Manikya dynasty

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Manikya
Coat of Arms of Tripura Princely State.gif
Parent houseLunar dynasty (legendary)
Country
Foundedc.1400
FounderMaha Manikya
Current headKirit Pradyot Manikya
Final rulerKirit Bikram Kishore Manikya
Titles
Deposition1949

The Manikya dynasty was the ruling house of the Twipra Kingdom and later the princely Tripura State, what is now the Indian state of the same name. Ruling since the early 15th century, the dynasty at its height controlled a large swathe of the north-east of the subcontinent. After coming under British influence, in 1761 they transitioned from feudal monarchs into rulers of a princely state, though the Manikyas maintain control of the region until 1949, when it ascended in union with India.

History[edit]

Tracing their descent from the mythological Lunar dynasty,[1] the Rajmala (the royal chronicle of Tripura) lists an unbroken line of 144 (likely legendary) monarchs of Tripura up to the ascension of one Ratna Fa, who is stated to have become the first Manikya after being granted the cognomen by the Sultan of Bengal.[2] However, it is now believed that the Rajmala had been mistaken in the genealogy and chronology of the initial Manikya rulers.[3] Numismatic evidence suggests that the first historical Manikya was in fact Maha Manikya,[4] a Tripuri chief who founded the kingdom after establishing dominance over neighbouring tribes in the early 1400s.[5] This monarch then took the title "Manikya" in honour of a historic victory over Bengal, with the name being inherited by his descendants.[6]

Maha Manikya's early successors achieved considerable military achievements, conquering territory in Bengal, Assam and Burma. Tripura reached its zenith in the 16th century under such prominent kings as Dhanya Manikya and Vijaya Manikya II,[7] with its lands stretching from the Garo Hills in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. As monarchs of a Hindu kingdom, the Manikyas developed a rivalry with the successive Muslim rulers of Bengal, coming into conflict with Sultans, governors and Nawabs before being brought under Mughal suzerainty in the early 17th century. As Mughal power waned, the antagonism with Bengal re-erupted, which drove the Manikyas to first approach the British for aid. In 1761, Tripura had succumb to British influence, becoming a princely protectorate, though control of the region remained under the Manikya dynasty.[8]

In 1870, Bir Chandra Manikya ascended the throne and began a series of political reforms to his kingdom, modelling his government on the British system. A lover of the culture of Bengal, Bengali was adopted by the court under his rule and he developed a friendship with the celebrated poet, Rabindranath Tagore. After Tripura was briefly incorporated into the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam at the beginning of the 20th century, the last Manikya monarch, Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore, chose to come under the jurisdiction of the predominantly Hindu Dominion of India in 1947. The final ascension of Tripura into the modern Indian nation was signed by his widow, Kanchan Prava Devi, in place of the minor Kirit Bikram Kishore, bringing to an end five centuries of Manikya rule.[8]

List of rulers[edit]

Tripura princely state in 1909
Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Maha Manikyac.1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I1431–1462
Ratna Manikya I1462–c.1487
Pratap Manikya IIc.1487
Vijaya Manikya I1488
Mukut Manikya1489
Dhanya Manikya1490–1515
Dharma Manikya II1714–1733
Vijaya Manikya III1743–1760
Krishna Manikya1760–1761
Rajdhar Manikya1783–1804
Ramgana Manikya1804–1809
Durga Manikya1809–1813
Kashi Chandra1826–1830
Krishna Kishore1830–1849
Ishan Chandra1849–1862
Bir Chandra1862–1896
Radha Kishore1896–1909
Birendra Kishore1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore1947–1949
Kirit Pradyot Deb Barman1978–present
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)
1. Maha Manikya c.1400–1431
2. Dharma Manikya I 1431–1462
3. Ratna Manikya I 1462–c.1487
4. Pratap Manikya II c.1487
5. Vijaya Manikya I 1488
6. Mukut Manikya 1489
7. Dhanya Manikya 1490–1515
8. Dhwaja Manikya 1515–1520
9. Deva Manikya 1520–1530
10. Indra Manikya 1530–1532
11. Vijaya Manikya II 1532–1563
12. Ananta Manikya 1563–1567
13. Udai Manikya 1567–1573
14. Joy Manikya 1573–1576
15. Amar Manikya 1577–1585
16. Rajdhar Manikya I 1586–1600
17. Isvara Manikya 1600–1601
18. Yashodhar Manikya 1600–1623
19. Kalyan Manikya 1626–1660
20. Govinda Manikya 1660–1661 (first reign)
21. Chhatra Manikya 1661
22. Govinda Manikya 1661–1673 (second reign)
23. Rama Manikya 1673–1685
24. Ratna Manikya II 1685–1693[9] (first reign)
25. Narendra Manikya 1693–1695[9]
26. Ratna Manikya II 1695–1712[9] (second reign)
27. Mahendra Manikya 1712–1713[10]
28. Dharma Manikya II 1713–1725[10] (first reign)
29. Jagat Manikya 1725–1729[11]
30. Dharma Manikya II 1729[11] (second reign)
31. Mukunda Manikya 1729–1739
32. Joy Manikya II 1739–1744
33. Indra Manikya II 1744–1746
34. Vijaya Manikya III 1746–1748
35. Krishna Manikya 1760–1783
36. Rajdhar Manikya II 1785–1806
37. Durga Manikya 1806–1813
38. Rama Ganga Manikya 1813–1826
39. Kashi Chandra Manikya 1826–1829
40. Krishna Kishore Manikya 1829–1849
41. Ishan Chandra Manikya 1849–1862
42. Bir Chandra Manikya 1862–1896
43. Radha Kishore Manikya 1896–1909
44. Birendra Kishore Manikya 1909–1923
45. Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya 1923–1947
46. Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya 1947–1949

Pretenders[edit]

[12][13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh Rana (1998), p. 210.
  2. ^ Bhattacharyya (1977), p. 13.
  3. ^ Saha (1986), p. 168.
  4. ^ Sarma (1987), p. 39.
  5. ^ Momin, Mawlong & Qādrī (2006), p. 81.
  6. ^ Lahiri (1999), p. 53.
  7. ^ Nayar (2005), p. 70.
  8. ^ a b Boland-Crewe & Lea (2005), p. 238.
  9. ^ a b c Friedberg & Friedberg (2009), p. 498.
  10. ^ a b DebBarma (2006), p. 24.
  11. ^ a b DebBarma (2006), p. 25.
  12. ^ Sarma (1987), pp. 233–34.
  13. ^ Raatan (2008), pp. 145–57.

Bibliography[edit]