Mango oil

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Mango oil
Saturated fats
Total saturated45-50
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated50-55
Monounsaturated40-46
Omega-6 fatty acids3-4
Properties
Melting point32–43 °C (90–109 °F)
Solidity at 20 °C (68 °F)semi-solid
Iodine value32.0-60.7

Mango oil, a.k.a. mango kernel fat,[1] or, mango butter, is an oil fraction obtained during the processing of mango butter. Mango oil is a seed oil extracted from the stone of the fruit of the Mangifera indica. The oil is semi-solid at room temperatures, but melts on contact with warm skin, making it appealing for baby creams, suncare balms, hair products, and other moisturizing products. The oil is a soft yellow color with a melting point of 32–42 °C (90–108 °F).

Tree[edit]

Tree with unripe fruits

A large green tree, valued mainly for its fruits, both green and ripe. It can grow up to 15–30 metres (49–98 ft) tall. The tree grows best in well-drained sandy loam; it does not grow well in heavy wet soils. The optimal pH of the soil should be between 5.2 and 7.5.[2]

Flowers[edit]

Mango flowers

Flowers appear at the end of winter and beginning of spring. Both male and female flowers are borne on same tree. The Climatic conditions have significant influence on the time of flowering of mango. In India, flowering starts in December in the South, in January in Bihar and Bengal, in February in eastern Uttar Pradesh, and in February–March in northern India. The duration of flowering is 20–25 days in Dashehari, while panicle emergence occurs in early December and flower opening is completed by February. It is well known that the Neelum variety of mango produces two crops a year in Kanyakumari, in South India, but it flowers only once in North Indian conditions[3]

Fruits[edit]

Ripening mangoes

The mango is an irregular, egg-shaped fruit which is a fleshy drupe. Mangos are typically 8–12 cm (3–5 in) long and greenish yellow in color. The fruits can be round, oval, heart, or kidney shaped. Mango fruits are green when they are unripe. The interior flesh is bright orange and soft with a large, flat pit in the middle. [4] Mangos are mature in April and May. There are 210 varieties of mango species which have been reported. Raw mangos can be used in the making of pickles and chutneys. Ripe mangos are a popular fruit throughout the world. The skin and pulp account for 85% of the mango's weight, and the remaining 15% comes from the stone (seed) [5]

Extraction of oil[edit]

Open mango stone
Mango kernels

Fat is extracted from dried mango kernels by hydraulic pressure,[6] or by solvent extraction.[7] In solvent extraction, hexane, a liquid hydrocarbon, is used as the extraction medium. The collected mango stones are washed with well-water soon after collection. After washing, the seeds are sun dried to reduce the moisture content to 12-15%. The dried seed stone is roasted in a drum roaster and the hull is removed mechanically, or manually by beating with wooden clubs. The separated kernels are crushed into small pieces in a hammer mill. The mango kernel pieces are conveyed to a pellet making machine and pellets are formed. The pellets are cooled to room temperature in a cooler and are conveyed to the solvent extraction plant. Some processors produce flakes by crushing the seeds in a flaking roller mill.[8]

Composition and characteristics of oil/fat[edit]

Mango kernel oil is solid at room temperature with a melting point of (35–43 °C (95–109 °F)).

Uses[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]