|Edited by||Edward Dutton|
Ulster Institute for Social Research
Ulster Institute for Social Research (United Kingdom)
|Mank. Q. Monogr.|
Mankind Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that has been described as a "cornerstone of the scientific racism establishment" and a "white supremacist journal", "scientific racism's keepers of the flame", a journal with a "racist orientation" and an "infamous racist journal", and a "journal of 'scientific racism'". It covers physical and cultural anthropology, including human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, linguistics, mythology, archaeology, etc., and aims to unify anthropology with biology. It is published by the Ulster Institute for Social Research in London.
The journal was established in 1961 with funding from segregationists, who designed it to serve as a mouthpiece for their views. The costs of initially launching the journal were paid by the Pioneer Fund's Wickliffe Draper. The founders were Robert Gayre, Henry Garrett, Roger Pearson, Corrado Gini, Luigi Gedda (Honorary Advisory Board), Otmar von Verschuer and Reginald Ruggles Gates. Another early editor was Herbert Charles Sanborn, formerly the chair of the department of Philosophy and Psychology at Vanderbilt University from 1921 to 1942. It was originally published in Edinburgh, Scotland, by the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, an organization founded by Draper to promote eugenics and scientific racism.
Its foundation may in part have been a response to the declaration by UNESCO, which dismissed the validity of race as a biological concept, and to increasing attempts to ban racial segregation in the American South.
In 1961 physical anthropologist Juan Comas published a series of scathing critiques of the journal arguing that the journal was reproducing discredited racial ideologies, such as Nordicism and anti-Semitism, under the guise of science. In 1963, after the journal's first issue, contributors U. R. Ehrenfels, T. N. Madan, and Juan Comas said that the journal's editorial practice was biased and misleading. In response, the journal published a series of rebuttals and attacks on Comas. Comas argued in Current Anthropology that the journal's publication of A. James Gregor's review of Comas' book Racial Myths was politically motivated. Comas claimed the journal misrepresented the field of physical anthropology by adhering to outdated racial ideologies, for example by claiming that Jews were considered a "biological race" by the racial biologists of the time. Other anthropologists complained that paragraphs that did not agree with the racial ideology of the editorial board were deleted from published articles without the authors' agreement.
Few academic anthropologists would publish in the journal or serve on its board; when Gates died, Carleton S. Coon, an anthropologist sympathetic to the hereditarian and racialist view of the journal, was asked to replace him, but he rejected the offer stating that "I fear that for a professional anthropologist to accept membership on your board would be the kiss of death". The journal continued to be published supported by grant money. Publisher Roger Pearson received over a million dollars in grants from the Pioneer Fund in the 1980s and 1990s.
During the "Bell Curve wars" of the 1990s, the journal received attention when opponents of The Bell Curve publicised the fact that some of the works cited by Bell Curve authors Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray had first been published in Mankind Quarterly. In The New York Review of Books, Charles Lane referred to The Bell Curve's "tainted sources", that seventeen researchers cited in the book's bibliography had contributed articles to, and ten of these seventeen had also been editors of, Mankind Quarterly, "a notorious journal of 'racial history' founded, and funded, by men who believe in the genetic superiority of the white race."
The journal has been published by the Ulster Institute for Social Research since January 2015, when publication duties were transferred from Pearson's Council for Social and Economic Studies (which had published the journal since 1979).
Hereditarianism and politics
Many of those involved with the journal are connected to academic hereditarianism. The journal has been criticised as being political and strongly right-leaning, supporting eugenics, racist or fascist.
Abstracting and indexing
The journal is abstracted and indexed in:
- ATLA Religion Database
- International Bibliography of the Social Sciences
- Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts
- Modern Language Association Database
- Gresson, Aaron; Kincheloe, Joe L.; Steinberg, Shirley R. (eds.). Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). St. Martin's Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-312-17228-2.
- William H. Tucker, The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press, 2002, pg. 2
- Ibrahim G. Aoudé, The ethnic studies story: politics and social movements in Hawaiʻi, University of Hawaii Press, 1999, pg. 111
- Kenneth Leech, Race, Church Publishing, Inc., 2005, pg. 14
- Schaffer, G. (2 September 2008). Racial Science and British Society, 1930-62. Springer. pp. 142–3. ISBN 9780230582446.
- Cassata F. "Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism". Med Secoli. 20: 907–35. PMID 19848223.
- "History and Philosophy". Mankind Quarterly. Retrieved 22 September 2015 – via Internet Archive.
- Schaffer, Gavin (2007). ""'Scientific' Racism Again?": Reginald Gates, the "Mankind Quarterly" and the Question of "Race" in Science after the Second World War". Journal of American Studies. 41 (2): 253–278. doi:10.2307/27557994. JSTOR 27557994.
The Mankind Quarterly was designed as an objective foil to the folly of UNESCO and "post-racial" science.
- Jackson, John P. (2005). Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education. NYU Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-8147-4271-6. Lay summary (30 August 2010).
While the IAAEE scientists were deep into the fight to preserve racial segregation in the American South, they were also involved in a battle on a different front. They had launched their own journal, Mankind Quarterly, which purported to be dedicated to an open discussion of the scientific study of racial issues.
- Comas Juan (1961). ""Scientific" Racism Again?". Current Anthropology. 2 (4): 303–340. doi:10.1086/200208.
- Comas Juan (1962). "More on "Scientific" Racism". Current Anthropology. 3 (3): 284–302. doi:10.1086/200293.
- Ehrenfels, U. R.; Madan, T. N.; Comas, J. (1962). "Mankind Quarterly Under Heavy Criticism: 3 Comments on Editorial Practices". Current Anthropology. 3 (2): 154–158. doi:10.1086/200265. JSTOR 2739528.
- Gates, R. R. & Gregor, A. J. (1963). "Mankind Quarterly: Gates and Gregor Reply to Critics". Current Anthropology. 4 (1): 119–121. doi:10.1086/200345. JSTOR 2739826.
- John P. Jackson. 2005. Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case Against Brown V. Board of Education. NYU Press 151–154
- Paul A. Erickson, Liam Donat Murphy. 2013. Readings for A History of Anthropological Theory. University of Toronto Press, p. 534
- Harrison G. Ainsworth (1961). "The Mankind Quarterly". Man. 61: 163–164.
- Tucker, William H. (2007). The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (4 September 2010).
- Mehler, Barry (7 July 1998). Race Science and the Pioneer Fund Originally published as "The Funding of the Science" in Searchlight, No. 277.
- Genoves, Santiago (8 December 1961). "Racism and "The Mankind Quarterly"". Science. 134 (3493): 1928–1932. doi:10.1126/science.134.3493.1928. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 17831127.
- Weyher, Harry F.; Lane, Charles (2 February 1995). "'The Bell Curve' and Its Sources". The New York Review of Books.
- Editorial Panel, Mankind Quarterly, retrieved 15 May 2015
- e.g., Arvidsson, Stefan (2006), Aryan Idols: Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science, translated by Sonia Wichmann, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
- Mehler, Barry (December 1989). "Foundation for fascism: The new eugenics movement in the United States". Patterns of Prejudice. 23 (4): 17–25. doi:10.1080/0031322X.1989.9970026.
- Schaffer, Gavin (2008). Racial science and British society, 1930–62. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Gelb, Steven A. (1997). "Heart of Darkness: The Discreet Charm of the Hereditarian Psychologist". The Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies. 19 (1): 129–139. doi:10.1080/1071441970190110.
- "Title and Product Update Lists". ATLA Religion Database. American Theological Library Association. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Mankind Quarterly". MIAR: Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals. University of Barcelona. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Source details: Mankind Quarterly". Scopus preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- Anderson, Scott; Anderson, Jon Lee (1986). Inside the League. Dodd, Mead. ISBN 978-0-396-08517-1.
- Tucker, William H. (1996). The Science and Politics of Racial Research. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06560-6. Lay summary (7 November 2010).
- Tucker, William H. (2009). The Cattell Controversy: Race, Science, and Ideology. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03400-8. Lay summary (30 August 2010).