Mansur Shah of Malacca
|6th Sultan of Malacca|
|Reign||Malacca Sultanate: 1459–1477|
|Successor||Alauddin Riayat Shah|
|Spouse||Hang Li Po and others|
|Issue||Alauddin Riayat Shah
Ahmad Shah I
Sultan Mansur Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah (died 1477) was the sixth Sultan of Malacca. He ruled Malacca from 1459 to 1477. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, Muzaffar Shah.:246
Expansions of Malaccan Empire
Mansur Shah implemented a policy of expansionism during his rule. Many territories in Peninsular Malaysia and eastern Sumatra and the surrounding islands were under the control of Malacca during his rule such as Selangor, Bernam, Kampar, Siak, Manjung, Rupat, Singapore, and Bintan. Mansur Shah also ordered the attack of Pahang by Tun Perak, the Bendahara of Malacca, to secure the defense of Malacca on the east coast. Siantan and Inderagiri in Sumatra were also given to Malacca as dowry for his marriage to the princess of Majapahit.
Mansur Shah also used marriage alliances between princesses of Malacca and the rulers of conquered states to strengthen Malacca’s control over those states, such as marriage between the king of Siak to Mansur Shah's daughter, Princess Mahadewi,Princes Hanbaoli ,daughter of Ming Dynesty Emperor Yongle (1403-1424). Such alliances was a factor in Islam's expansion in maritime Southeast Asia.
Princesses of conquered states were also married to sons of Malaccan ministers, such as Princess Wanang Seri of Pahang and Raden Galoh Candra Kirana, were married to sons of ministers like Tun Putih Nur Pualam.
According to historian Tomé Pires, Mansur Shah also married concubines who were foreign princesses such as Hang Li Po and daughters of merchants from India and Pasai to strengthen trade relationships. These princesses were also converted to Islam. Following the lead of the sultan, others married foreigners as well making foreign marriage customs a not uncommon sight in Malacca.
Mansur Shah reduced taxes on trade items during his reign, which increased the interest of merchants in trading through Malacca. A preferential tariff system was introduced whereby a 6% tax was levied on the trade of merchants from west of Malacca, such as Arabia and India, and a 3% tax was levied on the trade of merchants’ from Maritime Southeast Asia. Merchants from China, Japan and Java were not taxed at all. Another economic advantage of Malacca was the easy access to labourers.
Relations with Ottoman Empire
After the conquest of Constantinople 1453, Sultan Muhammad Al Fateh sent the Ottoman delegations to Malacca and recognized the Sultanate of Malacca as the region power of Nusantara and Sultan Mansur Shah recognized as the Ottoman representative ruler in Nusantara. Sultan Mansur Shah also known as "Mansur Pasha" as the Sultan Malacca is Caliphate's representative in Nusantara.
Spread of Islam
Mansur Shah, who had an interest in Islam, encouraged scholarship in Islamic theological studies, and studied tasawuf himself. He studied under Maulana Abu Bakar, who brought the Ab Darul Manzum scriptures to Malacca. He ordered the translation of the scripture to Malay by Makhdum Patakan. Mansur Shah referred to scholars from Pasai on religious issues due to their expertise.
Mansur Shah of Malacca
House of MalaccaDied: 1477
|Sultan of Malacca
Alauddin Riayat Shah
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