Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra

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The Most Excellent and Most Reverend
The Archbishop of Manila
Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio Vera.jpg
See Manila
Installed July 22, 1759
Term ended January 30, 1764
Predecessor Pedro José Manuel Martínez, O.F.M.
Successor Sancho de Santa Justa
Consecration January 29, 1748
by Manuel José Rubio y Salinas
Personal details
Birth name Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio y Vieyra
Born September 24, 1708
Tula de Allende, Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico)
Died January 30, 1764(1764-01-30) (aged 55)
Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Nationality Spanish (later Mexican)
Denomination Roman Catholic
Manuel Antonio Rojo del Río y Vieyra
Governor-General of the Philippines
In office
July 1761 – January 30, 1764
Monarch Charles III of Spain
Preceded by Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
Succeeded by Dawsonne Drake (in Manila)
November 2, 1762
Simón de Anda y Salazar
January 31, 1764[1]
Military service
Battles/wars Seven Years' War
Styles of
Arzobispo Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
Mitre (plain).svg
Reference style Monseñor
Spoken style Su Excelencia Reverendísima
Religious style Reverendísimo

Manuel Antonio Rojo del Río y Vieyra (September 24, 1708 – January 30, 1764)[2] was a Mexican (originally Spanish Criollo) friar who served as the 16th Archbishop of Manila and was Governor-General of the Philippines at the commencement of the 1762–1764 British occupation of the Philippines.

Early life[edit]

Rojo del Río was born in Tula, Mexico on September 24, 1708. On 1758, he was consecrated archbishop of the Archdiocese of Manila.[3]

On May 31, 1759, the death of Governor-General Pedro Manuél de Arandía left the position vacant. Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta of the Archdiocese of Cebu succeeded him as well as becoming acting Archbishop of Manila.[4] On 22 July 1759, Rojo del Río was enthroned as Archbishop of Manila. In 1761, a royal decree from Spain ruled that Rojo del Río replace Ezpeleta to become Governor-General.[5]

Del Río died in office on 20 January 1764.


"Albeit he had the gift of knowledge, he had no judgment, especially in matter military, to which he was hostile and negative, since this was an area outside his profession and character." This was to prove fatal during the Battle of Manila (1762).[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Anda was the lieutenant governor since the day before the fall of Manila to the British on October 4, 1762. The British installed Drake as governor in November. They also recognized Rojo's powers as president of the Real Audiencia until his death on January 30, 1764. After the death of Rojo, and wanting to leave the Philippines, the British unsuccessfully negotiated with Anda to recognise him as Governor-General of the Philippines. They never recognised him as such, but instead following the orders of the king of Great Britain and the king of Spain when their despatches arrived together, recognised de la Torre as Rojo's successor as Spanish governor-general.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio Vera †". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  4. ^ de Zuñiga, Joquin Martinez (1803). Historia de las Islas Filipinas (in Spanish). Sampaloc, Manila. pp. 597–600. 
  5. ^ "Manila Metropolitan Cathedral". Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  6. ^ Tracy, Nicholas (1995). Manila Ransomed. University of Exeter Press. p. 33. 

External links[edit]

Episcopal lineage
Consecrated by: Archbishop Manuel José Rubio y Salinas
Political offices
Preceded by
Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
Governor and Captain-General of the Philippines
Succeeded by
Dawsonne Drake
as British Governor of Manila
Succeeded by
Simón de Anda y Salazar
as Governor-General of the Philippines
Religious titles
Preceded by
Pedro José Manuel Martínez, O.F.M.
Archbishop of Manila
22 July 1759 – 30 January 1764
Succeeded by
Basilio Hernando de Santa Justa, Sch. P.