|Native name: Il-Gżira Manoel|
View of Manoel Island in the 19th century
Map of Manoel Island within Marsamxett Harbour
|Location||Marsamxett Harbour, Malta, south of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea|
|Area||0.3 km2 (0.12 sq mi)|
Manoel Island is a small island which forms part of the municipality of Gżira in Marsamxett Harbour, Malta. It is named after the Portuguese Grandmaster António Manoel de Vilhena, who built a fort on the island in 1726, and previously it was known as l'Isola del Vescovo.
Manoel Island is a flat island shaped roughly like a leaf. It is located in the middle of Marsamxett Harbour, with Lazzaretto Creek to its south and Sliema Creek to its north. The island is connected to mainland Malta by a bridge. The whole island can be viewed from the bastions of the capital Valletta.
In 1570, the island was acquired by the Cathedral Chapter of Mdina and it became the property of the Bishop of Malta. It was therefore called l'Isola del Vescovo or il-Gżira tal-Isqof in Maltese (the Bishop's Island).
In 1592, a quarantine hospital known as Lazzaretto was built after an outbreak of the plague. The hospital was made of wooden huts, and it was pulled down a year later after the disease had subsided. In 1643, during the reign of Grandmaster Lascaris, the Order of Saint John exchanged the island with the church for some land in Rabat and built a permanent Lazzaretto in an attempt to control the periodic influx of plague and cholera on board visiting ships. It was initially used as a quarantine centre where passengers from quarantined ships were taken. The hospital was subsequently improved during the reigns of Grandmasters Cotoner, Carafa and de Vilhena.
Between 1723 and 1755, a new star fort was built on the island by the Portuguese Grandmaster António Manoel de Vilhena. The fort was called Fort Manoel after the Grandmaster, and the island was renamed at this point. The fort is considered a marvel of 18th century military engineering, and its original plans are attributed to Louis d'Augbigne Tigné, and are said to have been modified by his friend and colleague Charles François de Mondion, who is buried in a crypt beneath Fort Manoel. At one time, the Knights of Malta considered developing a walled city on Manoel Island, but instead they settled on a fort designed to house up to 500 soldiers. The Fort has a magnificent quadrangle, parade ground and arcade, and once housed a baroque chapel dedicated to St. Anthony of Padua, under the direct command of the Order.
In the British period, the Lazzaretto continued to be used and was enlarged during the governorship of Sir Henry Bouverie in 1837 and 1838. It was briefly used to house troops but was converted back into a hospital in 1871. During the course of the 19th century, some incoming mail was fumigated and disinfected at the Profumo Office of the hospital to prevent the spread of diseases.
During World War II, when Malta was under siege, Manoel Island and its fort were used as a naval base by the Royal Navy, at which time it was referred to as "HMS Talbot" or "HMS Phœnicia". The Chapel of St. Anthony was destroyed following a direct hit by Luftwaffe bombers in March 1942. The island and the fort remaind derelict for many years and Fort Manoel and the Lazzaretto were both vandalized.
Restoration and renovation began in the early 21st century.
Yacht Marina and Yacht Yard
Manoel Island currently houses a yacht yard and yacht marina. The yacht marina has been under new management since 2011, and it accommodates vessels up to 80 metres in length. It has a total of 350 berths.
The yacht yard can accommodate yachts and catamarans of up to 50 metres in length and a displacement of 500 tons. The yard offers boat storage, berthing afloat, repairs and complete refits.
For several years, Manoel Island has housed a quaint, informal sanctuary for ducks and other waterfowl near the bridge connecting the island with the main island. It was created and is maintained by a local volunteer, and funded entirely by private donations.
In August 2001, MIDI plc began restoration work on Fort Manoel. Large parts of it were completely rebuilt, especially the areas that had been hit by bombs in World War II including the Chapel of St. Anthony. The fort was reopened to the public on 31 October 2009.
The Lazzaretto is also scheduled to be restored, but restoring the hospital is not easy since it had extensive damage over the years especially in the Second World War, and some parts are prone to collapsing. After the restoration, the former hospital might be turned into blocks of flats and hotels and a casino.
There are also plans for a new housing development on Manoel Island as well but MIDI has been giving more attention to its other project at the nearby Tigné Point. The Manoel Island redevelopment project, however, has been heavily criticized due to its proximity to the island's important historical buildings. A guarded barrier some 300 yards after the bridge makes clear, that no public is welcomed for the largest part of the island.
- "Manoel Island". Local Councils' Association. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Muscat, Ben (27 October 2008). "Brief history of the lazaretto (1)". Times of Malta. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Said, Frans H. (27 October 2008). "Brief history of the lazaretto (2)". Times of Malta. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "About Us". Manoel Island Yacht Marina. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Overview". Manoel Island Yacht Yard. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Duck Village". howtomalta.com. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Restoration of Fort Manoel". MIDI plc. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Bugeja, Zillah (4 September 2008). "Quarantine hospital for over 250 years to be restored". Times of Malta. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Midi considering ‘partner’ for Manoel Island project". Times of Malta. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
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