Manitoba Moose

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Manitoba Moose
City Winnipeg, Manitoba
League American Hockey League
Conference Western
Division Central
Founded 1994 (In the IHL)
Home arena MTS Centre

Polar Night Blue, Aviator Blue, Silver, White

Owner(s) Canada True North Sports & Entertainment
General manager Canada Craig Heisinger
Head coach Canada Keith McCambridge
Captain United States John Albert
Media TSN Radio (1290 AM)[1]
Affiliates Winnipeg Jets (NHL)
Tulsa Oilers (ECHL)
Franchise history
1994–1996 Minnesota Moose
1996–2011 Manitoba Moose
2011–2015 St. John's IceCaps
2015–present Manitoba Moose
Regular season titles 1 (2008–09)
Division Championships 2 (2006–07), (2008–09)
Conference Championships 1 (2008–09)

The Manitoba Moose are a Canadian professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba that plays in the American Hockey League (AHL). The team plays its home games at the MTS Centre, the home arena of its parent club, the National Hockey League's Winnipeg Jets.

The franchise was founded as the Minnesota Moose of the International Hockey League (IHL) in 1994. During their first tenure in Winnipeg (1996–2011), the Manitoba Moose played five seasons in the IHL and ten in the AHL. True North Sports & Entertainment relocated the team to St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador in 2011, where they played four seasons as the St. John's IceCaps. The team returned to Winnipeg as the Manitoba Moose prior to the 2015–16 season.


International Hockey League (1996–2001)[edit]

After the departure of the original Winnipeg Jets franchise to Phoenix, Arizona in 1996, a group of local businessmen, including Mark Chipman, purchased the Minnesota Moose of the IHL. The team was relocated to Winnipeg in order to provide a new tenant for the Winnipeg Arena and keep professional hockey in the city.[2][3]

The team's first season in Winnipeg was a disaster. Former Montreal Canadiens coach Jean Perron was brought in to replace Frank Serratore as head coach and general manager. The Moose won only 16 of 50 games under Perron before he was fired on January 4, 1997.[4][5][6] Upon his dismissal, Perron lashed out at team ownership, the media, and the players, including a personal attack on team captain Randy Gilhen.[7][8] Perron threatened legal action against the team, but nothing came of it.[9] Assistant coach Randy Carlyle, a former Jets defenceman, took over as head coach and led the team to a winning record in their final 32 games of the season, but the team did not qualify for the playoffs.

Carlyle served as the head coach and general manager for remainder of the team's tenure in the IHL. The Moose had moderate regular season success and qualified for the Turner Cup playoffs three out of the next four seasons, making it as far as the second round. Carlyle was named the league's General Manager of the Year for the 1998–99 season.[10][11] During their five seasons in the IHL, the Moose remained independent and did not affiliate with any NHL teams, although several did loan players to the Moose.[4]

American Hockey League (2001–2011)[edit]

The Moose and five other IHL teams were accepted into the AHL after the IHL's demise in 2001. The Moose were required to affiliate with an NHL club and became the top affiliate of the Vancouver Canucks,[4] a partnership that would last ten seasons. Former Canucks star Stan Smyl was chosen by the Canucks as the new head coach of the Moose while Carlyle remained as general manager for one season before leaving to join the Washington Capitals coaching staff. In 2002–03, Smyl led the team to the second round of the Calder Cup playoffs, but lost to the Hamilton Bulldogs in seven games. After the team missed the playoffs the following season, Smyl was reassigned within the Canucks organization.[12]

Following the departure of Smyl, Carlyle returned as Moose head coach for the 2004-05 season. It was a season of big changes and new highs for the organization, as the Moose, now owned by True North Sports & Entertainment, played their final game at the old Winnipeg Arena and moved into the brand new MTS Centre in downtown Winnipeg. The Moose made it to the conference final for the first time in team history, but were swept in four games by their old IHL rivals, the Chicago Wolves.[12] Mark Chipman was awarded the James C. Hendy Memorial Award for AHL Executive of the Year. After the season, Carlyle was hired by the Anaheim Ducks as their new head coach, becoming the first of four consecutive Moose head coaches to leave the team for head coaching positions in the NHL.[11]

Former Canadiens head coach Alain Vigneault was brought in as the new head coach for the 2005–06 season. The Moose signed Winnipeg native and three-time Stanley Cup champion Mike Keane and named him captain. Keane quickly became a fan favorite and the team had another great year, but again lost in the second round of the playoffs. After the season, Vigneault was promoted by the Canucks to fill their vacant head coaching position when Marc Crawford was let go.

A Moose game at the MTS Centre in 2006

Former Moose captain and assistant coach Scott Arniel was selected to replace Vigneault. Arniel coached the team for four seasons and, in 2008–09, led them to their best season in franchise history when the team finished with 107 points, the best record in the league. The Moose went all the way to the Calder Cup Finals, losing the final to the Hershey Bears. Arniel was awarded the Louis A. R. Pieri Memorial Award as the AHL Coach of the Year, while general manager Heisinger became the second member of the Moose front office staff to win the James C. Hendy Memorial Award.[13][14]

Arniel became the third Moose coach in six years to make the jump to the NHL when he was hired by the Columbus Blue Jackets as their new head coach in 2010. Ironically, Arniel was replaced by former Blue Jackets interim head coach Claude Noel, whose contract had not renewed by the club.[15] During the same off-season, Keane's contract was not renewed and his #12 jersey was later retired on Mike Keane Tribute Night, February 12, 2011.[16][17] During the 2011 playoffs, the Moose came back from 3 game to 1 deficit to the Lake Erie Monsters in the first round to advance. They fell behind 3 games to 1 again in round two, this time to the Bulldogs, and came back to force a seventh game. However, the Bulldogs won Game 7 and the series with a 2–1 win in triple overtime in the longest Game 7 in AHL history.[18]

During their first tenure in the AHL, the Moose were one of the league's most successful franchises. Moose attendance was among the best in the league every season, including an average of 8,404 per game in the 2010-2011 season.[19] The organization was also popular with the players, as the Moose "had the reputation of being run like an NHL club".[20] League president and CEO David Andrews called the Moose "a flagship franchise for the AHL".[21]

2008–09 Calder Cup Finals[edit]

The Moose finished the 2008–09 season with the best record in the AHL. In the second round of the Calder Cup Playoffs, the Moose completed their first playoff sweep in franchise history, defeating the Grand Rapids Griffins. After beating the Houston Aeros in six games to win the Western Conference final, the Moose advanced to the Calder Cup finals for the first time. Their opponent was the Hershey Bears, the defending champions.[4][22]

Games 1 and 2 of the final series were played at the MTS Centre in Winnipeg. The Bears took the first game 5–4 in overtime in front of a sold out crowd of 15,003. In Game 2, the Moose were led by Jason Jaffray's hat trick and tied the series with a 3–1 victory.[23] [24]

After the teams split the first two games in Winnipeg, the series shifted to the Giant Center in Hershey for Games 3, 4, and 5. Hershey won Games 3 and 4 by scores of 3–0 and 2–1 to take a 3 to 1 series lead. However, the Moose came back to win Game 5 and send the series back to Winnipeg for Game 6 and hopefully a Game 7.

In Game 6, in front of another sold crowd at the MTS Centre, the Bears scored three first period goals en route to a 4–1 win over the Moose and their team's tenth Calder Cup.[25]

St. John's IceCaps (2011–2015)[edit]

Main article: St. John's IceCaps

On May 31, 2011, Mark Chipman announced True North Sports and Entertainment's acquisition of the NHL's Atlanta Thrashers with the intent of relocating the team to Winnipeg for the 2011–12 season. The return of the NHL to Winnipeg prompted True North to find a new home for its AHL franchise, thus ending the team's 15-year tenure in Manitoba. A deal with former Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador Danny Williams was quickly negotiated to relocate the team to St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, which was swiftly approved by the AHL Board of Governors.[26] Upon relocation to St. John's, the team was renamed the St. John's IceCaps and became the AHL affiliate of the Winnipeg Jets.[27][28]

The success of the AHL franchise continued in St. John's. Attendance at Mile One Centre was strong, as the IceCaps enjoyed the second longest home sellout streak in league history at 120 games between 2011 and 2014.[29][30] In 2011–12, the IceCaps won their division and advanced as far as the conference final. In 2013–14, the IceCaps advanced to the Calder Cup finals for the second time in franchise history, but lost to the Texas Stars in five games.[31]

Return to Manitoba[edit]

As early as January 2014, Chipman confirmed that True North was looking to move its AHL franchise closer to Winnipeg, with Thunder Bay, Ontario being cited as a preferred destination.[32] Although True North and Danny Williams' group had extended their agreement through 2016, Williams was able to negotiate a deal to relocate the Hamilton Bulldogs to St. John's for the 2015–16 season, retaining the IceCaps' name and graphical identity (with adjustments to match the Habs affiliation) for the relocated club. [33]

As a new arena deal in Thunder Bay was not forthcoming, True North opted to return the franchise to Winnipeg for the 2015—16 season. As a result, the team is currently one of two AHL teams (along with the San Jose Sharks' affiliate, the San Jose Barracuda), that shares an arena with its NHL parent club.[34][35] In May 2015, True North revealed that the team would once again be called the Manitoba Moose, at the same time unveiling slight changes to the former Moose logo and a colour scheme to match the Winnipeg Jets.[36] The team also confirmed that Keith McCambridge, who had been with the Moose/IceCaps since 2009, would remain as head coach.[37]

Team Information[edit]

Logos and uniforms[edit]

Logo from 2005-2011

The current Manitoba Moose uniforms are patterned after that of the Winnipeg Jets, their NHL parent club, whose colors are polar night blue, aviator blue, silver, and white. However, unlike the Jets, the Moose wear their white uniforms for home games, in accordance with AHL rules.[36] During their IHL days, the Moose colors were purple, green, and copper. The team switched to teal, copper, and black after joining the AHL, which remained the team's colors until relocating to St. John's in 2011.

The original Minnesota Moose logo, consisting of a Moose holding a hockey stick, was carried over when the team moved to Winnipeg in 1996. The logo was slightly altered in 2001 to match the team's new color scheme. A new logo created by Milwaukee-based graphic designer David Mann was introduced in 2005, which the team used until 2011. The Moose returned to the same logo upon their return to Winnipeg in 2015, albeit with an altered color scheme to match the new team colors.[38][39]


Mick E. Moose debuted as the mascot of the Manitoba Moose in 1996. The Winnipeg Jets "recalled" him from the AHL in 2011 to become their mascot following the departure of the Moose to St. John's. Since the return of the Manitoba Moose in 2015, he has doubled as mascot for both teams.[40] Aside from hockey games, Mick E. Moose makes approximately one hundred public appearances each year at various community events.[41]


TSN Radio 1290 (CFRW) is the official radio and internet broadcast partner of the Manitoba Moose. All Moose games are broadcast online, while radio broadcasts are carried by CFRW when the Moose schedule does not conflict with Winnipeg Jets games, which are also broadcast by the station. Former CBC sportscaster Mitch Peacock serves as the team's play-by-play announcer.[1] CJOB 680 previously held Moose radio broadcast rights from 1996 to 2011, with Kelly Moore (1996–2006) and Brian Munz (2006–2011) as play-by-play announcers.


The Manitoba Moose play their home games at the MTS Centre in Downtown Winnipeg, which they share with the Winnipeg Jets. Although the arena seats 15,294 for hockey, only the lower bowl, with a capacity of 8,812, is open for most Moose games. Most practices and training sessions are held at the MTS Iceplex, which is a secondary venue for both the Moose and Jets.[42][43]

Prior to the opening of the MTS Centre in November 2004, the team played at the Winnipeg Arena in Polo Park.

Season-by-season results[edit]

Regular season[edit]

Season Games Won Lost Tied OTL SOL Points Goals
1996–97 82 32 40 10 74 262 300 5th, Midwest
1997–98 82 39 36 7 85 269 254 4th, Northwest
1998–99 82 47 21 14 108 269 236 2nd, Midwest
1999–2000 82 37 31 14 88 227 237 5th, West
2000–01 82 39 31 12 90 222 230 3rd, West
2001–02 80 39 33 4 4 86 270 260 4th, Canadian
2002–03 80 37 33 8 2 84 229 228 2nd, Canadian
2003–04 80 32 35 11 2 77 214 232 6th, North
2004–05 80 44 26 7 3 98 243 210 3rd, North
2005–06 80 44 24 7 5 100 243 217 3rd, North
2006–07 80 45 23 7 5 102 232 201 1st, North
2007–08 80 46 27 3 4 99 236 197 3rd, North
2008–09 80 50 23 1 6 107 230 177 1st, League
2009–10 80 40 33 5 2 87 204 232 4th North
2010–11 80 43 30 1 6 93 220 210 3rd, North
2011–2015 Played as St. John's IceCaps


Season Prelim 1st round 2nd round 3rd round Finals
1996–97 Out of playoffs.
1997–98 L, 0–3, Chicago
1998–99 W, 2–0, Milwaukee L, 0–3, Chicago
1999–2000 L, 0–2, Long Beach
2000–01 W, 4–3, Houston L, 2–4, Chicago
2001–02 W, 2–1, Worcester L, 1–3, Bridgeport
2002–03 W, 2–1, Portland W, 3–1, Providence L, 3–4, Hamilton
2003–04 Out of playoffs.
2004–05 W, 4–1, St. John's W, 4–1, Rochester L, 0–4, Chicago
2005–06 W, 4–2, Syracuse L, 3–4, Grand Rapids
2006–07 W, 4–3, Grand Rapids L, 2–4, Hamilton
2007–08 L, 2–4, Syracuse
2008–09 W, 4–2, Toronto W, 4–0, Grand Rapids W, 4–2, Houston L, 2–4, Hershey
2009–10 L, 2–4, Hamilton
2010–11 W, 4–3, Lake Erie L, 3–4, Hamilton
2011–2015 Played as St. John's IceCaps


Current Roster[edit]

Updated October 21, 2015.[44]

# Nat Player Pos S/G Age Acquired Birthplace Contract
16 United States Albert, JohnJohn Albert (C) C L 26 2015 Cleveland, Ohio Moose
10 Finland Armia, JoelJoel Armia RW R 22 2015 Pori, Finland Jets
23 Sweden Blomqvist, AxelAxel Blomqvist LW L 20 2015 Osby, Sweden Jets
50 Canada Brassard, AustenAusten Brassard RW R 22 2015 Toronto, Ontario Jets
1 Canada Comrie, EricEric Comrie G L 20 2015 Edmonton, Alberta Jets
28 Canada Cormier, PatricePatrice Cormier (A) C L 25 2015 Moncton, New Brunswick Jets
19 United States De Leo, ChaseChase De Leo C L 20 2015 La Mirada, California Jets
25 Canada Fraser, MattMatt Fraser LW L 25 2015 Red Deer, Alberta Jets
49 Czech Republic Fronk, JiriJiri Fronk RW R 21 2015 Louny, Czech Republic Moose
15 Canada Halischuk, MattMatt Halischuk LW R 27 2015 Toronto, Ontario Jets
20 Canada Harrison, JayJay Harrison D L 33 2015 Oshawa, Ontario Jets
27 United States Harstad, AaronAaron Harstad D L 23 2015 Stevens Point, Wisconsin Moose
37 United States Hellebuyck, ConnorConnor Hellebuyck G L 22 2015 Commerce, Michigan Jets
8 Canada Kichton, BrendenBrenden Kichton D L 23 2015 Spruce Grove, Alberta Jets
24 Canada Kosmachuk, ScottScott Kosmachuk RW R 21 2015 Toronto, Ontario Jets
3 Czech Republic Kostalek, JanJan Kostalek D R 20 2015 Prague, Czech Republic Jets
22 Canada Kramer, DarrenDarren Kramer C L 24 2015 Peace River, Alberta Moose
34 Canada Lipon, J.C.J.C. Lipon RW R 22 2015 Regina, Saskatchewan Jets
17 United States Lodge, JimmyJimmy Lodge RW R 20 2015 Downingtown, Pennsylvania Jets
2 Canada MacWilliam, AndrewAndrew MacWilliam (A) D L 25 2015 Calgary, Alberta Jets
44 Canada Melchiori, JulianJulian Melchiori D L 23 2015 Richmond Hill, Ontario Jets
7 Canada Morrissey, JoshJosh Morrissey D L 20 2015 Calgary, Alberta Jets
9 Canada Olsen, RyanRyan Olsen C R 21 2015 Delta, British Columbia Jets
5 Austria Raffl, ThomasThomas Raffl LW L 29 2015 Villach, Austria Jets
42 Canada Stoykewych, PeterPeter Stoykewych D L 23 2015 Winnipeg, Manitoba Moose

Team captains[edit]

Retired numbers[edit]

  • 12 – Canada Mike Keane

Team records[edit]

Single season[edit]

Goals: 45 United States Scott Thomas (1998–99)
Assists: 81 Canada Stephane Morin (1994–95)
Points: 114 Canada Stephane Morin (1994–95)
Penalty minutes: 285 Canada Wade Brookbank (2004–05)
Wins: 35 United States Cory Schneider (2009–10)
GAA: 2.04 United States Cory Schneider (2008–09)
SV%: .928 United States Cory Schneider (2008–09)


Career goals: 157 Canada Jason Jaffray
Career assists: 243 Canada Jason Jaffray
Career points: 400 Canada Jason Jaffray
Career penalty minutes: 1434 Canada Jimmy Roy
Career goaltending wins: 84 United States Cory Schneider
Career shutouts: 12 United States Cory Schneider
Career games: 603 Canada Jimmy Roy

Franchise scoring leaders[edit]

These are the top-ten point-scorers in franchise history. Figures are updated after each completed AHL regular season.

Note: Pos = Position; GP = Games Played; G = Goals; A = Assists; Pts = Points; P/G = Points per game

Player Pos GP G A Pts P/G
Canada Jason Jaffray LW 492 157 243 400 0.81
United States Brett Hauer D 322 58 193 251 0.78
Canada Nolan Baumgartner D 451 45 169 214 0.47
Canada Jimmy Roy LW 603 101 111 212 0.35
Canada Stephane Morin F 173 63 138 201 1.16
Canada Bill Bowler C 187 55 134 189 1.01
Canada Brandon Reid C 259 70 111 181 0.70
Canada Lee Goren RW 193 80 91 171 0.89
Canada Scott Arniel F 222 67 104 171 0.77
Canada Brian Chapman D 447 24 135 158 0.35

Reference: Internet Hockey Database

Updated to 2014–15 inclusive.

Team coaches[edit]



Team general managers[edit]

  • Canada Jean Perron, 1996–97 (fired 50 games into first season)
  • Canada Randy Carlyle, 1997–2002 (became Washington Capitals assistant coach)
  • Canada Craig Heisinger, 2002–2011 (held position with franchise in St. John's from 2011–2015), 2015–Present

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b White, Chris (October 1, 2015). "Moose partner with TSN 1290 for radio and online broadcasts". 
  2. ^ Wong, Craig (May 31, 2011). "Chipman's work to return NHL to Winnipeg began almost as soon as Jets left town". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Future of Manitoba Moose uncertain". May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2011. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b c d Wiebe, Ken (May 31, 2011). "Winnipeg fans have Moose to thank". Winnipeg Sun. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  5. ^ Turner, Randy (June 22, 2010). "Moose job prestigious gig in hockey circles". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  6. ^ Lawless, Gary (June 8, 2011). "Chevy solid selection as GM". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  7. ^ Campbell, Tim (April 3, 2009). "Captain Gilhen took one for team". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  8. ^ Lawless, Gary (June 1, 2011). "Way to go, Winnipeg! Perseverance pays". Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Just Plain Goofy". Winnipeg Free Press. April 4, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  10. ^ Bourgeois, Andrew (June 3, 2001). "IHL To Fold This Week and Merge To AHL". Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b "Randy Caryle bio". Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Wiebe, Ken (December 26, 2004). "A year of change for the Moose". Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Moose Head Coach Arniel Named AHL Coach of the Year". April 7, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2011. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Scott Arniel named Blue Jackets head coach". June 8, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2011. [dead link]
  15. ^ "Manitoba Moose hire new coach". June 21, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Moose retire Keane's number 12". February 13, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  17. ^ Lawless, Gary (February 12, 2011). "No hard feelings, says Keane". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved June 17, 2011. [dead link]
  18. ^ "Bulldogs Eliminate Moose in Longest Game 7 in AHL History". May 10, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2011. [dead link]
  19. ^ "AHL Attendance Report 2010-11". May 31, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Winnipeg's new NHL team faces economic realities (AP)". MSN Money. May 31, 2011. 
  21. ^ "AHL statement on True North announcement". May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Moose advance to Calder Cup final with 3–1 victory over Aeros". Winnipeg Free Press. May 25, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Game 1 Recap". May 30, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Game 2 Recap". June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  25. ^ Campbell, Tim (June 10, 2009). "Hershey Bears take Calder Cup with 4–1 win over Moose". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  26. ^ "AHL returning to St. John's". Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  27. ^ Wiebe, Ken. "Mr". Winnipeg Sun. Winnipeg Sun. Retrieved June 2, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Pro hockey returning to St. John's". CBC News. June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2011. 
  29. ^ Short, Robin (November 14, 2014). "IceCaps put the brakes on losing skid". The Packet. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  30. ^ Campbell, Tim (March 20, 2015). "AHL would give fans a look at Jets' future". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Texas Stars win first Calder Cup with OT victory". June 17, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  32. ^ Chura, Peter (January 21, 2014). "True North has ‘preliminary’ plan for AHL team in Thunder Bay". Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Hamilton Bulldogs moving to St. John's, IceCaps to Winnipeg". March 12, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  34. ^ "True North relocates AHL franchise to Winnipeg". Winnipeg Jets. March 12, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015. 
  35. ^ Roberts, Meghan (March 12, 2015). "Winnipeggers and local businesses welcome AHL team". CTV Winnipeg. Retrieved March 13, 2015. 
  36. ^ a b Campbell, Tim (May 4, 2015). "Welcome (back) to the Manitoba Moose". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  37. ^ Campbell, Tim (May 9, 2015). "Of Moose and men". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  38. ^ Johnston, Mike (May 4, 2015). "Manitoba Moose return to AHL with new look". Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  39. ^ Peterson, Christopher (May 21, 2007). "Logo Wars". Edmonton Journal. Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  40. ^ Roylen, Rory (January 17, 2014). "Top 10 NHL Mascots". The Hockey News. Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  41. ^ "Fan favourite Mick E. Moose drafted into the NHL ranks". Winnipeg Free Press. October 8, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  42. ^ Roberts, Meghan (March 12, 2015). "Winnipeggers and local businesses welcome AHL team". CTV Winnipeg. Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  43. ^ "MTS Iceplex to undergo $7.5M expansion to make room for Jets and Moose". August 31, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015. 
  44. ^ "Manitoba Moose playing roster". American Hockey League. 2015-10-11. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 

External links[edit]