Mangifera indica

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Mangifera indica
Mangoes (Magnifera indica) from India.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Mangifera
Species:
M. indica
Binomial name
Mangifera indica
Synonyms[2]
  • Mangifera amba Forssk.
  • Mangifera anisodora Blanco
  • Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu
  • Mangifera balba Crevost & Lemarié
  • Mangifera cambodiana (Pierre) Anon.
  • Mangifera domestica Gaertn.
  • Mangifera equina Crevost & Lemarié
  • Mangifera gladiata Bojer
  • Mangifera kukulu Blume
  • Mangifera laxiflora Desr.
  • Mangifera linnaei Korth. ex Hassk.
  • Mangifera maritima Lechaume
  • Mangifera mekongensis (Pierre) Anon.
  • Mangifera montana B.Heyne ex Wight & Arn.
  • Mangifera oryza Crevost & Lemarié
  • Mangifera rostrata Blanco
  • Mangifera rubra Bojer
  • Mangifera sativa Roem. & Schult.
  • Mangifera siamensis Warb. ex Craib
  • Mangifera viridis Bojer

Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae.[3] It is a large fruit tree, capable of growing to a height of 30 metres (100 feet). There are two distinct genetic populations in modern mangoes – the "Indian type" and the "Southeast Asian type".

Description[edit]

It is a large green tree, valued mainly for its fruits, both green and ripe.[3] Approximately 500 varieties have been reported in India.[3] It can grow up to 15–30 metres (50–100 feet) tall[4] with a similar crown width and a trunk circumference of more than 3.7 m (12 ft).[3][5] The leaves are simple, shiny and dark green.[6]

Red-yellow flowers appear at the end of winter, and also at the beginning of spring. Both male and female flowers are borne on same tree. Climatic conditions have a significant influence on the time of flowering.[3] In South Asia, flowering starts in December in the south, in January in Bihar and Bengal, in February in eastern Uttar Pradesh, and in February–March in northern India. The duration of flowering is 20–25 days for the Dasheri variety, while panicle emergence occurs in early December and flower opening is completed by February. The Neelum variety produces two crops a year in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, but it flowers only once in North Indian conditions.[7]

The mango is an irregular, egg-shaped fruit which is a fleshy drupe.[3] Mangos are typically 8–12 centimetres (3–5 inches) long and greenish yellow in color. The fruits can be round, oval, heart, or kidney shaped.[3] Mango fruits are green when they are unripe. The interior flesh is bright orange and soft with a large, flat pit in the middle.[8] Mangos are mature in April and May. Raw mangos can be used in the making of pickles and chutneys. Ripe mangos are a popular fruit throughout the world. The skin and pulp account for 85% of the mango's weight, and the remaining 15% comes from the stone (seed).[9]

Chemistry[edit]

Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active hydroxylated xanthone C-glycoside) is extracted from mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg).[10] Allergenic urushiols are present in the fruit peel.[11]

Taxonomy[edit]

Mangoes are believed to have originated from the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northeastern India. M. indica were domesticated separately in South Asia and Southeast Asia over centuries, resulting in two distinct genetic populations in modern mangoes – the "Indian type" and the "Southeast Asian type".[3][12][13]

The species was first described by Linnaeus in 1753.[14]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Since their domestication in southeastern Asia, mangoes have been introduced to other warm regions of the world.[3][12][13]

The tree grows best in well-drained sandy loam; it does not grow well in heavy wet soils. The optimal pH of the soil should be between 5.2 and 7.5.[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Toxicity[edit]

Urushiols in the fruit peel can trigger contact dermatitis in sensitised individuals.[11] This reaction is more likely to occur in people who have been exposed to other plants from the family Anacardiaceae, such as poison oak and poison ivy, which are widespread in the United States.[11]

The wood is known to produce phenolic substances that can cause contact dermatitis.[15]

Uses[edit]

The tree is more known for its fruit rather than for its timber. However, mango trees can be converted to lumber once their fruit-bearing lifespan has finished. The wood is susceptible to damage from fungi and insects.[16] The wood is used for musical instruments such as ukuleles,[16] plywood and low-cost furniture.[17]

Culture[edit]

The mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, and is the national tree of Bangladesh.[18]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ganesan, S.K (2021). "Mangifera indica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T31389A67735735. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T31389A67735735.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Mangifera". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Morton, Julia F. (1987). "Mango (Mangifera indica L.)". In: Fruits of Warm Climates; New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University. pp. 221–239. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  4. ^ a b Flowers of India
  5. ^ "USDA Plant guide, Mangifera indica L." (PDF).
  6. ^ The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. United States Department of the Army. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. 2009. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-60239-692-0. OCLC 277203364.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ Flowering of mango
  8. ^ "Mango", Purdue University
  9. ^ SEA Hand Book 2009, Solvent Extractors' Association Of India
  10. ^ Barreto J.C.; Trevisan M.T.S.; Hull W.E.; Erben G.; De Brito E.S.; Pfundstein B.; Würtele G.; Spiegelhalder B.; Owen R.W. (2008). "Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (14): 5599–5610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692.
  11. ^ a b c Urushiol CASRN: 53237-59-5 TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) NLM (NIH). Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b Kuhn, David N.; Bally, Ian S. E.; Dillon, Natalie L.; Innes, David; Groh, Amy M.; Rahaman, Jordon; Ophir, Ron; Cohen, Yuval; Sherman, Amir (20 April 2017). "Genetic Map of Mango: A Tool for Mango Breeding". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 577. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.00577. PMC 5397511. PMID 28473837.
  13. ^ a b Warschefsky, Emily J.; Wettberg, Eric J. B. (June 2019). "Population genomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica) suggests a complex history of domestication". New Phytologist. 222 (4): 2023–2037. doi:10.1111/nph.15731. PMID 30730057.
  14. ^ "Mangifera indica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved October 8, 2009.
  15. ^ Tu, Anthony T. (1983). Handbook of natural toxins. New York: Dekker. p. 425. ISBN 0824718933.
  16. ^ a b "Mango". The Wood Database. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  17. ^ "Economic importance of Mangifera indica". Green Clean Guide. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  18. ^ "Mango tree, national tree". 15 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Litz, Richard E. (ed. 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses (2nd edition). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7

External links[edit]