Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are believed to have originated from the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India. It is a large fruit-tree, capable of growing to a height and crown width of about 30 metres (100 ft) and trunk circumference of more than 3.7 metres (12 ft).
M. indica were domesticated separately in South Asia and Southeast Asia over centuries, resulting in two distinct genetic populations in modern mangoes – the "Indian type" and the "Southeast Asian type". Mangoes have since been introduced to other warm regions of the world.
It is a large green tree, valued mainly for its fruits, both green and ripe. Approximately 500 varieties of mango have been reported in India. It can grow up to 15–30 metres (49–98 ft) tall. The tree grows best in well-drained sandy loam; it does not grow well in heavy wet soils. The optimal pH of the soil should be between 5.2 and 7.5.
Red-yellow flowers appear at the end of winter, and also at the beginning of spring. Both male and female flowers are borne on same tree. The Climatic conditions have significant influence on the time of flowering of mango. In India, flowering starts in December in the South, in January in Bihar and Bengal, in February in eastern Uttar Pradesh, and in February–March in northern India. The duration of flowering is 20–25 days in Dashehari, while panicle emergence occurs in early December and flower opening is completed by February. The Neelum variety of mango produces two crops a year in Kanyakumari, in South India, but it flowers only once in North Indian conditions.
The mango is an irregular, egg-shaped fruit which is a fleshy drupe. Mangos are typically 8–12 cm (3–5 in) long and greenish yellow in color. The fruits can be round, oval, heart, or kidney shaped. Mango fruits are green when they are unripe. The interior flesh is bright orange and soft with a large, flat pit in the middle. Mangos are mature in April and May. Raw mangos can be used in the making of pickles and chutneys. Ripe mangos are a popular fruit throughout the world. The skin and pulp account for 85% of the mango's weight, and the remaining 15% comes from the stone (seed).
Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active hydroxylated xanthone C-glycoside) is extracted from mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg). Allergenic urushiols are present in the fruit peel and can trigger contact dermatitis in sensitised individuals. This reaction is more likely to occur in people who have been exposed to other plants from the family Anacardiaceae, such as poison oak and poison ivy, which are widespread in the United States.
The tree is more known for its fruit rather than for its timber. However, mango trees can be converted to lumber once their fruit-bearing lifespan has finished. The wood is susceptible to damage from fungi and insects. The wood is used for musical instruments such as ukuleles, plywood and low-cost furniture. The wood is also known to produce phenolic substances that can cause contact dermatitis.
- Ganesan, S.K (2021). "Mangifera indica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T31389A67735735. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T31389A67735735.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
- "Mangifera". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- Julia F Morton (1987). "Mango (Mangifera indica L.)". In: Fruits of Warm Climates; New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University. pp. 221–239. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
- "USDA Plant guide, Mangifera indica L." (PDF).
- Kuhn, David N.; Bally, Ian S. E.; Dillon, Natalie L.; Innes, David; Groh, Amy M.; Rahaman, Jordon; Ophir, Ron; Cohen, Yuval; Sherman, Amir (20 April 2017). "Genetic Map of Mango: A Tool for Mango Breeding". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 577. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.00577. PMC 5397511. PMID 28473837.
- Warschefsky, Emily J.; Wettberg, Eric J. B. (June 2019). "Population genomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica) suggests a complex history of domestication". New Phytologist. 222 (4): 2023–2037. doi:10.1111/nph.15731. PMID 30730057.
- "Mangifera indica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- "Mango tree, national tree". 15 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Flowers of India
- Flowering of mango
- "Mango", Purdue University
- SEA Hand Book 2009, Solvent Extractors' Association Of India
- Barreto J.C.; Trevisan M.T.S.; Hull W.E.; Erben G.; De Brito E.S.; Pfundstein B.; Würtele G.; Spiegelhalder B.; Owen R.W. (2008). "Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (14): 5599–5610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692.
- Urushiol CASRN: 53237-59-5 TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) NLM (NIH). Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Mango". The Wood Database. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "Economic importance of Mangifera indica". Green Clean Guide. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Tu, series editor, Anthony T. (1983). Handbook of natural toxins. New York: Dekker. p. 425. ISBN 0824718933.
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- Litz, Richard E. (ed. 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd edition). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7
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- Crop of the Day: Mango, Mangifera indica has a list of helpful resources about this species.