|Parent house||Lunar dynasty (legendary)|
|Current head||Kirit Pradyot Manikya|
|Final ruler||Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya|
The Manikya dynasty was the ruling house of the Twipra Kingdom and later the princely Tripura State, what is now the Indian state of the same name. Ruling since the early 15th century, the dynasty at its height controlled a large swathe of the north-east of the subcontinent. After coming under British influence, in 1761 they transitioned from feudal monarchs into rulers of a princely state, though the Manikyas maintain control of the region until 1949, when it ascended in union with India.
Tracing their descent from the mythological Lunar dynasty, the Rajmala (the royal chronicle of Tripura) lists an unbroken line of 144 (likely legendary) monarchs of Tripura up to the ascension of one Ratna Fa, who is stated to have become the first Manikya after being granted the cognomen by the Sultan of Bengal. However, it is now believed that the Rajmala had been mistaken in the genealogy and chronology of the initial Manikya rulers. Numismatic evidence suggests that the first historical Manikya was in fact Maha Manikya, a Tripuri chief who founded the kingdom after establishing dominance over neighbouring tribes in the early 1400s. This monarch then took the title "Manikya" in honour of a historic victory over Bengal, with the name being inherited by his descendants.
Maha Manikya's early successors achieved considerable military achievements, conquering territory in Bengal, Assam and Burma. Tripura reached its zenith in the 16th century under such prominent kings as Dhanya Manikya and Vijaya Manikya II, with its lands stretching from the Garo Hills in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. As monarchs of a Hindu kingdom, the Manikyas developed a rivalry with the successive Muslim rulers of Bengal, coming into conflict with Sultans, governors and Nawabs before being brought under Mughal suzerainty in the early 17th century. As Mughal power waned, the antagonism with Bengal re-erupted, which drove the Manikyas to first approach the British for aid. In 1761, Tripura had succumb to British influence, becoming a princely protectorate, though control of the region remained under the Manikya dynasty.
In 1870, Bir Chandra Manikya ascended the throne and began a series of political reforms to his kingdom, modelling his government on the British system. A lover of the culture of Bengal, Bengali was adopted by the court under his rule and he developed a friendship with the celebrated poet, Rabindranath Tagore. After Tripura was briefly incorporated into the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam at the beginning of the 20th century, the last Manikya monarch, Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore, chose to come under the jurisdiction of the predominantly Hindu Dominion of India in 1947. The final ascension of Tripura into the modern Indian nation was signed by his widow, Kanchan Prava Devi, in place of the minor Kirit Bikram Kishore, bringing to an end five centuries of Manikya rule.
List of rulers
|Kingdom of Tripura|
|Part of History of Tripura|
|Tripura monarchy data|
|Manikya dynasty (Royal family)|
|Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)|
|Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)|
|Neermahal (Royal residence)|
|Rajmala (Royal chronicle)|
|Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)|
- 1. Maha Manikya c.1400–1431
- 2. Dharma Manikya I 1431–1462
- 3. Ratna Manikya I 1462–c.1487
- 4. Pratap Manikya II c.1487
- 5. Vijaya Manikya I 1488
- 6. Mukut Manikya 1489
- 7. Dhanya Manikya 1490–1515
- 8. Dhwaja Manikya 1515–1520
- 9. Deva Manikya 1520–1530
- 10. Indra Manikya 1530–1532
- 11. Vijaya Manikya II 1532–1563
- 12. Ananta Manikya 1563–1567
- 13. Udai Manikya 1567–1573
- 14. Joy Manikya 1573–1576
- 15. Amar Manikya 1577–1585
- 16. Rajdhar Manikya I 1586–1600
- 17. Isvara Manikya 1600–1601
- 18. Yashodhar Manikya 1600–1623
- 19. Kalyan Manikya 1626–1660
- 20. Govinda Manikya 1660–1661 (first reign)
- 21. Chhatra Manikya 1661
- 22. Govinda Manikya 1661–1673 (second reign)
- 23. Rama Manikya 1673–1685
- 24. Ratna Manikya II 1685–1693 (first reign)
- 25. Narendra Manikya 1693–1695
- 26. Ratna Manikya II 1695–1712 (second reign)
- 27. Mahendra Manikya 1712–1713
- 28. Dharma Manikya II 1713–1725 (first reign)
- 29. Jagat Manikya 1725–1729
- 30. Dharma Manikya II 1729 (second reign)
- 31. Mukunda Manikya 1729–1739
- 32. Joy Manikya II 1739–1744
- 33. Indra Manikya II 1744–1746
- 34. Vijaya Manikya III 1746–1748
- 35. Krishna Manikya 1760–1783
- 36. Rajdhar Manikya II 1785–1806
- 37. Durga Manikya 1806–1813
- 38. Rama Ganga Manikya 1813–1826
- 39. Kashi Chandra Manikya 1826–1829
- 40. Krishna Kishore Manikya 1829–1849
- 41. Ishan Chandra Manikya 1849–1862
- 42. Bir Chandra Manikya 1862–1896
- 43. Radha Kishore Manikya 1896–1909
- 44. Birendra Kishore Manikya 1909–1923
- 45. Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya 1923–1947
- 46. Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya 1947–1949
- Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya 1949–2006
- Kirit Pradyot Manikya 2006–present
- Singh Rana (1998), p. 210.
- Bhattacharyya (1977), p. 13.
- Saha (1986), p. 168.
- Sarma (1987), p. 39.
- Momin, Mawlong & Qādrī (2006), p. 81.
- Lahiri (1999), p. 53.
- Nayar (2005), p. 70.
- Boland-Crewe & Lea (2005), p. 238.
- Friedberg & Friedberg (2009), p. 498.
- DebBarma (2006), p. 24.
- DebBarma (2006), p. 25.
- Sarma (1987), pp. 233–34.
- Raatan (2008), pp. 145–57.
- Bhattacharyya, A. K. (1977). District Census Handbook: North Tripura. Director of Census Operations.
- Boland-Crewe, Tara; Lea, David (2005) . The Territories and States of India. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-35625-5.
- DebBarma, Chandramani (2006). Glory of Tripura civilization: history of Tripura with Kok Borok names of the kings. Parul Prakashani.
- Friedberg, Arthur L.; Friedberg, Ira S. (2009). Gold Coins of the World: From Ancient Times to the Present : an Illustrated Standard Catalogue with Valuations (8 ed.). New Jersey: Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 978-0-87184-308-1.
- Lahiri, Bela (1999). "Numismatic Evidence on the Chronolgy and Succession of the rulers of Tripura". The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India. Numismatic Society of India.
- Momin, Mignonette; Mawlong, Cecile A.; Qādrī, Fuz̤ail Aḥmad (2006). Society and economy in North-East India. New Delhi: Regency Publications. ISBN 978-81-87498-83-4.
- Nayar, V. K. (2005). Crossing the Frontiers of Conflict in the North East and Jammu and Kashmir: From Real Politik to Ideal Politik. New Delhi: Shipra Publications. ISBN 978-81-7541-218-7.
- Raatan, T. (2008). Encyclopaedia of North-East India. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7835-068-4.
- Saha, Sudhanshu Bikash (1986). Tribes of Tripura: A Historical Survey. Rupali Book House.
- Sarma, Ramani Mohan (1987). Political History of Tripura. Puthipatra.
- Singh Rana, J. P. (1998). Marriage and Customs of Tribes of India. New Delhi: M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-7533-087-0.