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Bela laevigata (Philippi, 1836) (4269781132).jpg
Apertural view of the mangeliid Bela zonata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Clade: Caenogastropoda
Clade: Hypsogastropoda
Clade: Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Mangeliidae
P. Fischer, 1883

See text

  • Cytharinae Thiele, 1929
  • Mangeliinae P. Fischer, 1883
  • Oenopotinae Bogdanov, 1987

Mangeliidae is a monophyletic family of small to medium-sized, predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea. [1][2]

Prior to 2011, both the subfamilies Mangeliinae and Oenopotinae had been placed in the family Conidae. In 2011, Bouchet, Kantor et al merged the two subfamilies into one taxon, which they elevated to the rank of family. This was based on anatomical characters and a dataset of molecular sequences of three gene fragments.[3]

Mangeliidae is a sister-clade to the family Raphitomidae [4]

As with their relatives in the family Conidae, species in the family Mangelidae use potent venoms to catch their prey. Through this characteristic, they are of interest in pharmacological research.


This family is characterized in general by usually the lack of an operculum, by a deep anal sinus on the subsutural ramp and with a heavy callus on the shoulder slope of the outer lip.

The Mangeliidae are small to medium-sized gastropods. The high-spired shell has a fusiform to an oval or biconical shape. The protoconch is helicoid, with a very small initial, and rapidly increasing subsequent whorls. The spire is usually comparatively low. The shoulders of the whorls are often angular. The axial ribs are dominant in the sculpture of the shell. The spiral sculpture often consists of fine striae with a microsculpture of spiral granules. The texture of the adult shell is frequently "gritty," from a sculpture of minute grains. The aperture is oval-elongated, usually narrow, terminating in a rather short, truncated siphonal canal. The aperture is only rarely denticulate. The outer lip (labrum) is reinforced. The varix is usually well developed, and the fasciole evanescent. A series of pustules on the columella is an ordinary feature. The toxoglossate radula has a weak basal ribbon and relatively short marginal teeth with very variable morphology. The tooth cavity opens laterally.[5][6][7]

However, the genera Neoguraleus and Liracraea are operculate; the operculum in these genera has a terminal nucleus. These exceptions mean that the reinforced outer lip is the most characteristic feature of this family.

The species in this family occurred from the Paleogene to Recent.


This is a list of the accepted names of species in the family Mangeliidae : (the main reference for Holocene species is the World Register of Marine Species)[8]

Genera moved to other families 
Genera brought into synonymy 
  • Canetoma Bartsch, 1941: synonym of Propebela Iredale, 1918
  • Cestoma Bartsch, 1941: synonym of Propebela Iredale, 1918
  • Cithara: synonym of Cythara Schumacher, 1817
  • Clathromangilia: synonym of Clathromangelia Monterosato, 1884: belongs now to the family Clathurellidae
  • Clinuromella Beets, 1943: synonym of Anticlinura Thiele, 1934
  • Clinuropsis Thiele, 1929: synonym of Anticlinura Thiele, 1934
  • Cyrtocythara F. Nordsieck, 1977: synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Cytharella Monterosato, 1875: synonym of Mangelia (Cytharella) Monterosato, 1875
  • Ditoma Bellardi, 1875: synonym of Agathotoma Cossman, 1899
  • Euguraleus Cotton, 1947: synonym of Guraleus Hedley, 1918
  • Fehria van Aartsen, 1988 : synonym of Bela Gray, 1847
  • Funitoma Bartsch, 1941: synonym of Propebela Iredale, 1918
  • Ginnania Monterosato, 1884: synonym of Bela'' Gray, 1847
  • Lora Auctores non Gray, 1847: synonym of Oenopota Mörch, 1852
  • Mangilia Lovén, 1846: synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Mangiliella Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1883 : synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Nematoma Bartsch, 1941: synonym of Curtitoma Bartsch, 1941
  • Nodotoma Bartsch, 1941: synonym of Oenopota Mörch, 1852
  • Pseudoraphitoma: synonym of Pseudorhaphitoma Boettger, 1895
  • Rissomangelia Monterosato, 1917 : synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Rugocythara Nordsieck, 1977 : synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Scabrella Hedley, 1918: synonym of Asperdaphne Hedley, 1922
  • Smithia Monterosato, 1884: synonym of Smithiella Monterosato, 1890
  • Smithiella Monterosato, 1890 : synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Thelecytharella Shuto, 1969 : synonym of Otitoma Jousseaume, 1898 : belongs to the family Pseudomelatomidae
  • Thetidos Hedley, 1899: synonym of Lienardia Jousseaume, 1884 : belongs to the family Clathurellidae
  • Turritomella Bartsch, 1941: synonym of Propebela Iredale, 1918
  • Villiersiella Monterosato, 1890: synonym of Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Widalli Bogdanov, 1986: synonym of Curtitoma Bartsch, 1941
  • Cythara Schumacher, 1817 (nomen dubium)

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b Bouchet, P. (2011). Mangeliidae P. Fischer, 1883. In: MolluscaBase (2016). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2017-02-23
  2. ^ Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (Ed.) (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia 47(1-2). ISBN 3-925919-72-4. 397 pp.
  3. ^ Bouchet, P.; Kantor, Y. I.; Sysoev, A.; Puillandre, N. (2011). "A new operational classification of the Conoidea". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 77: 273–308. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr017. 
  4. ^ Puillandre, N.; et al. (2011). "The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda)". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 77 (3): 259–272. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr015. 
  5. ^ Chen-Kwoh Chang, Small Turrids of Taiwan, chapter 12, p. 116; June, 1 2001
  6. ^ Kantor, Sysoev; Puillandre (2011). "A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda)". J Molluscan Stud. 77 (3): 273–308. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr017Bouchet. 
  7. ^ Hedley, C (1922). "A revision of the Australian Turridae" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. 13 (6): 213–359. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.13.1922.874. , pls 42-56  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Mangeliidae P. Fischer, 1883". Retrieved 2017-02-13. 
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp