Mandaue

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Mandaue
City of Mandaue
Mandaue viewed from the Mactan Channel
Marcelo Fernan Bridge
Mandaue Presidencia
From top, left to right: Mandaue skyline viewed from the Mactan Channel, Marcelo Fernan Bridge, Sotero Cabahug monument beside the Mandaue Presidencia
Flag of Mandaue
Official seal of Mandaue
Nicknames: 
  • Furniture Capital of the Philippines
  • Industrial City of Southern Philippines
Anthem: Mandaue ang Dakbayan
English: Mandaue, the City
Map of Cebu with Mandaue highlighted
Map of Cebu with Mandaue highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Mandaue is located in Philippines
Mandaue
Mandaue
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 10°20′N 123°56′E / 10.33°N 123.93°E / 10.33; 123.93Coordinates: 10°20′N 123°56′E / 10.33°N 123.93°E / 10.33; 123.93
CountryPhilippines
RegionCentral Visayas
ProvinceCebu (highly urbanized city under supervision of the provincial government of Cebu)
District Lone district
Pueblocirca 1656
Municipality Status1901
CityhoodAugust 30, 1969
Highly urbanized cityFebruary 15, 1991
Barangays27 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorJonas C. Cortes (PDPLBN)
 • Vice MayorGlenn O. Bercede (PDPLBN)
 • RepresentativeEmmarie M. Ouano-Dizon (PDPLBN)
 • City Council
Members
 • Electorate226,091 voters (2019)
Area
 • Total34.87 km2 (13.46 sq mi)
Elevation
122 m (400 ft)
Highest elevation
984 m (3,228 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [3]
 • Total364,116
 • Density10,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)
 • Households
98,907
Economy
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence5.99% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱2,780,836,411.22 (2020)
 • Assets₱32,570,850,561.88 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱2,668,099,984.81 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱1,265,730,151.42 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityVisayan Electric Company (VECO)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
6014
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)32
Native languagesCebuano, and Tagalog
Websitewww.mandauecity.gov.ph

Mandaue (Tagalog pronunciation: [mɐnˈdaʊ.ɛ]), officially known as the City of Mandaue (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Mandaue; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Mandaue), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 364,116 people. [3]

Mandaue City is located on the central-eastern coastal region of Cebu. Its southwest coast borders Mactan Island where Lapu-Lapu City is located and is connected to the island via two bridges: the Mactan-Mandaue Bridge and Marcelo Fernan Bridge. Mandaue City is bounded on the north by the town of Consolacion, to the east by the Camotes Sea, and to the west and south by Cebu City.

It is one of three highly urbanized cities on Cebu island and forms a part of the Cebu Metropolitan area[5] and was part of the Sixth District Cebu joined with the municipalities of Consolacion and Cordova - it was qualified for a lone district since 1991. In April 5, 2019, President Rodrigo Duterte signed a law declaring this city as a lone legislative district.[6] As of June 30, 2022, Mandaue City had its first representation in the 19th Congress of the Philippines.

History[edit]

A community was established in Mandaue by a flourishing group of Austronesian people. The Venetian chronicler Antonio Pigafetta wrote of a settlement called Mandaui which existed in the area with a chieftain named Apanoaan[7] some called him Lambuzzan in other accounts.[8]

Mandaue natives were forced into a town as decreed by the Spanish authorities. This may have started off as a mission village (which included present day Consolacion, Liloan and Poro) serving as a bulwark for the church in the northern Cebu and was managed by the Jesuit in 1638 then a century later by the Recollects.[9]

The Philippine Revolution of 1898 gave the town a new form of administration in accordance with the organic decree of the Central Revolutionary Government. The short-lived revolution was overthrown by the American troops and a battle nearly destroyed the town in 1901, killing Presidente Benito Ceniza.[10]

Mandaue was a semi-autonomous functioning town. Semi-autonomous as it was still under the jurisdiction of Cebu. Despite having been developed and organized by the Spaniards throughout the ages and its population increasing as the years gone by, the Spaniards did not make an initiative to elevate the town into an independent municipality. It was only after the death of Presidente Ceniza and the establishment of American Rule in Mandaue that the dream of becoming an independent municipality came true. In 1901, Mandaue became an independent municipality.[11]

Mandaue became independent from being an American Commonwealth and a Japanese garrison on July 4, 1946, along with the entire nation.

Cityhood[edit]

On August 30, 1969, Mandaue became a chartered city and decades later it was recognized as an HUC (Highly urbanized city) on February 15, 1991.[12] In early-April 2019, president Rodrigo Duterte signed a law that declared Mandaue City as a lone legislative district, which means that it will be separated from the sixth district, and will have its own representative of the lone district.[6][13]

Geography[edit]

The city has a total area of 34.87 km2 (13.46 sq mi). According to the 2020 census, the population density is 10,000/km2 (26,000/sq mi).

Land utilization
Category Land Area
ha acres
Industrial 1,695 4,190 51.4%  
Residential 872 2,150 26.5%  
Agricultural 283 700 8.6%  
Commercial 242 600 7.3%  
Roads 120 300 3.6%  
Institutional 60 150 1.8%  
Parks 24 59 0.7%  
Industrial: 1,695 (51.4%)Residential: 872 (26.5%)Agricultural: 283 (8.6%)Commercial: 242 (7.3%)Roads: 120 (3.6%)Institutional: 60 (1.8%)Parks: 24 (0.7%)Circle frame.svg

The city is the 6th smallest government unit in terms of land area; among the Metro Cebu local government units the city is the second smallest next to the municipality of Cordova in the island of Mactan. The city's land area is only 4.5% of the total land area of Metro Cebu and less than 1% of the total land of the province of Cebu.

The North Reclamation Project, now known as the North Special Administrative Zone, currently has about 180 ha (440 acres) reclaimed land. Of the 180 hectares, about 36 ha (89 acres) belong to the city.

It is one of the two (the other one being the municipality of Consolacion) local government units located within the mainland Metro Cebu where the elevation of land is less than 100 m (330 ft).

Many of the areas of the city are extremely flat. About 77.37% is within the 0-8% slope category. Barangays belonging to this region are Centro, Looc, South Special Administrative Zone, Cambaro, Opao, Umapad, Paknaan, Alang-alang, Tipolo, Ibabao, Guizo, Subangdaku, Mantuyong, Maguikay and Tabok. The greater portion of the city, comprising about 70%, is dominated by the Mandaue Clay Loam soil series. This is found in the 0-2% and 2-5% slope ranges. Faraon clay loam characterizes the rest of the land with slope range from 5-8% and up to 25-40%.[14]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Mandaue
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(82)
30
(85)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
24
(75)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70
(2.8)
49
(1.9)
62
(2.4)
78
(3.1)
138
(5.4)
201
(7.9)
192
(7.6)
185
(7.3)
192
(7.6)
205
(8.1)
156
(6.1)
111
(4.4)
1,639
(64.6)
Average rainy days 13.4 10.6 13.1 14.5 24.2 27.9 28.4 27.7 27.1 27.4 22.5 15.9 252.7
Source: Meteoblue [15]

Barangays[edit]

Mandaue comprises 27 barangays.

Political map of Mandaue


PSGC Barangay Population ±% p.a.
2020[3] 2010[16]
072230001 Alang-alang 3.2% 11,495 12,475 −0.78%
072230002 Bakilid 1.2% 4,387 5,027 −1.30%
072230003 Banilad 5.0% 18,386 22,297 −1.83%
072230004 Basak 3.2% 11,777 7,858 3.96%
072230005 Cabancalan 4.1% 14,841 12,202 1.90%
072230006 Cambaro 2.5% 8,990 8,082 1.03%
072230007 Canduman 6.4% 23,455 17,100 3.08%
072230008 Casili 1.5% 5,403 3,743 3.58%
072230009 Casuntingan 4.6% 16,846 13,217 2.36%
072230010 Centro (Poblacion) 0.8% 2,980 3,236 −0.79%
072230011 Cubacub 3.8% 13,832 8,255 5.08%
072230012 Guizo 2.0% 7,258 8,554 −1.56%
072230013 Ibabao-Estancia 1.9% 6,994 8,641 −2.01%
072230014 Jagobiao 3.3% 12,138 12,227 −0.07%
072230015 Labogon 5.6% 20,466 19,175 0.63%
072230016 Looc 4.8% 17,395 14,438 1.80%
072230017 Maguikay 4.1% 14,956 17,782 −1.65%
072230018 Mantuyong 1.5% 5,487 5,869 −0.64%
072230019 Opao 3.3% 12,014 9,907 1.87%
072230020 Paknaan 8.4% 30,532 22,957 2.77%
072230021 Pagsabungan 5.6% 20,266 16,838 1.79%
072230022 Subangdaku 4.7% 17,097 20,333 −1.65%
072230023 Tabok 5.4% 19,486 15,709 2.09%
072230024 Tawason 1.9% 6,984 4,891 3.48%
072230025 Tingub 1.7% 6,082 5,780 0.49%
072230026 Tipolo 4.3% 15,790 17,273 −0.86%
072230027 Umapad 5.2% 18,779 17,454 0.70%
Total 364,116 331,320 0.91%

Demographics[edit]

Aerial photo of the Mactan Channel looking south. Mandaue is on the right side while Lapu-Lapu City is on the left
Population census of Mandaue
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 11,078—    
1918 21,086+4.38%
1939 17,431−0.90%
1948 19,068+1.00%
1960 29,281+3.64%
1970 58,579+7.17%
1975 75,904+5.33%
1980 110,590+7.81%
1990 174,342+4.66%
1995 194,745+2.10%
2000 259,728+6.37%
2007 318,577+2.86%
2010 331,320+1.44%
2015 362,654+1.74%
2020 364,116+0.08%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[17][16][18][19]

Data showed that the oldest written accounts of Mandaue came from a population of 160 in 1637 to 1638. Mandaue had 10,309 souls according to the Buzeta & Bravo (1850). During the first year of its township in 1899, Mandaue had 42 barrios with a population of 21,086. When Mandaue was a second class municipality in 1964 its population was 33,811.[20]

According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 364,116, which is an increase of 104,388 from the 2000 census. Mandaue has a significantly large population at or below the poverty line.[21]

Economy[edit]

About 40 percent of Cebu's export companies are found in Mandaue. The city is dubbed as the industrial hub of Region VII and hosts about 10,000 industrial and commercial businesses, making it a "little rich city" in the country. It is home to some of the world's biggest companies such as San Miguel Corp., Coca-Cola Bottling Corp. Shemberg, the number one exporter of carrageenan, Monde Nissin, Profood International Corp., and 7D Dried Mangoes. Mandaue City also accounts for 75 percent of the country's total exports in the furniture sector, making the city the furniture capital of the country. One of these furniture companies is Mandaue Foam which started in 1971 and now has 25 factories and showrooms nationwide.

Tourism[edit]

Bantayan sa Hari, 1912

Mandaue's point of interests, destinations, and attractions include:

Fiestas[edit]

Mandaue Fiesta: Celebrated on May 8 in honor of the town patron, St. Joseph. Activities that are typically held during this feast are the procession, inter-barangay sports competition, Miss Mandaue (the longest-running beauty competition in the province), rodeos, street festival (Mantawi Festival), bailes, fairs, and many more.[citation needed]

Panagtagbo sa Mandaue: This is Mandaue's current major festival in honor of the Holy Family. This is celebrated every 2nd week of January on the eve of the Traslacion (Transfer of Relic), of one of the significant religious events of the Sinulog Festival which commemorates the union of the Holy Family. In the Translacion, the Santo Niño and the Virgin of Guadalupe come and stay over at the shrine of Saint Joseph in Mandaue for an overnight vigil. This happens on a Friday, and on the early morning of the following Saturday, a fluvial procession is held on Cebu Strait going back to the Basilica . In the festival, there are singing and dancing competitions with a street dancing during the Bibingkahan in honor of Santo Niño. At night, there is a ritual showdown performance which is the highlight of the cultural-religious events.[citation needed]

Kabayo Festival: The Kabayo (Horse) festival also known as Governor's Cup is a horse racing and different equestrian sports with the western way of riding event held annually in the second week of February.[citation needed]

Pasigarbo sa Sugbo: It is a festival showcasing Cebu's culture, faith, history, products, and festivals from each individual town. It is held annually around August 6 which is the Charter day of the Province of Cebu. It was formerly held in Mandaue City at the Cebu International Convention Center (CICC), but was transferred to the Cebu City Sports Complex in Cebu City in 2019 due to the abandoned and disrepaired state of the convention center.[citation needed]

Cuisine[edit]

Masareal from Mandaue

Mandaue has many restaurants which cater to gourmets and international cuisines like Italian, Japanese, Indian, Mediterranean, Lebanese, Arabic, Russian, Korean, Mexican, and Western cuisines. A variety of restaurants also serves meals of local cuisine.

Many famous Cebuano meals like the lechon[32] or inasal, eaten with achara or pickled vegetables. The sugba or barbecue of either isda (fish), baboy (pork), manok (chicken) or baka (beef) is found all over Mandaue eaten with puso, a diamond-shaped hanged rice covered in coco leaves. Kinilaw[33] is raw meat usually pork or fish drenched in vinegar and salt. The buwad or dried seafood, either fish or squid, can be pungent with a crunchy and chewy texture. There are some exotic meals that can be found like dinuguan or pig's blood which is eaten like a soup. Barbecued chicken feet are liked by many locals.

Original cuisine in Mandaue includes bibingka which is steamed rice cakes mixed with coconut and sometimes egg. Binangos paired with rice is made of ground up corn with Bolinao fish. This dish is found only in Mandaue; other delicacies includes the tagaktak, the seasonal buriring fish (stewed with iba) and the famous masareal.

Transportation[edit]

Philippine Jeepney

Mandaue City's road network is composed of a national highway which connects the city to its neighboring cities and municipalities, and a national secondary road which traverses the city's metropolitan area. The total length of the city road network (paved and unpaved) and the four bridges, is about 133.7 km (83.1 mi), broken down into:

  • National road - 13.2 km (8.2 mi)
  • City road - 57.1 km (35.5 mi)
  • Barangay road - 63.4 km (39.4 mi)

Road density is 5.31 km/km2 (8.55 mi/sq mi) of land. In terms of population, road density is 0.04 km (0.025 mi) per one thousand inhabitants.

Land transportation is being served by PUJ, utility vehicles, mini-buses, multi-cabs, tricycles, trisikads and for cargoes, trailers and vans. Sea transport of Mandaue is highly dependent on Port of Cebu and Cebu International Port, because of the city's proximity to these facilities.

Education[edit]

Lapu-Lapu–Mandaue campus of the University of Cebu.

Mandaue houses two universities, the Cebu Doctors' University and the Lapu-Lapu–Mandaue campus of the University of Cebu. There are also technical schools like TESDA in barangays Banilad and Looc and other private institutions that provide certificate degrees. Associate degree, Baccalaureate Degrees, Master's and Doctoral programs.

Mandaue has institutionalized learning with the Cabahug Medal which was started on 1923 by Sotero Cabahug as a medal of academic excellence annually. The Mandaue Fraternal Society was also created in the early part of the 19th century to provide a community for the professionals during the time when Mandaue was still a sleepy town.

Cebu's part-time Japanese school, the Cebu Japanese School (CJS; セブ補習授業校 Sebu Hoshū Jugyō Kō), is located on the fifth floor of the Clotilde Commercial Center in Barangay Casuntingan, Mandaue City.[34]

Media[edit]

Television[edit]

Television stations based in Mandaue City:

Radio[edit]

Radio stations licensed in Mandaue City:

Sister cities[edit]

Local[edit]

International[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ City of Mandaue | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  5. ^ "The brilliance of Mandaue City". Mandaue City. cebu-philippines.net.
  6. ^ a b Corrales, Nestor (May 8, 2019). "Duterte signs law creating lone legislative district of Mandaue City". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  7. ^ To America and Around the World: The Logs of Christopher Columbus and of ... Antonio Pigafetta, Raleigh Ashlin Skelton. Branden Publishing Co. 2001. ISBN 9780828320634.
  8. ^ Magellan's voyage: a narrative of the first circumnavigation. Antonio Pigafetta/ Adolph Caso. Yale University. 1994. ISBN 9780486280998.
  9. ^ "Mandaue". admu.edu.ph. admu.edu.ph.
  10. ^ Mojares 1999.
  11. ^ "Home". mandauecity.gov.ph.
  12. ^ "History". Mandaue City. Mandaue city government.
  13. ^ Villanueva, Ralph (May 8, 2019). "Duterte signs law creating lone district of Mandaue City". The Manila Times. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  14. ^ "Land Use". Mandaue City. Mandaue city government.
  15. ^ "Mandaue: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  16. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  17. ^ Census of Population (2015). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  18. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region VII (Central Visayas)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  19. ^ "Province of Cebu". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  20. ^ "MANDAUE CITY: POPULATION TO REACH HALF A MILLION IN 2011". Census. Philippine Census.
  21. ^ "Population". Mandaue City. Mandaue city government.
  22. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  23. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  24. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2003%20SAE%20of%20poverty%20%28Full%20Report%29_1.pdf; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  25. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2006%20and%202009%20City%20and%20Municipal%20Level%20Poverty%20Estimates_0_1.pdf; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  26. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2012%20Municipal%20and%20City%20Level%20Poverty%20Estima7tes%20Publication%20%281%29.pdf; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  27. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/City%20and%20Municipal-level%20Small%20Area%20Poverty%20Estimates_%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015_0.xlsx; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  28. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  29. ^ Cebu Daily News 2015.
  30. ^ "Other Landmarks". Tourism. The City of Mandaue. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
  31. ^ "Mandaue Opens First Agri Eco Park". Cebu Daily News. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  32. ^ "lechon". lechoncebu.com.
  33. ^ "Sugba Tuwa Kilaw". Travelocity.com. Travelocity.com.
  34. ^ Home page. Cebu Japanese School. Retrieved on April 2, 2015. "5th /F Clotilde Commercial CenterM.L. Quezon St., Casuntingan, Mandaue City 6014 Philippines"
  35. ^ "ABS-CBN goes off-air after NTC order". Rappler. May 6, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  36. ^ Tayona, Glenda; Silubrico, Ruby (August 25, 2018). "Iloilo to showcase culture to 'sister cities' tonight". Panay News. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  37. ^ "Mandaue City officials fly to Romania for sister-city deal". Manila Bulletin. Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  38. ^ "Mandaue, Mosul sign sister-city agreement". Official Website of Mandaue City. The City of Mandaue. Retrieved June 21, 2012.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]