Mandarin orange (fruit)

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Mandarin oranges

The mandarin orange, also known as the mandarin,[1] is the fruit of the mandarin tree[2][3][4][5][6][7] (or bush).[8][9]

Among the most common types of mandarins are Citrus reticulata, Citrus unshiu, Citrus reshni, and various hybrids.[10][11] Clementines and tangerines are also marketed as "mandarins".[12][11]

Appearance and structure[edit]

Mandarin orange fruits are small (4 to 8 cm). Their color is orange,[13] orange-yellow,[14] or orange-red.[4] Their shape is spherical or oblate (flattened at the poles).[15][14][13]

The skin is thin and peels off easily.[15][16] Their easiness to peel is an important advantage of mandarine oranges over other citrus fruits that all are more difficult to peel.[16][17][8]

Just like with other citrus fruits, the endocarp (inner flesh) is separated into segments, which in their turn consist of a large number of elongated cells.[18]

The fruits may be seedless or contain a small number of seeds.[13]

Nutritional value[edit]

Mandarin orange fruits are sweet to taste. They can be eaten as whole or squeezed to make juice.[19] They can also be dried.[17]

The fruits contain a large amount of sugar (up to 10.5%), vitamins C, B1, B2, provitamin A, free organic acids, phytoncides, lectins, and mineral salts.[19]

The vitamin C in mandarin oranges is perfectly preserved in long-term storage. Since mandarin oranges ripen in November–December, they can be a source of vitamins during the winter for people living in the Northern Hemisphere.[19]


The fruit yield is high, up to 5-6 thousand fruits per tree in a favorable year.[16]

Mandarin orange is the most cultivated citrus fruit in China, tropical Asia, India, Japan, the Mediterranean, and in Florida in the United States. A hardy Japanese species of mangarin orange called unshiu is grown in Russia on the Black Sea coast of Caucasus and in the Krasnodar Region.[16]


  1. ^ Harrap's essential English Dictionary. Allied Publishers. 1996. pp. 576–. ISBN 978-81-86062-05-0. 
  2. ^ The Visual Food Encyclopedia. Québec Amerique. 1996. pp. 222–. ISBN 978-2-7644-0898-8. 
  3. ^ Alef. Chamah. 1987. 
  4. ^ a b Sandy Baker (30 September 2011). The Complete Guide to Keeping Your Houseplants Alive and Thriving: Everything You Need to Know Explained Simply. Atlantic Publishing Company. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-1-60138-349-5. 
  5. ^ А. И. Чаховский; Беларуская энцыклапедыя (Фирм) (1993). Культура питания: энциклопедический справочник. "Беларуская энцыклапедыя" имяПетруся Броŭки. 
  6. ^ Наука и жизнь. Изд. "Правда". 1969. 
  7. ^ Борис Петрович Токин (1980). Целебные яды растений: повесть о фитонцидах. Изд-во Ленинградского унив. 
  8. ^ a b Гл. редактор Горкин А.П. (2007). Биология: Современная иллюстрированная энциклопедия. Росмэн. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-5-353-02413-2. 
  9. ^ Популярный энциклопедический иллюстрированный словарь. Европедия. ОЛМА Медиа Групп. 2003. pp. 488–. ISBN 978-5-224-03916-6. 
  10. ^ T. Radha; Lila Mathew (2007). Fruit Crops. New India Publishing. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-81-89422-46-2. 
  11. ^ a b Paul H. Moore; Ray Ming (3 January 2008). Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants. Springer. pp. 194–. ISBN 978-0-387-71219-2. 
  12. ^ "Standard for citrus Fruit" (PDF). united Nations. 
  13. ^ a b c Геннадий Непокойчицкий (12 January 2017). Лечение растениями. Энциклопедический справочник. АНС, АСТ, Астрель, Харвест. pp. 588–. ISBN 978-5-457-27618-5. 
  14. ^ a b Венедикт Андреевич Колесников (1959). Плодоводство. Государственное издательство сельскохозяйственной литературы. 
  15. ^ a b Иван Александрович Бенедиктов (1953). Сельскохозяйственная энциклопедия. Гос. изд-во сельхоз. лит-ры. 
  16. ^ a b c d Мороз В. Расскажите детям о фруктах. МОЗАИКА-СИНТЕЗ. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-5-86775-471-6. 
  17. ^ a b Сергей Цигаль (12 January 2017). Полная чаша. ЛитРес. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-5-457-44211-5. 
  18. ^ Справочник товароведа продовольственных товаров. Ėкономика. 1987. 
  19. ^ a b c Детское меню от 1 года до 7 лет с советами педиатра. ЛитРес. 12 January 2017. pp. 275–. ISBN 978-5-457-41939-1.