Mansehra

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Mansehra .
مانسہرہ
Town and Union council
Mansehra is surrounded by verdant mountains
Mansehra is surrounded by verdant mountains
Mansehra   . is located in Pakistan
Mansehra   .
Mansehra .
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 34°20′N 73°12′E / 34.333°N 73.200°E / 34.333; 73.200
Country Pakistan
Region Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
District Mansehra District
Elevation 1,088 m (3,570 ft)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)

Mansehra / Hindko dialect Urdu: مانسہرہ) is a town or city is located at 34°20′N 73°12′E / 34.333°N 73.200°E / 34.333; 73.200Coordinates: 34°20′N 73°12′E / 34.333°N 73.200°E / 34.333; 73.200[1] in Mansehra District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is a major stop for tourists on the Karakoram Highway which leads to China. It is also a major transit point to the northern areas and locations such as the Kaghan Valley, Naran, Shogran, Lake Saiful Mulook and Babusar Top.

History[edit]

There are several theories as to the name of Mansehra. One is that the word 'Mansehra' is actually the Hindi word "Mahaan Sehra" means the flowers in abundance[citation needed]; whereas the more popular version is that it is named after the main town's founder, Man Singh, a Sikh governor during the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh circa mid-19th century[2]

The area now called Mansehra remained under the rule of various emperors and governments, from Ashoka the Great, via the Afghans, the Turks and the British Empire down to present Pakistani rule.

Maurya Dynasty[edit]

During the Maurya dynasty, Mansehra was a part of Taxila. Ashoka the Great was the governor of this area when he was a prince. After the death of his father, the Mauryan emperor Bindusara, Ashoka ascended to the throne around 272 B.C. and made this area one of the major seats of his government. The Edicts of Ashoka inscribed on three large boulders on the side of a rocky outcrop near Mansehra serve as evidence of his rule. The Mansehra rocks record fourteen of Ashoka's edicts, presenting aspects of the emperor's dharma or righteous law, and represent the earliest irrefutable evidence of writing in South Asia. Dating to middle of the third century BC, they are written from right to left in the Kharosthi script.[3]

Turkish rule[edit]

The Turkish Shahi and Hindu Shahi dynasties ruled here one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mahmud of Ghazni defeated him during his first Indian campaign. However, there is no historical evidence that Mahmud of Ghazni ever visited or passed through here.

After the fall of the Hindu Shahi dynasty in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the leadership of Kalashan (1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled this area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of this region.

In 1399, the Muslim Turkic warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in this area to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin a descendant of Amir Taimur, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose the village of Gulibagh as his capital.

During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, the region called '(Pakhli)' then provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir.

In the 18th century, Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Swathis and their allied forces. The most crucial attack was that of the Swatis in collusion with Syed Jalal Baba in 1703. Syed Jalal Shah was the son in law of the last ruler of Turkic dynasty, Sultan Mehmud Khurd. During the absence of the Sultan Syed Jalal Shah (Jalal Baba) took advantage of the situation, conspired with Swatis, invited them to attack Pakhli Sarkar and succeeded to overthrow the Turkish rulers from the Sarkar. Thus Swatis ousted the Turks and captured this area. The descendents of this Turkic dynasty still live in various parts of Hazara, such as Tumbah, Behali, Bararkot, Manakrai, Girwal, Mohar,etc.

Durrani Afghans[edit]

When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Hazara also came under his control. The Durranis considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly in the 19th century when the Sikhs took over.

Sikh Rule[edit]

The fall of the Durranis led way for the Sikhs to rise to power under Ranjit Singh. The Sikhs gained control of the area in 1818. The actual town or city of Mansehra was allegedly founded by Man Singh, a Sikh governor. Soon after the Sikh rule, popular uprisings against the sikhs began. One of the most popular being of Syed Ahmad Barelvi. However, the uprising failed. Syed Ahmad and hundreds of his followers were killed by the Sikh army in Balakot, Mansehra District in 1831due to the treachery of the local pashtun tribal chiefs. A number of Syed Ahmad's followers survived and continued to fight on, taking part in tribal uprisings in the North-west province as late as 1897 against the British. The short lived 30 year rule of the Sikhs ended in 1849. This is when the area came under the British rule.[4][5]

British Period[edit]

By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Mansehra. People of Mansehra remained a constant source of trouble for the British for four decades (1852–92). The British sent many expeditions to crush the rebellion, especially in the Black Mountains. To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measures by co-opting the local rulers.

The British divided Hazara District into three tehsils (administrative subdivisions): Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur; and decided to annex it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) was formed, Hazara was separated from Punjab and made a part of it. Throughout their rule in Mansehra, the British met fierce resistance from the local tribes and declared martial law. Meanwhile, the many villages around Mansehra largely governed themselves.

During British rule, Mansehra was still a small town; its population according to the 1901 census was 5,087.[6] During the British period Mansehra was the headquarters of Mansehra Tehsil, then a subdivision of Hazara District.

When the Muslim League in Pakistan started its movement for a separate land, the local people joined and struggled for liberation under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam. Their eventual victory culminated in the creation of Pakistan, an independent state for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

During Bhutto's regime, Mansehra was upgraded to a district, containing two subdivisions: Mansehra and Battagram. Later, the Mansehra district was divided into two districts namely Mansehra and Battagram, and tow subdivisions Balakot and Oghi were added to the Mansehra district.

Subdivisions[edit]

Mansehra District is divided to three main subdivisions (called [Tehsil]) namely Tehsil Mansera, Tehsil Balakot and Tehsil Oghi

Mansehra City[edit]

mansehra City is the administrative capital of District and Tehsil Mansehra. The city of Mansehra is administratively divided into four Union Councils:[7]

  • Mansehra City Ward No 1
  • Mansehra City Ward No 2
  • Mansehra City Ward No 3
  • Mansehra City Ward No 4
  • Mansehra (Rural)/suburban

Each union council is divided into Mohallas.

Tehsil Balakot[edit]

Kunhar River in Naran Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Tehsil Balakot with the tehsil headquarter in city of Balakot is the doorway to Kaghan Valley. Main town of Balakot is surrounded by lush, pine-covered mountains from all the sides and the roaring Kunhar River runs through it. Kaghan Valley has become the tourists' hub of Pakistan in recent years due to its marvelous scenery and peaceful location.

Tehsil Oghi[edit]

Town of Oghi is tehsil headquarter of Tehsil Oghi.

Language[edit]

Hindko, Gojri and Pashto are the major languages. Urdu, the national language of Pakistan, is also spoken in the urban areas of the district.

Education[edit]

Mansehra is in a province with a literacy rate of 35.41%. In comparison, Pakistan as a whole has literacy rate of 43.92%, while Islamabad leads the nation with 72.4% literacy.[8]

The first primary schools in Mansehra district were established in village Behali (1872) and Baffa (1874)and subsequently in Mansehra town in 1892. Nawansher and Sherwan in Hazara also had primary schools con-temporarily (1870s).

Schools and Colleges[edit]

Mansehra is the area with a literacy rate higher than the average in Pakistan. There is a huge network of schools and higher educational institutions in Mansehra. The prestigious Pakistan Scouts Cadet College Batrasi is located in the pine-covered hills of Batrasi area of Mansehra and is one of the famous educational institution of Pakistan. Other major institutions include Tameer-i-Nau Public School and College, Sky International School and College, Garden Public School, Abasen Public School And College, Kyber Public School & College, The peace College, The Educators etc. There is also a decent number state-run schools and colleges in the area.

University[edit]

The district has one university, the Hazara University and several colleges. Both Government and private colleges had played a major role in the literacy of Mansehra.

Cultural festival[edit]

In Durgashtami in Chetr and in Assu,[9] at the locality of Bareri, Hindus from the vicinity, to the number of about 400, assemble at the top of Bareri hill to worship Devi (as Durga)and to present offerings, which are taken by a Brahmin of Mansehra.[9] The assembly on each occasion lasts only one day.[9] The boulders near the base of Bareri Hill are notable because they contain Ashokan inscriptions.[10] At the nearby village of Chitti Gatti, there is an old temple dedicated to Shiva and probably one of the oldest Shiva Lingas in the region.

Tourism[edit]

All of Mansehra District is bestowed with natural beauty and cultural diversity. The region used to be a hotspot for international tourists in the past. However, with Pakistan's recent security issues, the number of foreign tourists has decreased. Pakistani tourists, however, are still highly attracted to the region. KAGHAN,NARAN and CHATTAR PLAIN are the major areas for torism in disst MANSEHRA

Places[edit]

Atter Shisha - Baffa - Khawajgan - Balakot - Old Mansehra City - Township Mansehra - Reerh - Siran valley - Kaghan Valley - New Balakot - Naran - Shogran - Oghi - abbasi mohallah - Dara No 1 By Pass Road - Hadobandi

Poets[edit]

- Col. Fazl e Akbar Kamal (Late) - Irshad Shakir - Jan e Alam - Muhammad Hanif

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Location of Mansehra". Falling Rain. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  2. ^ Hazara Gazetteer, 1884
  3. ^ "UNESCO world heritage Centre - Mansehra Rock Edicts". Whc.unesco.org. 2004-01-30. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  4. ^ Hazara Gazetteer 1884
  5. ^ Gazetteer 1884,
  6. ^ "Mānsehra Village - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 203". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  7. ^ "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mansehra - Government of Pakistan". Nrb.gov.pk. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  8. ^ Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan[dead link]
  9. ^ a b c Report of the land revenue settlement of the Hazara district of the Punjab By E. G. Wace. Central Jail Press. Retrieved 2007-11-03. In the nearby locality of Bareri, Hindus from the vicinity, to the number of about 400, assemble at the top of Bareri hill to worship Devi (Durga) and to present offerings, which are taken by a Brahmin of Mansehra. The assembly on each occasion lasts only one day. 
  10. ^ "Around Abbottabad by S.A.J. Shirazi". Travelers Digest. Retrieved 2007-11-03. Further north; go to the black mountain near Oghi or to see the Asokan inscriptions on boulders near base of Bareri Hill close to Mansehra. 

External links[edit]