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M. indica fruits
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Subfamily: Anacardioideae
Genus: Mangifera

Mangas Adans. Phanrangia Tardieu

Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. It contains about 69 species, with the best-known being the common mango (Mangifera indica). The center of diversity of the genus is in the Malesian ecoregion of Southeast Asia, particularly in Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula.[2][3] They are generally canopy trees in lowland rainforests, reaching a height of 30–40 m (98–131 ft).[4]


Mangifera species are widely cultivated in Asia and elsewhere. More than 27 species in the genus bear edible, fleshy fruits, especially the common mango (M. indica). Others, such as M. foetida, yield astringent fruits that can be eaten pickled.[5]

Mango wastes, such as the seed kernel and peel, have high functional and nutritional potential. Mango seed contains important bioactive compounds that have high antioxidant activity, lipids that have acceptable physical and chemical characteristics (free of trans fatty acids), and a somewhat high (about 6%) protein content.[6] The mango peel contains considerable amounts of antioxidants and dietary fiber.[7]

Fossil record[edit]

The earliest fossil species thought to be related to Mangifera is Eomangiferophyllum damalgiriense from the upper Paleocene of northeastern India. Leaves have also been reported from the Paleocene of Japan and the Eocene of Germany, though these have been considered questionable. Leaf fossils confidently assignable to Mangifera have been collected from Oligocene or early Miocene sediments in northern Thailand.[8][9]



  • Subgenus Mangifera
    • Section Marchandora Pierre
    • Section Euantherae Pierre
    • Section Rawa Kosterm.
    • Section Mangifera Kosterm.
  • Subgenus Limus (Marchand) Kosterm.


These species are accepted:[1]

Formerly placed here[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Mangifera L. — POWO".
  2. ^ Kuhn, David N.; Dillon, Natalie; Bally, Ian; Groh, Amy; Rahaman, Jordon; Warschefsky, Emily; Freeman, Barbie; Innes, David; Chambers, Alan H. (June 2019). "Estimation of genetic diversity and relatedness in a mango germplasm collection using SNP markers and a simplified visual analysis method". Scientia Horticulturae. 252: 156–168. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2019.03.037. S2CID 132739368.
  3. ^ "Mangifera indica". Invasive Species Compendium. CABI. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  4. ^ Litz, Richard E.; Miguel A. Gómez-Lim (2005). "Mangifera indica Mango". In Richard E. Litz (ed.). Biotechnology of Fruit and Nut Crops. CABI. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-85199-662-2.
  5. ^ Litz, Richard E. (2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd ed.). CABI. pp. 5–8. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7.
  6. ^ Torres-León, Cristian; Rojas, Romeo; Serna, Liliana; Contreras, Juan; Aguilar, Cristobal (2016). "Mango seed: Functional and nutritional properties". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 55: 109–117. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2016.06.009. S2CID 89179753.
  7. ^ Serna, Liliana; García-Gonzales, Estefanía; Torres-León, Cristian (2016). "Agro-industrial potential of the mango peel based on its nutritional and functional properties". Food Reviews International. 32 (4): 364–376. doi:10.1080/87559129.2015.1094815. S2CID 87396909.
  8. ^ Prakart Sawangchote; Paul J. Grote; David L. Dilcher (2009). "Tertiary leaf fossils of Mangifera (Anacardiaceae) from Li Basin, Thailand as examples of the utility of leaf marginal venation characters". American Journal of Botany. 96 (11): 2048–2061. doi:10.3732/ajb.0900086. PMID 21622324.
  9. ^ Mehrota, R.C., D.L. Dilcher and N. Awasthi. 1998. "A Paleocene Mangifera-like leaf fossil from India". Phytomorphology 48(1):91-100.
  10. ^ "Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu — The Plant List".
  11. ^ "Mangifera persiciforma C.Y. Wu & T.L. Ming — The Plant List".
  12. ^ "Mangifera hiemalis J.Y. Liang — The Plant List".
  13. ^ "Mangifera axillaris Desr. — The Plant List".
  14. ^ "Mangifera africana Oliv. — The Plant List".
  15. ^ "Spondias pinnata L. — POWO".