Mangala / Angaraka / Kuja / Chevaai
|Mantra||Om Mangalāya Namaha|
In Jyotish astrology, Mangala (Devanagari: मंगल, Maṅgala) is the name for Mars, the red planet. Mars is also called Angaraka ('one who is red in colour' also called Rakta varna whose color is like blood  or Bhauma ('son of Bhumi') or Bha in Sanskrit. He is the god of war and is celibate. He is considered the son of Prithvi or Bhumi, the Earth Goddess. He is the owner of the Aries and Scorpio signs, and a teacher of the occult sciences (Ruchaka Mahapurusha Yoga).
He is painted red or flame colour, four-armed, carrying a trident (Sanskrit: trishūla), mace (Sanskrit: gadā), lotus (Sanskrit: Padma) and a spear (Sanskrit: shūla). His mount (Sanskrit: vahana) is a ram. He presides over 'Mangala-varam' (Tuesday).
Once when Lord Shiva was engrossed in deep meditation (Sansrit: samādhi) upon his abode, Mount Kailash, three drops of perspiration originated from his forehead and fell down on the earth. From those drops manifested a very beautiful infant, who was of reddish complexion and who had four arms.
The child was handed over to the earth goddess, Bhumi for upbringing by Lord Shiva. The child was named Bhauma as he was nurtured and brought up by 'Bhumi' (earth).
When Bhauma grew up, he went to Kashi and did a tremendous penance to please lord Shiva. Lord Shiva blessed him by granting him 'Mangala loka' (the Abode of Mangala), which was superior even to the 'Shukra loka' (the Abode of the god of Venus - Shukra). The same Bhauma is established in the solar system by the name of Mangala (planet Mars).
In Vedic astrology Mangala is considered a malefic of the first order. He rules over the signs Mesha (Aries) and Vrishchika (Scorpio), is exalted in Makara (Capricorn) and has his fall in Karka (Cancer). The Sun, Moon and Jupiter are all considered friendly to him, while he is hostile to Mercury. Venus and Saturn are neutral. Mangala represents drive and physical energy, self-confidence and ego, strength, anger, impulsiveness, heroism and adventurous nature. Mangala rules over blood, muscles and bone marrow. He is associated with battle, war and soldiers.
Mangala is the lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: Mrigashīrsha, Chitra and Shravishtha or Dhanista. Mangala has the following associations: the color red, the metal brass and gemstone red coral. His element is fire, direction is south, season is summer.
- Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1962). "aṅgāraka 126". A comparative dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages. London: Oxford University Press. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. p. 7. Retrieved 21 Feb 2010.
aṅgāraka 126 aṅgāraka '(hypothetical) red like embers', masculine 'charcoal'. 2. masculine 'the planet Mars'. [áṅgāra -- ] 1. Pali aṅgāraka -- 'red like charcoal'; Sanskrit aṅārī 2. Pali aṅgāraka -- masculine 'Mars',; Sanskrit aṅāro masculine Tuesday.
- Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 75.
- Mythology of the Hindus, Charles Coleman, p. 132
- Shiva Purana, chapter 2.71
- Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna Dallapiccola