|• Tai Nuea||ᥝᥥᥒᥰ ᥛᥫᥒᥰ ᥑᥩᥢᥴ|
|• Jingpho||Mangshi Myu|
|Etymology: Evolved form the ethnic name 茫施 (Mangshi)|
city of dawn
Territory of Mangshi (red) in Yunnan Province
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Prefecture||Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture|
|• Mayor||Mao Xiao (毛晓) (CPC)|
|• Secretary of CPC City Committee||Zhao Dongmei (赵冬梅)|
|• Total||2,900.91 km2 (1,120.05 sq mi)|
|Elevation||933 m (3,061 ft)|
|• Density||140/km2 (370/sq mi)|
Mangshi City (Chinese: 芒市; Tai Nuea: ᥝᥥᥒᥰ ᥛᥫᥒᥰ ᥑᥩᥢᥴ; Jingpho: Mangshi Myu), formerly named Luxi City (潞西市), in some literatures is written as Mangshih, is a county-level city of Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, in the west of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. It is the prefectural seat. Mangshi has an area of 2,900.91 km2 (1,120.05 sq mi), with an urban area of 18.66 km2 (7.20 sq mi). Han Chinese, Dai people Tai Nuea branch and Jingpo people Zaiwa branch are the major ethnic group. In the history, Mangshi was divided into 3 tusi territory. Luxi County was founded in 1949, and finally upgraded to a county-level city in 1996.
The city name "Mangshi" first appeared in 1443, when the tusi of Mangshi Yuyi Zhangguan Si (芒市御夷长官司) established. In the history, there was an ethnic named Mangshi (茫施) lived in this area. The name of "芒市" was evolved from "茫施" (the pinyin are same). Luxi (潞西) is the former name of Mangshi, which means "west of Lu [Salween] River".:460
In 2008, 4,751 people participated in a public opinion survey in favour of restoring the historical name (Mangshi), with 96.96% supporting a name change to Mangshi. In 2010, the name of the county-level city was formally changed. "Mangshi" is the proper noun of the city, the character "市" (shì) also is the administrative division name. The full name in Chinese language is "芒市" (Mangshi), but the official English translation in the Yearbook of Dehong is "Mangshi City".
Mangshi Lu (茫施路) is the first administrative division of Mangshi which established by Yuan dynasty in 1276, Mangshi Lu belonged to Jinchi Xuanfu Si (金齿等处宣抚司), Yunnan Province. In 1277, the war of first Mongol invasion of Burma was spread in this area. Ming dynasty repeal Mangshi Lu and set Mangshi Fu (茫施府) in 1382. Because Mangshi chief Dao Fangge (刀放革) helped the Ming dynasty army in the Luchuan–Pingmian campaigns, Ming dynasty canonized him to be the Mangshi Tusi, and set the agency Mangshi Yuyi Zhangguan Si (芒市御夷长官司) in 1443. In 1584, Ming dynasty set another tusi, Zhefang Vice Xuanfu Si (遮放副宣抚司) in Zhefang area, which separated from Longchuan Xufanfu Si (陇川宣抚司). In 1640, Mangshi Yuyi Zhangguan Si upgraded to Mangshi Anfu Si (芒市安抚司). In 1899, Qing dynasty set the 3rd tusi of Mengban Tuqianzong (勐板土千总) in modern Mangshi Area.:9,20–21
In Republic of China period, the central government set two "suppression committees" (彈壓委員) in Mangshi area named "Mangban" (芒板) and "Zhemao" (遮卯) in 1913. Mangban Suppress Committee dominated Mangshi Anfu Si and Mengban Tuqianzong territory, and Zhemao Suppression Committee dominated Zhefang Vice Xuanfu Si and Mengmao Anfu Si (勐卯安撫司, in Ruili) territory. The two suppression committees compounded to an administrative committee (行政委員) in 1915 and set a district named Mangzheban District (芒遮板行政區), at same time Mengmao Anfu Si separated away from the district. It formed the territory of modern Mangshi. As a transition to formally establishing a county, Yunnan government set a "Administrative Bureau" (設治局, similar to a governing council) in Mangshi area named Mangzheban Administrative Bureau (芒遮板設治局) replaced Mangzheban District in 1929. The Administrative Bureau is a quasi-county level administrative division, Mengga is the seat of Mangzheban Administrative Bureau. Mangzheban Administrative Bureau was changed the name to Luxi Administrative Bureau (潞西設治局) in 1934. Imperial Japanese Army occupied Luxi at 4 May 1942 and retreated at 11 December 1944 when Counterattack Battle of Western Yunnan started. In 1949, Luxi Administrative Bureau was finally upgraded to Luxi County (潞西县), with the seat of county government at the town of Mangshi, and the first county magistrate was the proxy tusi Fang Kesheng (方克胜). The tusi and administrative governments still coexisted.:10–11,21–22
Luxi County government announced support Yunnan revolt, People's Liberation Army stationed in Luxi in April 1950. Three Tusi were perished during the land reform movement in 1955.:160 Luxi County upgraded to Luxi City (county-level city) in 1996, and changed the name to Mangshi City in 2010.:2547
Mangshi has an area of 2,900.91 km2 (1,120.05 sq mi). There are two main basins in Mangshi named Mangshi Ba (芒市坝) and Zhefang Ba (遮放坝). The city of Mangshi is situated at the east of Mangshi Ba. Mountain is the mostly landform of Mangshi, approximately 84.48% of the territory. Qingkou Mount (箐口山) is the city's highest point, with an altitude of 2,889.1 metres. Manxin River's (曼辛河) estuary (flow to Salween River) is the lowest point, with an altitude of 528 metres in Zhongshan Township.:52–53 The mountains are the branches of the west Gaoligong Mountains.:40
Mangshi River is the "mother river" of Mangshi, and has a drainage basin of 1,881 km2 (726 sq mi),:90–91 about 61.3% of area of Mangshi. Longchuan River (龙川江) is the border river between Mangshi and Lianghe County, Longchuan County on the north and west. Salween River on the southeast tip of Mangshi marks the international border between Mangshi and Myanmar's Shan State.:59:185
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||22.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.6
|Average low °C (°F)||6.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||13.7
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||72||66||67||75||84||87||86||84||83||82||81||79|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
|Santaishan Palaung Township||三台山德昂族乡||533103205||1988||158||7,068||44.73|
As of 2016, Mangshi nominal GDP was CN￥ 9.628 billion, about 0.65% of the province's GDP and ranked 44th among county-level administrative units in Yunnan; its nominal GDP per capita was CN￥ 23,307 and ranked the 66th in the province, lower than Yunnan average value (CN￥ 30,949).:522,524
In 1958, Yunnan government regulated the border trade in border area, Mangshi was out of the area.:211 In 1980, province government opened Manghai (芒海), Mangbing (芒丙) and Xiaogai (小街) to be the border trade market.:201 After Hu Yaobang, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China inspected Dehong prefecture in 1985, Mangshi revoked all the border checkpoint, and made the whole territory to be the border trade zone.:645 The border trade and other tertiary sector was prosperity in 1990s. The proportion of thrice industrial in 1978 was 65.6 : 16.3 : 18.1,:647 and in 2016 was changed to 23.2 : 20.5 : 56.3.:524
Asian rice, sugarcane, tea, coffee, macadamia nut and fruits (banana, pineapple, mango, jackfruit etc.) are the mostly agricultural products of Mangshi, especially coffee. Mangshi has 19,056 ha paddy field, 9,165 ha sugarcane field, 7,504 ha macadamia forest, 5,870 ha coffee field and 5,469 ha fruits field in 2018. Asian Coffee Association was established at Mangshi in 2017, 13 countries are the members of the association. Hogood Coffee is the largest domestic instant coffee producer in China, and it is the 10th largest civilian-run enterprise of Yunnan.
|Source: Annals of Luxi County etc.:40–41:6|
According to the 2010 census, Mangshi has 204,083 Han Chinese people, nearly 52.34% of total population. Other mainly ethnics are Dai and Jingpo, which has a population with 132,421 and 29,208.:101–121 Mangshi has the most Palaung people in China with the population of 9,986,:101–121 they mainly living in Santaishan Palaung Township.:39
In the history, Dai people were lived in Mangshi basin area,:420 and Jingpo people immigrated to Mangshi mountains from Tibetan Plateau in 16 century.:425 Because the war of Ming conquest of Yunnan and several times Sino-Burmese wars, China center government stationed many of Han Chinese army in Mangshi, Han Chinese became the most ethnic group of this area.:227
Almost all the Dai and Palaung people believe theravada, many of villages have their own temple.:422 The temple in Mangshi is called "Zhuangfang" (奘房) or "Burmese temple" (缅寺). It is the place for religion activities and teenager's education center of the village, also is the entertainment venue for villagers.:154,156 Expenditure of the temple and the monk life costs are afford by the villagers. A normal Dai farmer should pay one-fifth of his annual income for religion in 1988.:422 Jingpo folk religion worships various gods as well as the spirits of their ancestors.:451
Mangshi Tusi Fang Keming (方克明) and Zhefang Tusi Duo Jianxun (多建勋) decided to built a road to link Mangshi and Wanding in 1926, they invited an Indian engineer to designed the route. This road was built up in 1931, and became a part of Burma Road in 1937.:152 In modern China National Highways network, this road is part of G320 Highway.:42 Longling-Ruili Expressway opened on 31 Dec. 2015, it is the first expressway of Mangshi which is part of G56 Hangzhou–Ruili Expressway, also is part of AH14. The construction of Mangshi-Lianghe Expressway has already begun, it is a province-level expressway. Another province-level expressway Ruili-Menglian Expressway is under planning.
Dehong Sports Center is located on the west of Mangshi, with a 21,000-capacity stadium, a 3,200-capacity basketball gym, a 2,150-capacity aquatics center, a 6-courts tennis gym and other outdoor sports fields. The sports center was built up in 2008, it has a building area of 36,813.49㎡. Dehong Sports Center is the important cultural and sports activities place of Dehong.
Dehong People's Hospital is a Tertiary B-level hospital which built in 1954 located in southeast of Mangshi.:551 It has 1,200 beds and the service area covered up Dehong, Longling, Tengchong and part of Myanmar.
Dehong Normal College (德宏师范高等专科学校) is the mainly higher education college of Dehong which established in 2006.:491 It is a technical college but under the working for upgrade to a undergraduate education university. Many of Myanmar students are studying abroad in Dehong Normal College.
Because there are more than one ethnic living in Dehong territory, they speak in different language. Media of Dehong is also in several languages. Dehong TV Station was established in 1991, they set Chinese, Tai Nuea, Jingpho and Zaiwa television shows. Dehong TV Station is the only TV station which using 4 languages in China.:522 Dehong Unity News (德宏团结报) is the official newspaper of Dehong Prefecture Committee of the Communist Party of China. The newspaper using 5 languages: Chinese, Tai Nuea, Jingpho, Zaiwa and Lisu. It is the only newspaper which using 5 languages in China.:518 Pauk-Phaw, the first Burmese newspaper of China, had founded at Mangshi in 2015 and published by Dehong Unity Newspaper office, Pauk-Phaw could served 50,000 Burmese who abroad in China.
There were 3.3 million tourists visited Mangshi in 2015, and took CN￥ 5.09 billion tourism income for the city. Puti Temple, Wuyun Temple and Foguang Temple are well known Buddhist temples in Mangshi.:155 Tiecheng Pagoda, Fengping Pagoda and Menghuan Pagoda are well known Buddhist pagodas.:462 Tiecheng Pagoda also named "Shubao Pagoda" (树包塔, means pagoda wrapped by tree). The pagoda was built in Qianlong period, Qing dynasty, and a seed fell in the crack of the pagoda about 200 years ago. Nowadays the pagoda has been wrapped by the bodhi tree.:262:53 Mengbanaxi Exotics Garden is the only AAAA state-level scenic spot of Mangshi, it is a gathering of valuables ancient trees and tree fossils.
Mangshi currently maintains friendly city agreements with the following foreign cities.
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