28 October 1892|
Rajkot, British India
5 April 1956 (aged 63)|
Durban, South Africa
|Spouse(s)||Sushila Mashruwala (1927–1956)|
|Children||3, including Arun Manilal and Ela|
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi |
Manilal Mohandas Gandhi (28 October 1892 – 5 April 1956) was the second son of Mahatma Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi. Manilal was born in Rajkot, British India. In 1897 Manilal travelled to South Africa for the first time, where he spent time working at the Phoenix Ashram near Durban. After a brief visit to India, in 1917 Manilal returned to South Africa to assist in printing the Indian Opinion a Gujarati-English weekly publication, at Phoenix, Durban. By 1918, Manilal was doing most of the work for the press and took over in 1920 as editor. Like his father, Manilal was also sent to prison several times by the British colonial government after protesting against unjust laws. He remained editor until 1956, the year of his death. Manilal died from a cerebral thrombosis following a stroke.
In 1927, Manilal married Sushila Mashruwala (24 August 1907–1988), and had two daughters, Sita (b. 1928) and Ela (b. 1940), and one son, Arun (b. 1934). Arun and Ela are also social-political activists. Uma D. Mesthrie, Sita's daughter, recently published a biography on Manilal.
- Mesthrie, Uma Dhupelia. Gandhi’s Prisoner? The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal. Permanent Black: Cape Town, South Africa, 2003.
- Dhupelia-Mesthrie, Uma, "Writing the Life of Manilal Mohandas Gandhi," Journal of Natal and Zulu History 24 & 25 (2006-2007): 188-213.
- Dhupelia-Mesthrie: Gandhi’s Prisoner? The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal, p. 384
- "Manilal Gandhi Dead". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 6 April 1956. pp. 1, 8. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- Prasad, Archana (21 August 2013). "Remembering Sushila Gandhi 1907-1988". gandhiforchildren.org. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- Uma Dhupelia Mesthrie, Gandhi’s Prisoner? The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal. (Permanent Black: Cape Town, South Africa, 2003).
- Interview of Ela Gandhi
- The African Activist Archive Project website has an Interview with Manilal Gandhi conducted in South Africa in September 1954 by George M. Houser. At the time he was editor of newspaper Indian Opinion and ran the Phoenix Settlement, both established by his father. There is also a 1947 photograph of Manilal Gandhi at the Community Church of New York, a September 1954 photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Manilal Gandhi at Phoenix Settlement and a 1954 photograph of Chief Albert Luthuli and Manilal Gandhi. Four issues of the newsletter Bulletin: Americans for South African Resistance has information about him: September 1952 issue, the 14 January 1953 issue, the 27 February 1953 issue, and the 1 March 1954 issue.