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Mangalore montage.jpg
Ivory Towers apartments at Falnir in Mangalore.jpg
Kudla (Tulu), Kodiyal (Konkani), Maikala (Beary)
Mangalore is located in Karnataka
Mangalore is located in India
Coordinates: 12°50′23″N 74°47′24″E / 12.83982°N 74.78994°E / 12.83982; 74.78994Coordinates: 12°50′23″N 74°47′24″E / 12.83982°N 74.78994°E / 12.83982; 74.78994
Country India
DistrictDakshina Kannada
Named forMangaladevi
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyMangalore City Corporation
 • City Corporation184 km2 (71 sq mi)
22 m (72 ft)
 • City Corporation484,785[1]
 • Metro
Demonym(s)Mangalorean, Maṅgaḷūrinavaru, Kudladhar, Maikalathanga, Mangaluriga, Kodialcho, Koḍiyāḷgar
 • AdministrativeKannada, English
 • RegionalTulu, Konkani, Beary, Koraga, Havyaka Kannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
575001 to 575030[4]
Telephone code+91-(0824)
Vehicle registrationKA-19, KA-62
Sex ratio1016
Human Development IndexIncrease 0.83[5]
very high

Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km (219 mi) west of the state capital Bangalore, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range. It is the second major city in Karnataka state in all aspects after the capital city Bangalore. It is the only city in Karnataka to have all modes of transport—air, road, rail and sea—along with five other major cities in India. It is known as the Gateway of Karnataka. It is the largest city in the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Mangalore is the second best business destination in Karnataka after Bangalore and 13th best in India. The population of the urban agglomeration was 619,664 according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India.

Mangalore developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times and became a major port of India. This port handles 75 per cent of India's coffee and cashew exports. The port of Mangalore is among the 4 major ports of India that receive over 25 international Cruise ships every year. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. This coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.

Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is one of the most multicultural and multi-linguistic non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the west coast of India. A port city, it has the second largest airport in Karnataka. The Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of over 30 km (19 mi). The city extends in the eastward direction up to Vamanjoor, Padil and Bajpe. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. This coastal city has many skyscrapers of 30 and 40 plus floors. India's first and only 3D Planetarium with 8K resolution display, is situated in this port city. Mangalore is also included in the Smart Cities Mission list and one among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, and is under the influence of the southwest monsoon.


Mangalore is named after the Hindu goddess Mangaladevi

Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple[7] or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the Vajrayana Buddhist sect.[8] According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala[9] (also known as Pramila[10] or Premaladevi) renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition.[11] Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi.[9][10] She arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore as she fell ill on the way.[10] Eventually she died, and the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death.[12][9] The city got its name from the temple.[13]

One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram.[11] The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom.[11] According to K.V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule.[14][15] Many shilashasanas (stones) of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura.[14] Even before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura (Mangala means 'auspicious').[14] The city is well known as Mangaluru in Kannada, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix uru means town or city).[14] During the British rule from 1799, Mangalore (anglicised from Mangaluru), stuck as the official appellation.[14] However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word Mangalore is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru.[16]:2 The name of this town also appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India.[17]

Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages.[18] In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning junction, since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers.[19] In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala.[20]


Early and medieval history[edit]

Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers.[21] During the first century CE, Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, as a very undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity,[22] while Greek historian Ptolemy in the second century CE referred to a place called Nitra.[15] Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore.[23] Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century work Christian Topography mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade, and Mangarouth (port of Mangalore) as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper.[24][25]

The Sultan Battery in Mangalore was built in 1784 by Tipu Sultan to defend the city from British warships entering the Gurupura river.[26][27]

Mangalore is the heart of a distinct multilinguistic—cultural region: South Canara, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people.[28] In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.[29]:176 From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers.[30] From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was ruled by its own native Alupa rulers.[31][32][15] The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra.[33]:17 During the reign of the Alupa king Kavi Alupendra (1110–1160), the city was visited by the Tunisian Jewish merchant Abraham Ben Yiju, who travelled between the Middle East and India during the 12th century.[34] The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarur, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary, called the Estuary of the wolf, and was the greatest estuary in the country of Malabar.[35][36]:30 By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control.[33]:17 During the Vijayanagara period (1345–1550), South Canara was divided into Mangalore and Barkur rajyas (provinces), and two governors were appointed to look after each of them from Mangalore and Barkur.[15][37] But many times only one governor ruled over both Mangalore and Barkur rajyas, and when the authority passed into the hands of Keladi rulers (1550–1763), they had a governor at Barkur alone.[33]:19 In 1448, Abdur Razzaq, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, en route to the Vijayanagara court.[38][36]:31 The Italian traveller, Ludovico di Varthema, who visited India in 1506 says that he witnessed nearly sixty ships laden with rice ready to sail in the port of Mangalore.[33]:20

Foundation and early modern history[edit]

A fort with two-tiered ramparts and many bastions rises above the far bank of a river. Some human settlements are visible nearby.
A pen and ink drawing of Mangalore Fort made in 1783, after it had been taken over by the British East India Company

European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at St Mary's Islands near Mangalore.[39] In the 16th century, the Portuguese came to acquire substantial commercial interests in Canara.[40] Krishnadevaraya (1509–1529), the then ruler of the Vijaynagara empire maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese.[41] The Portuguese trade was gradually gathering momentum and they were striving to destroy the Arab and Moplah trade along the coast.[33] In 1524, when Vasco da Gama heard that the Muslim merchants of Calicut had agents at Mangalore and Basrur, he ordered the rivers to be blockaded.[33] In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio took possession of Mangalore.[42] The coastal trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands.[33]:20 In 1550, the Vijayanagara ruler, Sadashiva Raya, entrusted the work of administering the coastal region of Canara to Sadashiv Nayaka of Keladi.[33] By 1554, he was able to establish political authority over South Canara.[43] The disintegration of the Vijaynagara Empire in 1565 gave the rulers of Keladi greater power in dealing with the coastal Canara region.[33]:27 They continued the Vijayanagara administrative system.[33] The two provinces of Mangalore and Barkur continued to exist.[44][32] The governor of Mangalore also acted as the governor of the Keladi army in his province.[33]:30 The Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle visited here in 1623-1624.[45] In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.[46]

Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore in 1763,[47] consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783,[48] but was subsequently wrested from their control in 1783 by Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan; who renamed it Jalalabad.[49][50] The Second Anglo–Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784.[51] After the defeat of Tipu at the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the South Canara district under the Madras Presidency.[14][52][53]

St. Paul's Church was built by the British army in 1843
The Light House Hill tower in Light House Hill, Hampankatta, served as a watchtower for the British Navy[54]

According to the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan who visited Mangalore in 1801, Mangalore was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity.[55] Rice was the grand article of export, and was exported to Muscat, Bombay, Goa and Malabar.[33] Supari or Betel-nut was exported to Bombay, Surat and Kutch.[33] Pepper and Sandalwood were exported to Bombay.[33] Turmeric was exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat and Bombay, along with Cassia Cinnamon, Sugar, Iron, Saltpeter, Ginger, Coir and Timber.[15][55]

The British colonial government did not support industrialisation in the region, and local capital remained invested mostly in land and money lending, which led to the later development of banking in the region.[56] With the arrival of European missionaries in the early 19th century, the region saw the development of educational institutions and a modern industrial base, modelled on European industries.[57] The opening of the Lutheran Swiss Basel Mission in 1834 was central to the industrialisation process.[58] Printing press, cloth-weaving mills and factories manufacturing Mangalore tiles were set up by the missionaries.[28] When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara in 1859, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters.[59]:5 South Canara remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara was detached from Madras Presidency and transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1862.[59]:6

Later modern and contemporary history[edit]

The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council on 23 May 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities.[16]:178 The Italian Jesuits, who arrived in Mangalore in 1878, played an important role in education, economy, health and social welfare of the city.[60] The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.[61] By the early 20th century, Mangalore had become a major supplier of educated manpower to Bombay, Bangalore and the Middle East.[28]

As a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State (now called Karnataka).[62][63]:415 Mangalore is the fourth largest city of Karnataka in terms of population, and the eighth largest port of India, providing Karnataka with access to the Arabian Sea coastline.[28] Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port in 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited in 1976.[64][65]

Geography and climate[edit]

Gurupura river, Bengre and the Arabian Sea viewed from the Forum Fiza Mall

Mangalore is located at 12°52′N 74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka.[66] It has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level.[67] It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal centre of Karnataka.[68] Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east.[66] Mangalore city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 184 km2 (71.04 sq mi).[2] Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night.[69] The topography of the city is plain up to 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast, and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east near the Western Ghats.[70] The geology of the city is characterised by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore.[68] The Geological Survey of India has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.[71]

A schematic map showing the tourist places in Mangalore city

The Netravati and Gurupura rivers rivers encircle the city, with the Gurupura flowing around the north and the Netravati flowing around the south of the city.[72] The rivers form an estuary at the south-western region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian sea.[73] Coconut trees, Palm trees and Ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.[72]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon.[74] It receives about 95 per cent of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March.[74] The average annual precipitation in Mangalore is 3,796.9 millimetres (149 in).[75][76] Humidity is approximately 75 per cent on average, and peaks during June, July and August.[77] The maximum average humidity is 93 per cent in July and average minimum humidity is 56 per cent in January.[77]

The driest and least humid months are from December to February.[78] During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 34 °C (93 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night.[79] The lowest recorded temperature at Panambur is 15.6 °C (60 °F) on January 8, 1992, and at Bajpe it is 15.9 °C (61 °F) on November 19, 1974.[80] In Mangalore, the temperature has never touched 40 °C (104 °F), according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD).[81] The highest ever recorded temperature in Mangalore is 38.1 °C (101 °F) on March 13, 1985.[82][80] The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences the highest precipitation among all urban centres in India, due to the influence of the Western Ghats.[83] The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.[84]

The highest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 330.8 millimetres (13 in) on 22 June 2003.[80] In the year 1994, Mangalore received very heavy annual rainfall of 5,018.52 millimetres (198 in).[85]

Climate data for Mangalore, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.3
Average high °C (°F) 32.8
Average low °C (°F) 20.8
Record low °C (°F) 16.1
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.1
Average rainy days 0.2 0 0.3 1.6 7 23.5 27.4 24.9 13.7 9.1 3.6 0.6 111.9
Average relative humidity (%) 62 66 68 71 71 87 89 88 85 79 73 65 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 313 296 299 292 276 119 94 133 178 226 271 292 2,789
Source #1: India Meteorological Department – Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall[86]
Source #2: Weather-And-Climate (Humidity and Sunshine hours)[87][88]


The Mangalore Skyline
Skyline of Mangalore city viewed from the St. Aloysius tower

Mangalore's economy comprises industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities.[89] The New Mangalore Port is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling.[90] It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts.[91] During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of 33.47 crore (US$4.84 million) to the state.[92] Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG and timber.[93] The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.[94]

The Infosys campus in Mangalore

The city's major petrochemical industries include BASF, Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL), JBF Petrochemicals[95] and Total Oil India Limited.[96] The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to invest over 35,000 crore (US$5.06 billion) in a new 15 million-tonne refinery, petrochemical plant and power, as well as LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone.[97] Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, has developed strategic crude oil reserves in Mangalore and two other places in India.[98][99] Out of the 5 million metric tonnes (MMT) storage, 1.5 MMT is stored at Mangalore.[100] India has built 5.33 million tons of strategic crude oil storages at Mangalore, Padur (near Udupi) in Karnataka and at Visakhapatnam to ensure energy security.[101][102][103] Bharati Shipyard Ltd (BSL) (now known as Bharati Defence and Infrastructure Limited) has established its ship building site near Tannirbavi in Mangalore.[104]

Near the entrance of the Corporation Bank headquarters
Apartment beside the park at Falnir, one of the upscale localities of Mangalore[105]

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys,[106][107] Cognizant Technology Solutions[108][109] and Endurance International Group[110][111] have their branches at Mangalore.[91] Mphasis BPO has one of its branches at Mangalore.[112] Two IT parks, namely, (Export Promotion Industrial park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Mangalore University) have been constructed.[113] There is an IT Tech Park by the name Soorya Infratech park situated in Mudipu.[114] Corporation Bank,[115] Canara Bank[116] and Vijaya Bank[117] were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Mangalore is the headquarters of Corporation Bank and Karnataka Bank.[118] The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd,[119] Mangalore Cooperative Town Bank Ltd[120] and SCDCC Bank[121] were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore.

The leaf spring industry has its presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city.[89] The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor.[122] The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04.[123] Fishing is a traditional occupation, and the products are exported to the surrounding regions.[124] Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction.[91][89] The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore is one of India's oldest red roof tile manufacturing factories.[125][126] The Ullal suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery and coir yarns, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.[89]


Religions in Mangalore city

  Hindus (68.99%)
  Muslims (17.40%)
  Christians (13.15%)
  Jains (0.21%)
  Not Stated (0.12%)
  Sikh (0.08%)
  Buddhist (0.05%)
  Other (0.00%)
Prayer Hall of Zeenath Baksh Jama Masjid, Bunder, Mangalore

Mangalore is known as Kudla in Tulu, Kodial in Konkani, Maikāla in Beary, Mangaluru in Kannada and Mangalapuram in Malayalam.[18] As per the 2011 census of India.The city has a population of 484,755,[1] and the metropolitan area a population of 619,664[3] Male literacy rate was 96.49%, while the female literacy rate was 91.63%.[3] About 8.5% population was under six years of age. [3] The Human Development Index (HDI) of Mangalore city is 0.83.[5] The death rate and Infant mortality rate were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively.[127] According to the 2011 census, 7726 people reside in slums in Mangalore city, which is 1.55% of the total population.[128][129]

The regional languages spoken in Mangalore are Tulu, Konkani, Kannada and Beary.[130]

Hinduism is the largest religion in Mangalore, and Devadiga, Mogaveera, Billavas, Ganigas, Bunts, Vishwakarma, Kota Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs), Chitpavan Brahmins and Daivadnyas are the major communities among Hindus.[131] Christians form a sizeable section of Mangalorean society, with Mangalorean Catholics accounting for the largest Christian community.[132] Protestants in Mangalore typically speak Kannada.[133] Anglo-Indians were also part of the Mangalorean Christian Community.[134]

Mangalore has one of the highest percentage of Muslims as compared to other cities in Karnataka.[135] Most Muslims in Mangalore are Bearys, who speak the Beary language.[136] Majority of them follow the Shafi'i school of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence).[137] Mangalore also has a small group of Urdu-speaking Dakhini Muslims.[138]

There is also a small community of Tuluva Jains, Gujaratis,[28] Tamils[139] and Marathis.[140]


Bhuta Kola
Yakshagana is one of the popular dance forms in Mangalore

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore,[141] while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[142] Karadi Vesha (literally, bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara.[143] Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats.[143] The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as Kolkai (sung during Kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), Unjal Pat (traditional lullaby), Moilanji Pat and Oppune Pat (sung at weddings).[144] The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each year.[143] The Shreemanti Bai Memorial Government Museum in Bejai is the only museum in Mangalore.[145]

Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Dasara, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid and Ganesh Chaturthi. Kodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple in Mangalore.[146][147] The Mangalorean Catholics community's unique festivals include Monti Fest (Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests.[148] The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jain families of Mangalore, organises the Jain food festival annually,[149] while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike, which is part of Krishna Janmashtami festival, is celebrated by the whole community.[150][151] Aati, a festival worshiping Kalenja, a patron spirit of the city, occurs during the Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar.[152] Festivals such as Karavali Utsav and Kudlotsava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music.[153] Bhuta Kola (spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva community at night.[154] Nagaradhane (snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes.[155] An ancient ritual associated with the Hindu temples in rural areas—Kori Katta[156][157] a religious and spiritual cockfight, is held at the temples and also allowed if organised as part of religious or cultural events.[158]

Civic administration[edit]

Mangalore City Corporation at Lalbagh

The Mangalore City Corporation (MCC) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city, and it came into existence in the year 1980.[159] Mangalore has a city area of 184 km2 (71.04 sq mi).[2] Municipal limits begin with Surathkal in the north, to Netravati river bridge in the south and western sea shore to Vamanjoor in the east.[160] The MCC council comprises 60 elected representatives, called corporators, one from each of the 60 wards (localities) of the city.[161] A corporator from the majority party is selected as a Mayor.[162] The headquarters of Mangalore City Corporation is at Lalbagh.[160]

Until the revision of Lok Sabha and the legislative constituencies by the Delimitation commission, Mangalore contributed two members to the Lok Sabha, one for the southern part of the city which fell under the Mangalore Lok Sabha constituency, and another for the northern part of the city which fell under the Udupi Lok Sabha constituency.[163] After the delimitation of parliamentary constituencies in 2008, Mangalore Lok Sabha constituency is replaced by Dakshina Kannada Lok Sabha constituency, resulting in Mangalore contributing only one Member of Parliament (MP).[164][165] Additionally, Mangalore sends three members to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly from Mangalore City South, Mangalore City North and Mangalore.[166] The Mangalore City Police Department is headed by a Commissioner of Police.[167] Mangalore is also the headquarters of the Western Range Police, covering the western districts of Karnataka, which is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IGP).[168]


National Institute of Technology (Karnataka) in Surathkal is among the premier institutes of India
St. Theresa's School at Bendur is an ICSE affiliated school

The pre-collegiate mediums of instruction in schools are predominantly English and Kannada, and the medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation is English.[169] Schools and colleges in Mangalore are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals.[170][171] The schools are affiliated with either the Karnataka State Board, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) boards.[172][173][174]

The earliest schools established in Mangalore were the Basel Evangelical School (1838),[29] Milagres School (1848),[175] Rosario High School (1858) at Pandeshwar,[176] St. Ann's High School (1870)[177] and Canara High School (1891).[178]

Popular educational institutions in the city are

The Kasturba Medical College established in 1953, was India's first private medical college, and Manipal College Of Dental Sciences (MCODS) was established in the city in 1987.[183] A public library run by the Corporation Bank, is located at Mannagudda in Mangalore.[184] Mangalore University was established on 10 September 1980.[185] It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts,[186] and is a National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) accredited four-star level institution.[187]



Jet bridge at the Mangalore International Airport

Mangalore International Airport (IATA: IXE) is an international airport which is located near Bajpe / Kenjar, and is located about 13 kilometres (8 mi) north-east of the Mangalore city centre.[188] It operates regular scheduled flights to major cities in India and the Middle East.[189][190] It is the second largest and second busiest airport in the state of Karnataka.[191][192] The new terminals and runways at the airport accommodate both cargo and passenger requirements.[193] State-run government buses Vajra Volvo ply between the city and the airport.[194]


Clock Tower to Nehru Maidan Road
The Netravati railway bridge serves as the gateway to Mangalore

Five National Highways pass through Mangalore.[195] NH-66 (previously known as NH-17[196]), which runs from Panvel (in Maharashtra) to Kanyakumari (in Tamil Nadu), passes through Mangalore in a north–south direction and connects with Udupi, Bhatkal, Karwar, Goa, etc. in the north and Kannur, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, etc. in the south while NH-75 (previously known as NH-48) runs eastward to Bangalore and Vellore.[197] NH-169 (previously known as NH-13) runs north-east from Mangalore to Shimoga.[198] NH-73, a 315-km long National Highway connects Mangalore to Tumkur.[199] NH-275 also connects Mangalore with Bangalore via Mysore.[200] National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is upgrading the national highways connecting New Mangalore Port to Surathkal on NH-66 and BC Road junction on NH-75.[201] Under the port connectivity programme of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), a 37.5-kilometre (23.3 mi) stretch of these highways will be upgraded from two-lane to four-lane roads.[202]

Even though Mangalore's city bus service is dominated by private operators, with routes covering the full extent of the city and beyond, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is plying buses in multiple routes.[203] Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist—city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses.[204] KSRTC operates long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state.[205] The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada Bus Operators' Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA).[206] There are also KSRTC JnNurm green colour city buses plying within the city limits.[207] These buses travel to different parts of the city and its suburbs.[208]

Cab providers like Ola Cabs and Uber also offer transport services in the city, and their services are extended to the Mangalore International Airport.[209][210]


Mangalore Central railway station

Rail connectivity in Mangalore was established in 1907.[211] Mangalore was also the starting point of India's longest rail route.[61] The city has three railway stations—Mangalore Central (at Hampankatta), Mangalore Junction (at Padil) and Surathkal railway station (at Surathkal).[212] A railway track, built through the Western Ghats, connects Mangalore with Sakleshpur and Hassan.[213] The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan was opened to freight traffic in May 2006[214] and passenger traffic in December 2007.[215] Mangalore is also connected to Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kollam through the Southern Railway and to Mumbai, Bhatkal, Karwar, Surat, Ajmer and Margao via the Konkan Railway.[216][217]


The Mangalore Harbour has shipping, storage and logistical services, while the New Mangalore Port handles dry, bulk and fluid cargoes.[218] The New Mangalore Port is also equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers.[219] It is also the station for the coast guard.[220] This artificial harbour is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling, and is the only major port in Karnataka.[221][90] Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).[222] Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE arrive at the New Mangalore Port.[223][224][225] Heli-tourism is facilitated at the New Mangalore Port for the international tourists arriving in cruise ships.[226][227]



Cricket is a popular sport in the city.[228] Mangala Stadium and B.R. Ambedkar Cricket Stadium (near NMPT) are Dakshina Kannada district's full-fledged cricket stadiums, situated in Mangalore.[229][230] The Sports Authority of India (SAI) has also set up a sports training centre at the stadium.[231] Mangalore United is a Mangalore-based Karnataka Premier League (KPL) franchise owned by Fiza Developers.[232] Mangalore Premier League (MPL) is a cricket tournament organized by the Karnataka Regional Cricket Academy.[233] The Central Maidan or Nehru Maidan in Mangalore is another important venue hosting domestic tournaments and many inter-school and intercollegiate tournaments.[234] The Mangalore Sports Club (MSC) is a popular organisation in the city and has been elected as the institutional member for the Mangalore Zone of the Karnataka State Cricket Association (KSCA).[235][236] Lokesh Rahul, commonly known as KL Rahul and Budhi Kunderan, a former Indian wicket keeper are from Mangalore.[237] Ravi Shastri, who represented India for several years in international cricket as an all-rounder and captained the team, is of Mangalorean descent.[238]


Mangalore hosted the first edition of Indian Open of Surfing in 2016.[239][240] Mantra Surf Club, located at Mulki has trained surfers to represent India at the International Surfing Association (ISA) World SUP and Paddleboard Championship, held in Fiji.[241] The second edition of Indian Open of Surfing was also held in Mangalore.[242][243]

The Kambala race of Kadri is a distinctive feature of Tuluva culture
Mangalore Golf Course at Pilikula

Football is also quite popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds), with the Nehru Maidan being the most popular venue for domestic tournaments.[244] Dakshina Kannada District Football Association (DKDFA), annually organizes the Independence Day Cup on the occasion of Independence Day at District Football Grounds adjacent to Nehru Maidan.[245] Various schools and colleges from across Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts participate and the matches are conducted under seven categories — higher primary school (boys and girls), high school (boys and girls), PUC boys, college boys, PUC girls and college girls.[246]


Chess is also a popular indoor sport in the city.[247] Mangalore is the headquarters of South Kanara District Chess Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India Open Chess tournaments.[248][249][250]

Traditional sports

Traditional sports like Kambala (buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy fields,[251] and Korikatta (Cockfight) are very popular in the city.[252] The Kambala of Kadri is a traditional sports event organized within the city limits.[253] A locality in Mangalore named Kadri Kambla, is named after this sport.[254] Plikula Kambala is yet another Kambala event organized within the city.[255]

Kite festivals

International Kite festivals are organized in Panambur Beach which attract kite enthusiasts from countries like France, Germany, Netherlands, Australia and United Kingdom.[256] The city's own group of kite enthusiasts — Team Mangalore — participates with kites named Kathakali, Yaksha, Gajaraja (King of Elephants), Bhoota Kola (Spirit Worship), Pushpaka Vimana (Aeroplane with Flowers), Garuda and Vibhishana.[257]


Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in the numerous clubs and gymkhanas.[258] Pilikula Nisargadhama, an integrated theme park, has a fully functional nine-hole golf course at Vamanjoor.[259][260] U S Mallya Indoor Stadium offers sporting facilities for badminton and basketball in the city.[261]


All India Radio's FM tower at Kadri

Mangaluru Samachara, the first ever newspaper in Kannada, was brought out by Rev. Hermann Friedrich Mögling of the Basel mission in 1843.[262][263] The first ever Kannada to English dictionary was published in Mangalore by Ferdinand Kittel in 1894.[264] Major national English language newspapers such as Times of India, The Hindu, The New Indian Express, Deccan Herald and Daijiworld[265][266] publish localised Mangalore editions.[267][268] The Madipu, Mogaveera, Samparka (Contact) and Saphala (Success) are well-known Tulu periodicals in Mangalore.[269] Popular Konkani language periodicals published in the city are Raknno (Guardian), Konknni Dirvem (Konkani Treasure) and Kannik (Offering).[267] Beary periodicals like Jyothi (Light) and Swatantra Bharata (Independent India) are also published from Mangalore.[267] Among Kannada newspapers, Udayavani (Morning Voice) by Manipal Press Ltd, Vijaya Karnataka (Victory of Karnataka) and Vijayavani (Voice of Victory)[270] by VRL Group, Prajavani (Voice of the People), Kannada Prabha (Kannada Radiance), Varthabharathi (Indian News), Samyukta Karnataka (United Karnataka) and Hosa Digantha (New Horizon) are popular.[267][271] Evening newspapers such as Karavali Ale (Waves from the Coast), Mangaluru Mitra (Friend of Mangalore), Sanjevani (Evening Voice) and Jayakirana (Rays of Victory) are also published in the city.[272] The Konkani language newspaper Kodial Khabar is released fortnightly.[267] Malayalam newspapers such as Malayala Manorama (Malayalam Entertainer) and Madhyamam (Medium) publish localised Mangalore editions.[273]

The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan provides both national and localised television coverage.[274] Cable television also provides broadcast cable channels of independently owned private networks.[275] Canara TV and V4 Digital infotech network (local Multi System Operator) transmits daily video news channels, Live events and cultural programs happening in and around Mangalore through local channels.[276] Conditional access system (CAS) is available to all the television viewers in Mangalore city.[277] Direct-to-Home (DTH) services are available in Mangalore via Dish TV, Tata Sky, Sun Direct DTH, Airtel digital TV, Reliance BIG TV and Videocon d2h.[278] All India Radio (AIR) has a studio at Kadri (with frequency 100.3 MHz) that airs program during scheduled hours.[279] Mangalore's private FM stations include Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM, Big 92.7 FM[280] and Red 93.5 FM.[281] Radio SARANG 107.8 is a community radio run by St. Aloysius College.[282] There are multiple local TV channels which telecast programmes, news in Tulu, Konkani, Beary and Kannada.[283] Namma TV, V4 News and Spandana are some of the local TV channels.[284] Namma Kudla[285] and Posa Kural[286] are the Tulu channels dedicated to Tulu programs.

Mangalore is home to the Tulu film industry, which releases one film per month on average.[287] Popular Tulu films include Kadala Mage (Son of the Sea) and Suddha (The Cleansing Rites).[288] Tulu dramas, mostly played in the Town Hall at Hampankatta, are very popular.[183] In 2006, a Tulu film festival was organised in Mangalore.[289] Tulu Cinemotsava 2015 was organized in January 2015.[290]

Utility services[edit]

Kadri Park, a recreation park in the city
Seaside trees at Tannirbhavi Beach
Geese wandering the Pilikula botanical garden around the lake

Electricity in Mangalore is regulated by the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) and distributed through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM).[291][292][293] Major industries such as Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals (MRPL) and Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers (MCF) operate their own captive power plants.[294][295]

Potable water to the city is supplied from the vented dam, constructed across the Netravati River at Thumbe, 14 kilometres (9 mi) from Mangalore.[296][297][298] The Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project (KUDCEMP) aims to improve safe water supply systems and reduce leakage and losses in the distribution system in Mangalore.[297] The distribution and rehabilitation of the drinking water in Mangalore city will be handled by the French company Suez.[299][300] The official garbage dumping ground of Mangalore is in Vamanjoor.[301] The city generates an average of 175 tons per day of waste, which is handled by the health department of the Mangalore City Corporation.[302]

Fixed Line telecom services are offered alongside GSM and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services.[303] Mangalore is the headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada Telecom District, the second largest telecom district in Karnataka.[304] Prominent broadband internet service providers in the city include Tata indicom, Airtel and DataOne by BSNL.[305] Bharti Airtel, Vodafone India, Reliance Jio and Idea Cellular[306] have launched 4G LTE service in the city.


Neer dosa, a variant of dosa and pundi (rice ball), are native to Mangalore

Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the region.[307] Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili.[308] Well-known Mangalorean dishes include Kori Rotti, Neer dosa, Pundi (rice ball), Patrode, Golibaje, Mangalore Buns, Macaroon, etc.[309][310] Mangalorean cuisine is also known for fish and chicken dishes like Bangude Pulimunchi (spicy sour silver-grey mackerels), Boothai Gasi (Sardine Semi-Gravy), Anjal fry, Mangalorean Chicken Sukka, Kori rotti, Chicken Ghee Roast, etc.[311][312] Since Mangalore is a coastal city, fish forms the staple diet of most people.[313][314] The Konkani Hindu community's specialties include Daali thoy (lentils curry), Bibbe-upkari (cashew based), Val val (coconut milk based curry), Ambat,[315] Avnas ambe sasam (mango-pineapple fruit salad), Kadgi chakko (jackfruit-coconut curry), Paagila podi (spine gourd fries) and Chane gashi (chickpeas curry).[316][317] Mangalorean Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sannaidli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas—Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel[318] and the Mutton Biryani of the Beary Muslims are well-known dishes.[319] Pickles such as Happala, Sandige and Puli munchi are unique to Mangalore.[320][321] Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.[143] Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known throughout the state and region.[322]


Panambur beach
Dome of the Swami Vivekananda 3D Planetarium in Mangalore

The city is called the Gateway of Karnataka[323] and lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats.[324] The various temples and buildings in Mangalore include the Mangaladevi Temple, Kadri Manjunatha temple, St Aloysius Chapel, the Rosario Cathedral, Milagres Church, Dargah of Hazrat Shareef ul Madni at Ullal and the Zeenath Baksh Jumma Masjid in Bunder.[325][326]

Interior of the St. Aloysius Chapel

The city is also known for beaches such as Panambur, Tannirbhavi, NITK beach, Sasihithlu beach, Someshwara beach, Ullal beach, Kotekar beach and Batapady beach.[327][328][329][330] Panambur and Thannirbhavi beaches attract tourists from across the country.[331] Panambur beach has many facilities including food stalls, jet ski rides, boating and dolphin viewing,[332] besides trained beach lifeguards and patrol vehicles to ensure the safety of the visitors.[333][334][335] Saavira Kambada Basadi is situated 34 km (21 mi) northeast of Mangalore in the town of Moodabidri.[336] The Sultan Battery watch tower, built by Tipu Sultan, situated in Boloor, is on the banks of Gurupura River where one can take the ferry ride by paying small amount across the river and reach Tannirbhavi Beach.[337] Adyar waterfalls is at the outskirts at about 12 km (7.5 mi) from the city.[338]

The city has developed and maintains public parks such as Pilikula Nisargadhama,[339] Kadri Park at Kadri, Tagore Park[340] at Light House Hill, Mahatma Gandhi Park at Gandhinagar in Mannagudda,[341] Tannirbavi Tree Park,[342] Arise Awake Park at Karangalpady[343] and Corporation Bank Park at Nehru Maidan. Pilikula comprises the zoo, botanical garden, lake, water park (Manasa),[344] planetarium (Swami Vivekananda Planetarium)[345] and an 18 hole[346] golf course (Pilikula Golf Course)[347] which is set in an area of 50 acres.[348][349][350][351]

Mangalore Dasara, a ten-day festival at Sri Gokarnatheswara temple attracts devotees from various states of India who visit Mangalore to witness Dasara.[352] Mangaladevi Temple is another temple which attracts devotees from all over India during Navaratri.[353]

Sister cities[edit]

Mangalore is twinned with two Canadian cities:

See also[edit]


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