Mangala

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Mangala
Member of Navagraha
Angraka graha.JPG
Mangala / Angaraka / Kuja / Chevaai
Devanagariमंगल
Sanskrit transliterationMangala
AffiliationGraha Deva
AbodeMangala loka
PlanetMars
MantraOm Angakaraya Namah
DayTuesday
ColourRed
Number9
MountRam
Personal information
Parents
ConsortMangalaa

Mangala (Sanskrit: मङ्गल, IAST: Maṅgala) is the name for Mars, the red planet, in Hindu texts.[1] Also known as Lohit (meaning: red), he is the god of war, celibate and sometimes linked to god Karttikeya (Skanda).[1] His origins vary with different mythological texts; in most texts, he is the son of Bhumi, the Earth Goddess and Vishnu, born when he raised her from the depths of water in Varaha avatar. In other myths, he is born from Shiva's sweat or blood drop.[1]

Planet[edit]

Mangala as a planet appears in various Hindu astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhata, the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla.[2] These texts present Mangala as one of the planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion.[2] Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies.[2]

The manuscripts of these texts exist in slightly different versions, present Mangala's motion in the skies, but vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and revised over their lives.[3][4][5]

The 1st millennium CE Hindu scholars had estimated the time it took for sidereal revolutions of each planet including Mangala, from their astronomical studies, with slightly different results:[6]

Sanskrit and other texts: How many days for Mangala (Mars) to complete its orbit?
Source Estimated time per sidereal revolution[6]
Surya Siddhanta 686 days, 23 hours, 56 minutes, 23.5 seconds
Siddhanta Shiromani 686 days, 23 hours, 57 minutes, 1.5 seconds
Ptolemy 686 days, 23 hours, 31 minutes, 56.1 seconds
20th century calculations 686 days, 23 hours, 30 minutes, 41.4 seconds

Calendar and zodiac[edit]

Mangala is the root of the word 'Mangalavara' or Tuesday in the Hindu calendar.[1] The word "Tuesday" in the Greco-Roman and other Indo-European calendars is also dedicated to planet Mars,[7] referring to "Tīw's Day", the day of Tiw or Týr, the god of war and victory.[8] Tiw was equated with Mars in other Indo-European mythologies. The word मंगल also means "auspicious" but the planet मंगल is considered malefic.

Mangala is part of the Navagraha in Hindu zodiac system. The role and importance of the Navagraha developed over time with various influences. The earliest work of astrology recorded in India is the Vedanga Jyotisha which began to be compiled in the 14th century BCE. It was possibly based on works from the Indus Valley Civilization as well as various foreign influences. Babylonian astrology which was the first astrology and calendar to develop, and was adopted by multiple civilizations including India.

Deifying planetary bodies and their astrological significance occurred as early as the Vedic period and was recorded in the Vedas. The classical planets, including Mars, were referenced in the Atharvaveda from the second millennium BCE. The Navagraha was furthered by additional contributions from Western Asia, including Zoroastrian and Hellenistic influences. The Yavanajataka, or 'Science of the Yavanas', was written by the Indo-Greek named "Yavanesvara" ("Lord of the Greeks") under the rule of the Western Kshatrapa king Rudrakarman I. The Yavanajataka written in 120 CE is often attributed to standardizing Indian astrology. The Navagraha would further develop and culminate in the Shaka era with the Saka, or Scythian, people. Additionally the contributions by the Saka people would be the basis of the Indian national calendar, which is also called the Saka calendar.

Iconography[edit]

He is painted red or flame colour, four-armed, carrying a trident (Sanskrit: trishūla), mace (Sanskrit: gadā), lotus (Sanskrit: Padma) and a spear (Sanskrit: shūla. His mount (Sanskrit: vahana) is a ram. He presides over (Tuesday).[9]

Other Names[edit]

Mars (Mangala) is also called:

  • Angāraka (अङ्गारक) - one who is red in colour also called
  • Raktavarna (रक्तवर्ण) - whose color is like blood.[10]
  • Bhauma (भौम) - son of Bhumi.
  • Lohitānga (लोहिताङ्ग) - red bodied (Loha also means Iron, so could also mean Iron Bodied).
  • Kuja (कुज) - he who is born from Earth.
  • Bha (भ) - shining.[11]

Mangala verses[edit]

The word Mangala is ancient, first appearing in the Rigveda (2nd millennium BCE), and mentioned by grammarian Patanjali (~2nd century BCE), but not as an astrological term, rather to mean "auspicious-successful" (siddha) structure in literary arts. Panini too mentions it in verse I.3.1 in a similar context.[12] In the Vedic texts, states Christopher Minkowski, there is no mention of auspicious rituals, or auspicious start or timing of a ritual, rather the "mangala" as auspicious practices likely emerged in the Indian traditions during the medieval era (after mid 1st millennium CE), thereafter found in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[13] The ritualistic Mimamsa school of Hinduism did not include any mangala (auspicious) verses, related to plane "Mangala" in any of its text throughout the 1st millennium CE.[13]

The Markendeya Puran has "मङ्गल्कवचम् स्तोत्र " referring to planet "Mangal".

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books India. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.
  2. ^ a b c Ebenezer Burgess (1989). P Ganguly, P Sengupta (ed.). Sûrya-Siddhânta: A Text-book of Hindu Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint), Original: Yale University Press, American Oriental Society. pp. vii–xi. ISBN 978-81-208-0612-2.
  3. ^ Lionel D. Barnett (1994). Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan. Asian Educational Services. pp. 190–192. ISBN 978-81-206-0530-5.
  4. ^ Ebenezer Burgess (1989). P Ganguly, P Sengupta (ed.). Sûrya-Siddhânta: A Text-book of Hindu Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint), Original: Yale University Press, American Oriental Society. pp. ix–xi, xxix. ISBN 978-81-208-0612-2.
  5. ^ J Fleet (1911). Arbhatiya. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 794–799.
  6. ^ a b Ebenezer Burgess (1989). P Ganguly, P Sengupta (ed.). Sûrya-Siddhânta: A Text-book of Hindu Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint), Original: Yale University Press, American Oriental Society. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-81-208-0612-2.
  7. ^ Richard L. Thompson (2004). Vedic Cosmography and Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 88. ISBN 978-81-208-1954-2.
  8. ^ Linda T. Elkins-Tanton (2006). Mars. Infobase Publishing. pp. v–vi. ISBN 978-1-4381-0726-4.
  9. ^ Mythology of the Hindus, Charles Coleman, p. 132
  10. ^ Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1962). "aṅgāraka 126". A comparative dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages. London: Oxford University Press. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. p. 7. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2010. aṅgāraka 126 aṅgāraka '(hypothetical) red like embers', masculine 'charcoal'. 2. masculine 'the planet Mars'. [áṅgāra -- ]1. Pali aṅgāraka -- 'red like charcoal'; Sanskrit aṅārī 2. Pali aṅgāraka -- masculine 'Mars',; Sanskrit aṅāro masculine Tuesday.
  11. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 75.
  12. ^ Walter Slaje (2008). Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-3-447-05645-8.
  13. ^ a b Christopher Minkowski (2008). Walter Slaje (ed.). Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 8–24. ISBN 978-3-447-05645-8.

Further reading[edit]