosis).[69] Its adherents revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enosh, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist.[69][70][71]

The Mandaeans group existence into two main categories: light and darkness.[69] They have a dualistic view of life, that encompasses both good and evil; all good is thought to have come from the World of Light (i.e. lightworld) and all evil from the World of Darkness.[69] In relation to the body–mind dualism coined by Descartes, Mandaeans consider the body, and all material, worldly things, to have come from the Dark, while the soul (sometimes referred to as the mind) is a product of the lightworld. Mandaeans believe that there is a constant battle or conflict between the forces of good and evil. The forces of good are represented by Nhura (Light) and Maia Hayyi (Living Water) and those of evil are represented by Hshuka (Darkness) and Maia Tahmi (dead or rancid water). The two waters are mixed in all things in order to achieve a balance. Mandaeans believe in an afterlife or heaven called Alma d'Nhura (World of Light).[72]

Mandaeans believe the World of Light is ruled by a Supreme God, known as Hayyi Rabbi ('The Great Life' or 'The Great Living God').[72] Other names used are Mare d'Rabuta ('Lord of Greatness'), Mana Rabba ('The Great Mind'), Melka d'Nhura ('King of Light') and Hayyi Qadmaiyi ('The First Life').[73][74] God is so great, vast, and incomprehensible that no words can fully depict how awesome God is. It is believed that an innumerable number of Uthras (angels or guardians),[75] manifested from the light, surround and perform acts of worship to praise and honor God. They inhabit worlds separate from the lightworld and some are commonly referred to as emanations from 'The First Life'; their names include Second, Third, and Fourth Life (i.e. Yōšamin, Abathur, and Ptahil).[76]

The Lord of Darkness (Krun) is the ruler of the World of Darkness formed from dark waters representing chaos.[76][77] A main defender of the darkworld is a giant monster, or dragon, with the name 'Ur', and an evil, female ruler also inhabits the darkworld, known as Ruha.[76] The Mandaeans believe these malevolent rulers created demonic offspring who consider themselves the owners of the seven planets and twelve zodiac constellations.[76]

According to Mandaean beliefs, the material world is a mixture of light and dark created by Ptahil-Uthra, who fills the role of the demiurge, with help from dark powers, such as Ruha, the Seven, and the Twelve.[76] Adam's body (believed to be the first human created by God in Abrahamic tradition) was fashioned by these dark beings; however, his soul (or mind) was a direct creation from the Light. Therefore, many Mandaeans believe the human soul is capable of salvation because it originates from the lightworld. The soul, sometimes referred to as the 'inner Adam' or 'hidden Adam', is in dire need of being rescued from the Dark, so it may ascend into the heavenly realm of the lightworld.[76] Baptisms are a central theme in Mandaeism, believed to be necessary for the redemption of the soul. Mandaeans do not perform a single baptism, as in religions such as Christianity; rather, they view baptisms as a ritual act capable of bringing the soul closer to salvation.[78] Therefore, Mandaeans are baptized repeatedly during their lives.[79][80] John the Baptist is a key figure for the Mandaeans; they consider him to have been a Nasoraean Mandaean.[81][82] John is referred to as their greatest and final teacher.[83]


Neo-Mandaic is the comtemporary language spoken by some Mandaeans, while Classical Mandaic is the liturgical language of Mandaeism.[84]


According to the Iranian Journal of Public Health:[85]

About 20 century ago, Mandaeans migrated from Jordan/Palestine areas to Iraq and Iran. Therefore, their gene pool was separated from their origins for about 20 centuries. During this period, evolutionary forces might have some effects on Mandaeans’ gene pool. The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype among Jordanian, Palestinian, Ashkenazi Jews and non-Ashkenazi Jews was 27.1%, 56.0%, 55.2%, and 55.2% (9, 10), respectively. On the other hand, the frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype among Jordanian, Palestinian, Ashkenazi Jews and non-Ashkenazi Jews was 24.2%, 22.0%, 26.0%, 22.1% (9, 10), respectively. Comparisons between Iranian Mandaeans and above-mentioned populations demonstrating that Mandaeans showed higher and lower levels of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes, respectively. There was remarkably difference between Mandaeans and other mentioned populations for the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype.

Mutation, gene flow and natural selection should be disregarded in interpretation the influence of evolutionary forces on Mandaeans and their surrounding gene pools. In Iran and Iraq Mandaeans lived as small and isolated ethno-religious communities. Therefore, genetic drift, at least in part might be account for differences between Mandaeans and other populations.

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External links[edit]