Manned Orbiting Laboratory
A 1967 conceptual drawing of the Gemini B reentry capsule separating from the MOL at the end of a mission
|Mass||31,910 lb (14,470 kg)|
|Length||71.9 ft (21.9 m)|
|Diameter||10.0 ft (3.0 m)|
|Pressurised volume||400 cu ft (11.3 m3)|
|Orbital inclination||polar or sun synchronous orbit|
|Days in orbit||40 days|
Configuration of the Manned Orbital Laboratory
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was part of the United States Air Force's manned spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project. The project was developed from several early Air Force and NASA concepts of manned space stations to be used for reconnaissance purposes. MOL evolved into a single-use laboratory, with which crews would be launched on 40-day missions and return to Earth using a Gemini B spacecraft, derived from NASA's Project Gemini.
The MOL program was announced to the public on 10 December 1963 as a manned platform to prove the utility of man in space for military missions. Astronauts selected for the program were later told of the reconnaissance mission for the program. The contractor for the MOL was the Douglas Aircraft Company. The Gemini B was externally similar to NASA's Gemini spacecraft, although it underwent several modifications, including the addition of a circular hatch through the heat shield, which allowed passage between the spacecraft and the laboratory.
MOL was cancelled in 1969, during the height of the Apollo program, when it was shown that unmanned reconnaissance satellites could achieve the same objectives much more cost-effectively. U.S. space station development was instead pursued with the civilian NASA Skylab (Apollo Applications Program) which flew in the mid-1970s.
- 1 Planned operations
- 2 Gemini B
- 3 MOL astronauts
- 4 MOL flight schedule
- 5 Development
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The MOL was planned to use a helium-oxygen atmosphere. It used a Gemini B spacecraft as a reentry vehicle.
The crew were to be launched using a Titan 3M with the stacked Gemini B and MOL, and returned to Earth in the Gemini B. They would conduct up to 40 days of military reconnaissance using large optics, cameras, and side-looking radar.
The USAF Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) was developed for the MOL project. NASA chief astronaut Deke Slayton later speculated in his autobiography that the AMU may have been developed for MOL because the Air Force "thought they might have the chance to inspect somebody else's satellites."
In response to the announcement of the MOL, the Soviet Union commissioned the development of its own military space station, Almaz. Three Almaz space stations flew as Salyut space stations, and the program also developed a military add-on used on Salyut 6 and Salyut 7.
- Crew: 2
- Maximum duration: 40 days
- Orbit: Sun synchronous or polar
- Length: 71.9 ft (21.92 m)
- Diameter: 10.0 ft (3.05 m)
- Cabin Volume: 400 cu ft (11.3 m3)
- Mass: 31,914 lb (14,476 kg)
- Payload: 6,000 lb (2,700 kg)
- Power: fuel cells or solar cells
- RCS system: N2O4/MMH
The Gemini capsule was redesigned for MOL and named Gemini B. Externally it was similar to Gemini, but featured a rear hatch for the crew to enter MOL and many specific systems. Gemini B would be launched with the MOL space station. Once in orbit, the crew would power down the capsule and activate MOL. After about one month of space station operations, the crew would return to the Gemini B capsule, separate from the station and perform reentry. Gemini B had an autonomy of about 14 hours once detached from MOL.
Changes from Gemini
- Systems designed for long term orbital storage (40 days)
- New cockpit layout and instruments
- Helium-Oxygen cabin atmosphere
- Larger heat shield to handle higher energy reentries from polar orbit
- Spacecraft orientation was handled by the forward RCS thrusters only (no Gemini OAMS)
- Six solid propellant retrofire motors, used for deorbit or abort rockets in case of launch vehicle failure.
- Crew Size: 2.
- Orbital Storage: 40 days.
- Habitable Volume: 2.55 m3.
- Structure: 638 kg (1,406 lb).
- Heat shield: 144 kg (317 lb).
- Reaction Control System: 133 kg (293 lb).
- Recovery Equipment: 98 kg (216 lb).
- Navigation Equipment: 63 kg (138 lb).
- Telemetry Equipment: 51 kg (112 lb).
- Electrical Equipment: 126 kg (277 lb).
- Communications Systems: 26 kg (57 lb).
- Crew Seats and Provisions: 426 kg (939 lb).
- Crew: 144 kg (317 lb).
- Miscellaneous Contingency: 100 kg (220 lb).
- RCS Fine No x Thrust: 16 x 98 N.
- RCS specific impulse: 283 sec.
- RCS total impulse: 90 kgf-sec.
- Electric System: 4.00 kWh.
- Battery: 180.00 Ah.
- Spacecraft delta v: 140 m/s (450 ft/sec).
- Gross mass: 1,868 kg (4,118 lb).
- Unfuelled mass: 1,718 kg (3,787 lb).
- Height: 1.56 m (5.11 ft).
- Diameter: 2.32 m (7.61 ft).
- Specific impulse: 255 s.
- Gross mass: 1,983 kg (4,371 lb).
- Unfuelled mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb).
- Height: 3.35 m (10.99 ft).
- Diameter: 2.32 m (7.61 ft).
- Specific impulse: 283 s.
Gemini B prototype spacecraft (Gemini 2) used on only MOL test, on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum
- MOL Group 1 - November 1965
- Michael J. Adams USAF (1930-1967) — killed on X-15 flight, 15 November 1967
- Albert H. Crews Jr. USAF
- John L. Finley USN (1935-2006)
- Richard E. Lawyer USAF (1932-2005)
- Lachlan Macleay USAF
- Francis G. Neubeck USAF
- James M. Taylor USAF (1930-1970) — killed on T-38 flight, 4 September 1970
- Richard H. Truly USN — Pilot, Space Shuttle Enterprise ALT #2, STS-2; Commander: STS-8; Commander, Naval Space Command as a Vice Admiral; Administrator: NASA, 1989–92
- MOL Group 2 - June 1966
- Karol J. Bobko USAF — Pilot, STS-6, Commander, STS-51-D. STS-51-J
- Robert L. Crippen USN — Pilot, STS-1, Commander, STS-7, STS-41C, STS-41G; Director, Kennedy Space Center, 1992–95
- C. Gordon Fullerton USAF (1936-2013) — Pilot, Space Shuttle Enterprise ALT #1, STS-3, Commander, STS-51-F
- Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr. USAF (1933-2014) — Pilot, STS-4, Commander, STS-41-D, STS-61-A; Director, Human Exploration and Development of Space Independent Assurance
- Robert F. Overmyer USMC (1936-1996) — Pilot, STS-5, Commander: STS-51-B; killed in Cirrus crash, 22 March 1996
- MOL Group 3 - June 1967
- James A. Abrahamson USAF — Director: Strategic Defense Initiative as a Lieutenant General
- Robert T. Herres USAF (1932-2008) — Vice Chairman: Joint Chiefs of Staff as a General
- Robert H. Lawrence, Jr. USAF (1935-1967) — Killed in training accident, 8 December 1967
- Donald H. Peterson USAF — Mission specialist: STS-6
MOL flight schedule
- 1970 December 1 - MOL 1 - First unmanned Gemini-B/Titan IIIM qualification flight (Gemini-B flown alone, without an active MOL).
- 1971 June 1 - MOL 2 - Second unmanned Gemini-B/Titan 3M qualification flight (Gemini-B flown alone, without an active MOL).
- 1972 February 1 - MOL 3 - A crew of two (James M. Taylor, Albert H. Crews) would have spent thirty days in orbit.
- 1972 November 1 - MOL 4 - Second manned mission.
- 1973 August 1 - MOL 5 - Third manned mission.
- 1974 May 1 - MOL 6 - Fourth manned MOL mission. All Navy crew composed of Richard H. Truly and Robert Crippen.
- 1975 February 1 - MOL 7 - Fifth manned MOL.
Test flight OPS 0855 for MOL was launched on 3 November 1966 at 13:50:42 UTC on a Titan IIIC-9 from Cape Canaveral Launch Complex 40. The flight consisted of a MOL mockup built from a Titan II propellant tank, and the refurbished Gemini 2 spacecraft as a Gemini B prototype.
After the Gemini B separated for a sub-orbital reentry, the MOL mockup continued into orbit and released three satellites. A hatch installed in the Gemini's heat shield—intended to provide access to the MOL during manned operations—was tested during the capsule's reentry. The Gemini capsule was recovered near Ascension Island in the South Atlantic by the USS La Salle after a flight of 33 minutes.
The Gemini 2 capsule used in the only flight of the MOL program is on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. A test article at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, is the Gemini B spacecraft (sometimes confused with Blue Gemini). It is recognized by its distinctive "US Air Force" written on the side, and the circular hatch cut through the heat shield.
Starting in 1965 a large optical system was added to the spacecraft for military reconnaissance. This camera system was codenamed Dorian and given the designation KH-10. The project was canceled on 10 June 1969 before any operational flights occurred.
The KH-10 intended for the MOL program was succeeded by the unmanned KH-11 Kennan, which launched in 1976 as the Soviet Union was winding down its manned space reconnaissance program. The KH-11 is said to have achieved the goal of 3-inch (76 mm) imaging resolution and introduced video transmission of images back to Earth.
The program was canceled on 10 June 1969 with the first projected flight three years away. Between 1965 and 1969, MOL's projected cost rose from $1.5 billion to $3 billion while the Vietnam War took larger portions of the defense budget. While Defense Secretary Melvin R. Laird and the Joint Chiefs of Staff strongly supported the station, Central Intelligence Agency head Richard Helms did not support the project because he feared that the death of a MOL astronaut might ground launches and thus damage the nation's satellite reconnaissance program. President Richard Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger agreed to the Bureau of the Budget's proposal to cancel MOL, as it was determined the capabilities of unmanned spy satellites met or exceeded the capabilities of manned MOL missions.
NASA offered those under 35 years of age the opportunity to transfer to its astronaut program. Seven of the 14 MOL astronauts were younger than 35 and took the offer, becoming NASA Astronaut Group 7: future NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly, Karol J. Bobko, Robert Crippen, C. Gordon Fullerton, Henry W. Hartsfield, Robert F. Overmyer, and Donald H. Peterson. All flew on the Space Shuttle.
- "Air Force to Develop Manned Orbiting Laboratory" (PDF) (Press release). Department of Defence. 10 December 1963.
- "NOVA: Astrospies". PBS. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 249.
- Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 174.
- "The Almaz program". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- Wade, Mark. "Almaz". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- Grahn, Sven. "The Almaz Space Station Program". Sven's Space Place. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "Gemini Capsule". Air Force Space & Missile Museum. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- "Gemini Spacecraft". National Museum of the US Air Force. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- Heppenheimer, T. A. (1998). The Space Shuttle Decision. NASA. pp. 204–205. OCLC 40305626. SP-4221.
- Nutter, Ashley (2 June 2005). "Suits for Space Spies". NASA.gov. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "Index, Declassified Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) Records". National Reconnaissance Office. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Slayton, Donald K. "Deke"; Cassutt, Michael (1994). Deke! U.S. Manned Space: From Mercury to the Shuttle (1st ed.). New York: Forge. p. 249. ISBN 0-312-85503-6. LCCN 94002463. OCLC 29845663.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manned Orbiting Laboratory.|
- MOL at Encyclopedia Astronautica
- Declassified MOL files by the National Reconnaissance Office
- SSLV-5 No. 9 Post Firing Flight Test Report (Final Evaluation Report) and MOL-EFT Final Flight Test Report (Summary)
- Winfrey, David (16 November 2015). "The last spacemen: MOL and what might have been". The Space Review.