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The Anthropophagic Manifesto (Portuguese: Manifesto Antropófago) was published in 1928 by the Brazilian poet and polemicist Oswald de Andrade, a key figure in the cultural movement of Brazilian Modernism and contributor to the publication Revista de Antropofagia. The essay was translated to English in 1991 by Leslie Bary; this is the most widely used version.
Written in poetic prose in the modernist style of Une Saison en Enfer by Rimbaud, the Manifesto Antropófago is more directly political than Oswald's previous manifesto, or Poesia Pau-Brasil, which was created in the interest of propagating a Brazilian poetry for export. The "Manifesto" has often been interpreted as an essay in which the main argument proposes that Brazil's history of "cannibalizing" other cultures is its greatest strength, while playing on the modernists' primitivist interest in cannibalism as an alleged tribal rite. Cannibalism becomes a way for Brazil to assert itself against European post-colonial cultural domination. The Manifesto's iconic line, written in English in the original, is "Tupi or not Tupi: that is the question." The line is simultaneously a celebration of the Tupi, who practiced certain forms of ritual cannibalism (as detailed in the 16th century writings of André Thévet, Hans Staden, and Jean de Léry), and a metaphorical instance of cannibalism: it eats Shakespeare. On the other hand, some critics argue that Antropofagia as a movement was too heterogeneous for overarching arguments to be extracted from it, and that often it had little to do with a post-colonial cultural politics.
- Andrade, Oswald de (1991). Translated by Leslie Bary. "Cannibalist Manifesto". Latin American Literary Review. Pittsburgh: Dept. of Modern Languages, Carnegie-Mellon University. 19 (38): 38–47. JSTOR 20119601. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
- Jauregui, Carlos, A. (2012). McKee Irwin & Szurmuk, Robert & Mónica (ed.). Dictionary of Latin American Cultural Studies. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. pp. 22–28.
- Text in English, translation by Leslie Bary
- Article in English about Antropofagia by Carlos Jauregui
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