Mansura, Sindh

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Mansura (Arabic: المنصورة, al-manṣūrah), was the first Sindhi Muslim capital from the year 711.AD to 1006.AD, the city was founded as a central garrison by the Umayyad Forces in Sindh, the city transformed into a very vibrant metropolis during the Abbasid Era surpassing the wealth of Multan in the north and Debal in the south.

The Arabs established the city of Mansura, Sindh and Debal these two cities became major cultural, economic centers in Sindh.

Mansura was built on the shores of the Indus River, it was surrounded by fertile farmland, Ibn Hauqal mentioned the wealthy local merchants who wore Baghdad Costume and were of Sindhi-Arab origins, houses were made of clay, baked bricks and plaster.

A Sindhi trade caravan

Mansura exported herbs and spices, textiles, ivory, metals and mirrors to Baghdad. There were some renowned educational institutions in the city, Mansura produced the first translation of the Quran in the Sindhi language, it was used widely throughout the Indus region. The city was the hometown of famous historical figures such as Sind ibn Ali he introduced the Arabic numerals and the Zij al-Sindhind; Abu Mashar Sindhi is described by many historians and chroniclers as a pioneer in the compilation of Hadith; Abu Raja Sindhi lived in Baghdad and engaged in scientific and literary pursuits they translated a large number of ancient books of South Asia on mathematics, astronomy, astrology, medicine, literature and ethics into Arabic. According to geologists an earthquake struck both Debal and Mansura in the year 893.AD, the city was later ruled by the Soomro Emirs. Mansura was sacked by the forces of Mahmud of Ghazni because the inhabitants feared his reputation and refused to open the gates. The city never recovered and its Soomro Emirs were deposed.

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