Manuel Amador Guerrero
|1st President of Panama|
20 February 1904 – 1 October 1908
José Domingo de Obaldia
Carlos Antonio Mendoza
José Domingo de Obaldia
|Preceded by||Position Established|
|Succeeded by||José Domingo de Obaldía|
Manuel Amador Guerrero|
30 June 1833
2 May 1909 (aged 75)|
Panama City, Panama
|Political party||Conservative Party|
|Spouse(s)||Maria Ossa Escobar|
Manuel Amador Guerrero was born on 30 June 1833 in Turbaco, in the Bolívar Department of the Republic of New Granada to María Mercedes Guerrero Córdoba and José María Amador Leguina. Very little is known about his childhood and teenage years, but he studied to be a surgeon and graduated from the Universidad de Magdalena e Istmo in 1854.
Amador came to Panama in 1855 settling in Colón and started working on the Panama Railroad as a doctor. After a year, he also took a job as the postmaster. After moving to Santiago de Veraguas, Amador began a export business "Amador Hermanos", with his brother, Juan De Dios Amador Guerrero, and continued his work as a doctor and in governmental posts. He acted to the District Administration, working on the Municipal Council, and serving as a deputy to the House of Representatives for the Veraguas State in the Republic of New Granada in Bogotá from 1858 to 1859. During the same period, he began serving in the State Legislature of Veraguas.
In 1866, Amador was appointed as the first successor for the Conservative Party, in the elections for the President of the Sovereign State of Panama. When the President Vicente Olarte Galindo died in office in 1868, Amador was to succeed his term as acting president but because he was running in the election, he chose to allow the second successor Juan José Díaz to take the post as acting president. When it became evident that Amador's victory was assured for the presidency, General Fernando Ponce staged a rebellion and drove the Conservative supporters out of the capital and back to Veraguas. In the brief battles that occurred, Amador was captured and sent into exile Cartagena.
In 1869, Amador returned to Panama, probably settling again in Santiago de Veraguas, where his son Manuel Encarnación del Carmen Amador Terreros was born to María de Jesús Terreros. He soon moved to Panama City and began working at the Hospital Santo Tomás. The hospital, a charity hospital built in colonial times, suffered from lack of management and funds, and Amador took on the task of managing and reorganizing it without pay for almost two decades of the twenty-nine years in which he worked there. He also opened and ran a pharmacy near the hospital on Avenue B. It is probable his first wife died, as on 6 February 1872, Amador married Manuela María Maximiliano de la Ossa Escobar. With de la Ossa, Amador had two children, Raúl Arturo, who as an adult was attached to the Panamanian consulate in New York City and Elmira María, who married William Ehrman, one of the owners of the Ehrman Banking Company.
Return to politics
"Amador Hermanos" brought in brother, José Amador, and began working with the French company building the Panama Canal in 1879. Simultaneously, Manuel continued his work as a doctor for the Panama Canal Railway and Hospital Santo Tomás. In 1886, during the period when Colombia was reorganizing its sovereign states under a federal government, Amador served as the last President of the Sovereign State of Panamá, taking over the post vacated by Ramón Santodomingo Vila on 5 June 1886 and serving until 5 August 1886. During this time frame, Amador served as chairman of the Council of the District of Panama, which had to vote on approval of the Colombian Constitution of 1886. At the end of 1888, the French company which was digging the canal went bankrupt, causing the failure of the Amador brothers' business. José Amador died soon after the business closed, but Manuel covered the company's losses.
Amador favored continuing the canal project and when Lucien Bonaparte-Wyse made the journey to Bogatá in 1890 to gain a concession for a ten-year extension, he was accompanied by Amador. Instability plagued the French project and then in 1900, the Thousand Days' War erupted between Colombian political factions. The government in Bogatá asked the United States to protect the railway in Panama, causing the US Marines to intervene on the isthmus. In exchange for keeping the vital transit open, President José Manuel Marroquín pledged that he would insure that the United States would receive authorization to complete the canal upon restoration of peace. Amador wrote to President Marroquín, who was a personal friend, urging the approval of the Hay–Herrán Treaty. Rather than appointing a favorable candidate, Marroquín appointed an opponent to the ratification, Juan Bautista Pérez y Soto as Panama's congressman during the negotiations.
The appointment caused José Agustín Arango to recruit his sons, Belisario, José Agustín and Ricardo Manuel; his son-in-laws Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre, Samuel Lewis, and Raoul Orillac; and a friend, Carlos Constantino Arosemena to begin working on a plan for the independence of Panama. The group was soon joined by Amador, who would become the leader of the independence movement, as well as by Ricardo and Tomás Arias, Federico Boyd, Manuel Espinosa Batista, and Nicanor de Obarrio. Contentious negotiations with Colombia led the United States toward backing the independence movement in Panama, believing that negotiations would be more favorable to American interests from a small, weak, newly developing state, rather than continuing to work with Colombia. Amador traveled to New York in September 1903 to determine how the United States might support the separation movement. After gaining approval for support from the USS Nashville, Amador returned to Panama to get a plan in motion.
The USS Nashville landed on 2 November 1903 off the coast of Colón. The following day, 500 sharpshooters, under the command of General Juan B. Tobar traveling aboard the cruiser Cartagena and merchant ship Alexander Bixio, made landfall. Fearing that if they were caught they would be executed, Amador, Arango, Boyd, and Espinosa met to discuss the situation, because with the landed troops many of their colleagues were abandoning the cause. Amador returned home dejected, fearing all was lost, but his wife María de la Ossa came up with a plan to separate the Colombian generals from their troops with help from friends on the railway. She surmised that once the officers were separated and arrested, the troops could be bribed to return home. Amador went out to convince Herbert G. Prescott, assistant superintendent, and James Shaler, superintendent of the Panama Railway to help transport the generals and once he gained their approval, he called the separatists together to get them to endorse the plan. Shaler convinced the generals to go ahead to Panama City without their troops, while the railway was gathering sufficient cars for the troops.
When the plan successfully concluded, Panama's independence was proclaimed and the Municipal Council met and confirmed the establishment of the Republic of Panama. Amador and Boyd were sent to Washington, D. C. to negotiate a treaty to complete the canal. When they arrived, they learned that Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla had already signed a treaty and as they were not empowered to accept it, the agreement was sent to Panama for ratification by the provisional government.
On 20 February 1904, the constitutional convention unanimously elected Amador as the first president of the Republic of Panama. Because the Constitution of Panama required that the president be native-born, a clause allowing Amador to serve based on his service to the independence movement was inserted. During his presidency, he established the gold Balboa as the official currency at par with the U. S. gold dollar. His administration adopted the flag, designed by his son Manuel and sewn by his wife and her sister-in-law, Angélica Bergamonta de la Ossa, and the national anthem, that features lyrics written by his wife's brother Jerónimo de la Ossa; created the national theater and national museum; disbanded the army, in favor of a police force; and expanded the educational system in the country.
One of the immediate actions of his administration was to resolve a difference in interpretation over the law which created the canal zone, passed on 28 April 1904. Panamanian legislators intended the granting of the zone to the United States to mean that the U.S. could exercise sovereignty "only for the purpose of building the canal". As the ports were vital for Panama's economy, the government of Panama had no intention of surrendering complete legal or economic sovereignty in the canal zone and did not cede its territory to the U.S. The Americans had established ports, customs houses and postal facilities in the zone, which were objected to by the Panamanians, as they had nothing to do with construction and were functions of a sovereign power. After diplomats were unable to resolve the issue, Secretary of War William Howard Taft was dispatched to meet with Amador, arriving on 27 November 1904. The two devised an agreement whereby the only duty-free goods entering the canal zone ports of Ancon and Cristobal were those that were related to construction of the canal. Other goods were to be taxed by Panamanian authorities at a reduced rate of ten percent ad valorem. In exchange for infrastructure development with hospitals and roads, Amador agreed to allow the Canal Company to control sanitation and quarantine provisions in the zone and utilize municipal buildings. They also designated an agreement for currency sharing and postal regulations, among other revisions.
Death and legacy
Amador decided not to run for reelection in 1908, and instead retired from public life. He died on 9 May 1909 in Panama City. His last coherent words were to express his wish that the National Anthem was played as his body was lowered to his gravesite, a wish that was realized.
- Plaza Amador, a soccer team in Panama's highest league, ANAPROF, was named in his honor. The club's colors are also red, white and blue as they were the colors adopted by his patriotic movement for independence.
- The Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero, the highest honor of Panama, is named in his honor.
- Ospina Peña, Mariano (21 July 2017). "XXV—El Plan B". Los Roosevelt, los magnates y Panama [Roosevelt, the Magnates and Panama] (in Spanish). Colombia: Así Sucedió. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- López, Cecy (3 November 2015). "Manuel Amador Guerrero Gestor de la Separación de Panamá de Colombia" [Manuel Amador Guerrero Manager of the Separation of Panama of Colombia] (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Televisora Nacional. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Semblanza y acción de Manuel Amador Guerrero" [Semblance and action of Manuel Amador Guerrero]. Panama City, Panama: La Estrella de Panamá. 9 November 2011. p. Spanish. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- "Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, 104 años de su muerte" [Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, 104 years since his death]. Panama City, Panama: La Estrella de Panamá. 4 May 2013. p. Spanish. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- Sosa, Juan Bautista; Arce, Enrique (1911). "V. Creación del Estado federal de Panamá". Compendio de historia de Panamá (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Diario de Panamá. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2017 – via Banco de la República, Bogatá, Colombia.
- Arcia Jaramillo, Ohigginis (9 March 2016). "El AND de Amador Guerrero" [The DNA of Amador Guerrero] (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: La Prensa. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "El legado del hombre que se negó a envejecer" [The legacy of the man who refused to grow old] (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: La Estrella de Panamá. 4 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- Diez Castillo, Luis A. (1 September 2000). "María Ossa de Amador: revivida" [María Ossa de Amador: revived] (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Editora Panamá América. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Pérez, Yelina (4 November 2016). "Diez datos curiosos de María De La Ossa de Amado" [Ten curious facts about María De La Ossa de Amador]. Revista Mia (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: La Estrella de Panamá. Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Reyes, Gerardo (2012). Don Julio Mario. Bogatá, Colombia: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial Colombia. p. 44. ISBN 978-958-8789-14-9.
- "Rulers: Colombia States 1855-86". Rulers.org. B. Schemmel. 1995. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- Johnson 1906, p. 158.
- Haskins 1908, p. 195.
- McCullough 2001, p. 397.
- Haskins 1908, p. 198.
- Haskins 1908, pp. 200-201.
- Haskins 1908, pp. 208-212.
- Haskins 1908, p. 225.
- Johnson 1906, p. 161.
- Johnson 1906, pp. 162-163.
- Sosa, Juan Bautista; Arce, Enrique (1911). "X. La negociaciones del Canal". Compendio de historia de Panamá (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Diario de Panamá. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2017 – via Banco de la República, Bogatá, Colombia.
- Sanchez 2003, p. 53.
- Ospina Peña 2017, p. XXV—El Plan B.
- Harding 2006, p. 30.
- Ospina Peña 2017, p. XXX—Los acontecimientos en Panamá.
- McCullough 2001, p. 422.
- McGeachy 1961, p. 3.
- McGeachy 1961, pp. 3-4.
- Harding 2006, p. 31.
- McGeachy 1961, p. 4.
- McGeachy 1961, p. 6.
- Delpar 2013, p. 11.
- Guevara, Helkin (5 November 2015). "Historia de las primeras banderas panameñas y de la que no es 'original'" [History of the first Panamanian flags and of the one that is not 'original'] (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: La Prensa. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Martínez Ortega, Aristides (1992). Las generaciones de poetas panameños (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Tareas. OCLC 28378848.
- Barrow 1966, p. 13.
- Barrow 1966, p. 15.
- Barrow 1966, pp. 15-17.
- Barrow 1966, p. 17.
- Barrow 1966, p. 22.
- Barrow 1966, p. 24.
- Barrow 1966, p. 25.
- Barrow, Robert M. (January 1966). "The First Panama Canal Crisis, 1904". Caribbean Studies. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Institute of Caribbean Studies, College of Social Sciences, University of Puerto Rico. 5 (4): 12–27. ISSN 0008-6533. JSTOR 25611907.
- Delpar, Helen (2013). "Amador Guerrero, Manuel". In Leonard, Thomas; Buchenau, Jurgen; Longley, Kyle; Mount, Graeme. Encyclopedia of U.S.-Latin American Relations. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-60871-792-7.
- Harding, Robert C. (2006). The History of Panama. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33322-4.
- Haskins, William C, ed. (1908). Canal Zone Pilot. Ancón, Canal Zone, Panama: A. Bienkowski, Star & Herald Co. OCLC 23747701.
- Johnson, Willis Fletcher (1906). Four Centuries of the Panama Canal. New York, New York: Henry Holt and Co. OCLC 576076780.
- McCullough, David (2001). The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-0137-7.
- McGeachy, A. V. (3 November 1961). "November 3, 1903 Day of Destiny". The Panama Canal Review. Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, Panama: The Panama Canal Company. 12 (4): 3–6. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Ospina Peña, Mariano (21 July 2017). Los Roosevelt, los magnates y Panama [Roosevelt, the Magnates and Panama] (in Spanish). Colombia: Así Sucedió. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Sanchez, Peter M. (2003). "Panama: A "Hegemonized" Foreign Policy". In Hey, Jeanne A. K. Small States in World Politics: Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 53–74. ISBN 978-1-55587-943-3.
- Castillero, Ernesto J. (1935) Galería de Presidentes de Panamá. Panamá.
- "55 mandatarios", an album of the Panamanian newspaper La Prensa containing the life of all the Presidents of Panama.
- Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
- Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1-56328-155-4. OCLC 42970390.
| President of Panama
José Domingo de Obaldía