Jump to content

Manuel Valls

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manuel Valls
Valls in 2015
Councillor in Barcelona
In office
15 June 2019 – 31 August 2021
Prime Minister of France
In office
31 March 2014 – 6 December 2016
PresidentFrançois Hollande
Preceded byJean-Marc Ayrault
Succeeded byBernard Cazeneuve
Minister of the Interior
In office
16 May 2012 – 1 April 2014
Prime MinisterJean-Marc Ayrault
Preceded byClaude Guéant
Succeeded byBernard Cazeneuve
Mayor of Évry
In office
18 March 2001 – 24 May 2012
Preceded byChristian Olivier
Succeeded byFrancis Chouat
Member of the National Assembly
for Essonne's 1st constituency
In office
19 June 2002 – 3 October 2018
Preceded byJacques Guyard
Succeeded byFrancis Chouat
Personal details
Manuel Carlos Valls Galfetti

(1962-08-13) 13 August 1962 (age 61)
Barcelona, Spain
  • Spain
  • France
Political party France
Socialist Party (1980–2017)
Renaissance (2021–present)
Valents (2019–2023)
Nathalie Soulié
(m. 1987, divorced)

(m. 2010; div. 2018)

Susana Gallardo
(m. 2019)
RelativesAurelio Galfetti (uncle)
Alma materPantheon-Sorbonne University

Manuel Carlos Valls Galfetti (French: [manɥɛl kaʁlos vals ɡalfɛti], Catalan: [mənuˈɛl ˈkaɾloz ˈbaʎz ɡalˈfeti], Spanish: [maˈnwel ˈkaɾlos ˈβals ɣalˈfeti]; born 13 August 1962) is a French-Spanish[1][2] politician who has served as a Barcelona city councillor from 2019 to 2021. He served as Prime Minister of France from 2014 until 2016 under president François Hollande.

Born in Barcelona to a Spanish father and a Swiss mother, Valls was Mayor of Évry from 2001 to 2012 and was first elected to the National Assembly of France for Essonne in 2002. He was regarded as belonging to the Socialist Party's social liberal wing, sharing common orientations with Blairism. He was Minister of the Interior from 2012 to 2014 and Prime Minister from 2014 to 2016. He was a candidate in the Socialist Party primary for the 2017 presidential election, losing the Socialist nomination in the second round to Benoît Hamon. Following his defeat, he endorsed Emmanuel Macron despite having previously pledged to support the Socialist candidate.

In the 2017 legislative election, he was re-elected by a narrow margin as a Member of Parliament. He then left the Socialist Party and joined La République En Marche group in the National Assembly though not formally joining the party. In October 2018, he resigned from the National Assembly to run for mayor in the 2019 Barcelona municipal election supported by the centrist Ciudadanos party. He came in fourth in the election. Valls is also a past opponent of the Catalan independence movement.

In 2022 Valls attempted to return to the National Assembly as a member of LREM, for the Fifth constituency for French residents overseas. However he was unsuccessful after coming third in the vote.[3]

Early life and family[edit]

Valls' paternal grandfather was the editor-in-chief of a Republican newspaper in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War, he sheltered priests who were fleeing from the Red Terror.[4] After Francisco Franco's victory, he was forced out of his job as editor. Valls' father was the Barcelona-born painter Xavier Valls (1923–2006).[5][6]

In the late 1940s, Xavier Valls moved to Paris and met his future wife, Luisangela Galfetti, a Ticino-born Swiss citizen, the sister of architect Aurelio Galfetti. In 1955, he won the prize for best still life in the third Spanish-American Art Biennial inaugurated by Franco.[7] Valls was born in Barcelona while his parents were there on holiday. He grew up with them at their home in France and became naturalized as French.[8]

Political career[edit]

Rise in the Socialist Party (1980–2014)[edit]

In 1980, aged 17, Valls joined the French Socialist Party (PS) to support Michel Rocard.[9][10] Within the PS, he defended the "Second Left" (La Deuxième gauche), rather than the more pragmatic left of François Mitterrand.[9] (The Second left could be compared to the 1960s "New Left" – opposed to party lines and bureaucracy, anti-statist, supportive of anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist movements worldwide, favouring direct action politics.) While studying history at the Pantheon-Sorbonne University, Tolbiac campus, he was a member of the UNEF-ID, a progressive students' union.[11]

In 1980, he met two other student supporters of Rocard with whom he became close friends: Alain Bauer (Bauer is the godfather of Valls' second son), and Stéphane Fouks.[12][13][14]

From 1983 to 1986, Valls was a parliamentary attaché for the member for Ardèche, Robert Chapuis. In 1986 he was elected to the regional Council for the Île-de-France and served until 1992. In 1988, he became head of the Socialist Party in Argenteuil-Bezons and deputy mayor. From 1988 to 1991 he was responsible for the functioning of the prime minister's cabinet. From 1991 to 1993 he was an inter-ministerial delegate to the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville. In 1995, he became the Secretary of Communications for the national Socialist Party and in 1997 communications and media relations chief for the prime minister's Cabinet. In 1998 he was elected vice-president of the regional council for Île-de-France, a post which he held until 2002. While vice-president of the regional Council, he was also elected mayor of Évry in 2001, a post he held until 2012. In 2002, he became the deputy for the First Electoral District in Essonne and in 2008, the president of the tri-city jurisdiction of Évry-Centre-Essonne.[15]

In the 2008 elections to choose the head of the Socialist Party, Valls supported the former presidential candidate Ségolène Royal over her former partner François Hollande; Hollande eventually won.[16]

On 13 June 2009, Valls announced his intention to run in the Socialist presidential primary in 2011 for the 2012 election. On 30 June 2009 he founded a political organisation with the slogan "The Left Needs Optimism," to provide legal and financial support the Socialist Primary candidates.[17]

On 7 June 2011, he confirmed his candidacy for the Socialist primary. On the evening of the first primary round, 9 October 2011, Valls achieved only 6% of the vote, just behind Ségolène Royal.[18] He was therefore eliminated. On the night of his defeat, he endorsed François Hollande for the second round.

Minister of the Interior (2012–2014)[edit]

Valls was appointed Minister of the Interior in the Ayrault Cabinet in May 2012.[19]

Ahead of the Socialist Party's 2012 convention in Toulouse, Valls publicly endorsed Harlem Désir as candidate to succeed Martine Aubry at the party's leadership.[20]

Prime Minister of France (2014–2016)[edit]

Valls and Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the Munich Security Conference, 2016
Valls with Croatian Prime Minister Tihomir Orešković in Paris, 30 May 2016

In March 2014, following major losses to centre-right and extreme-right political parties in French municipal elections, President François Hollande appointed Valls to the post of Prime Minister. He replaced Jean-Marc Ayrault who had resigned earlier that day.[21][22] The Valls Cabinet was formed on 2 April 2014, consisting of 15 ministers from the Socialist Party and two ministers from the Radical Party of the Left.[23]

After the 2016 Nice truck attack, he was criticised for saying that "France will have to live with terrorism."[24] French citizens booed him when he joined the memorial for the victims, yelling "murderer" and "resign" at him before the minute of silence for the dead began.[25]

Post-premiership (2016–present)[edit]

2017 Presidential election[edit]

Valls left office on 6 December 2016 to run in the primaries to be the Socialist candidate in the 2017 presidential election. He was replaced by Minister of the Interior Bernard Cazeneuve.[26] He came in second during the first round of the primary on 22 January, behind his ex-Minister of National Education Benoît Hamon. The two candidates advanced to the second round, which was held 29 January.[27] In the second round, Valls was defeated in the second round, in which he received 41% of the vote to Hamon's 58%. The more left-leaning candidate unexpectedly defeated Valls and became the Socialist Party's nominee.[28][29] Despite subsequently promising to support Hamon's candidature, Valls later declared his support for Emmanuel Macron of En Marche!.[30]

After his loss in the Socialist Party primary, Valls refused to endorse Benoît Hamon, citing the difference in views.[31] In March, Valls announced on BFMTV that he was endorsing Emmanuel Macron.[32]

After Macron's win in the second round of the presidential election, Valls announced that he wanted to run for reelection to the National Assembly under the En Marche! banner,[33] declaring that the Socialist Party was "dead".[34] The Socialist Party has started disciplinary proceedings against Valls, perhaps resulting in his expulsion.[35] En Marche! rejected Valls's application to join, but said it would not oppose him in the election.[36] Valls won reelection as an independent with 50.3% of the vote in the second round, but the result was challenged by his opponent, Farida Amrani of La France Insoumise.[37]

2019 Barcelona municipal election[edit]

In April 2018, it was reported that Valls was considering an offer to run as a candidate for mayor of Barcelona under the banner of Citizens.[38] On 25 September 2018, Valls announced his candidacy for Mayor of Barcelona in the May 2019 elections and declared that he was resigning all political responsibilities in France.[39] He registered his own political party of municipal scope on 28 March 2019, Barcelona pel Canvi (BCN Canvi).[40][41]

As his candidacy was supported by the anti-separatist and liberal Citizens, the electoral list for the municipal election (named "Barcelona pel Canvi–Ciutadans") included members of Citizens and obtained 6 seats (out of 41) at the ballots.[42]

Valls, along the other 2 municipal councillors elected in the Barcelona pel Canvi–Ciutadans list who were not members of Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Celestino Corbacho and Eva Parera), gave an "unconditional" vote to Ada Colau in the investiture of the Mayor of Barcelona, with the sole purpose of preventing separatist Ernest Maragall becoming Mayor. Days later, Cs announced the breakup of their alliance with Valls, and their will to form their own municipal group, to which Corbacho also joined later. Valls had been critical of the Cs' strategy mastered by party leader Albert Rivera, after the rapprochement of Cs with the far-right Vox, and he later pointed out that (teaming up) "with Vox you end up dirtying your hands and, in some ways, the soul".[43][44]

Political beliefs[edit]

Valls is on the right wing of the Socialist Party, with a similar approach to the German and Dutch social democratic parties. During the 2011 presidential primary, he defined himself as "Blairiste" or "Clintonien", and described his position as "in the tradition of Pierre Mendès France, Lionel Jospin and Michel Rocard". As prime minister, he agreed with being compared to Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi, an adherent to the centrist Third Way ideology.[45][46]

Valls advocates an "economically realistic" political speech without "demagoguery". He voices his dissent in the party by his vision of individual responsibilities ("The new hope that the Left must carry is individual self-realization: to allow everyone to become that which they are"[47]) and his positions against a system where some people live only from national solidarity. Describing himself as "reformist rather than revolutionary," he wants to "reconcile the left to the liberal approach".[46]


In his book To Put the Old Socialism to Rest ... And Finally be Left-Wing, he declared support for immigration "quotas".[citation needed]

On Sunday 9 June 2009, while visiting a market in Évry, of which he was then mayor, he was caught on camera suggesting that the presence of more white people would give a better image of the city.[48]

In October 2013, his stance in the Dibrani case met with high public approval, with a global approval rate of 74% (57% approval rate from the left, and 89% from the right).[49]

On 14 May 2020, the French government was condemned by the Hirtu Case,[50] a case that dates back to 2013 when Manuel Valls was Minister of the Interior of France. The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) condemned the French government for the forced evacuation in April 2013 of a gypsy camp on the outskirts of Paris that had been set up there in October 2012 following the dismantling of a previous camp. The judgment states that Article 8 (right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence) and Article 13 (right have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding) of the European Convention on Human Rights[51] had been violated. Human Rights, and also ordered the French state to pay compensation of 7,000 euros for each of the plaintiffs for non-pecuniary damage, and 7,900 euros for legal costs.

In an interview with the right-wing magazine Valeurs actuelles in June 2020, he was asked about the death of Adama Traoré (a young Malian French man who died in custody after being apprehended by police), and Manuel Valls stated that "the logic of victimisation is reinforced by the links between the indigenist movement and part of the left" and that "the class struggle disappears in favour of confrontation, of war between 'races'". He also denied that one could speak of "white privilege" in France, contrasting it with the United States, and claiming that the French Republic had already abolished slavery in 1848 even though France did have a past in colonial history.[52]

Retirement age[edit]

Valls supported the extension of the years of required pension-contribution to 41, as advocated and achieved by the Sarkozy administration. The extension means that due to the maximum mandatory retirement age of 62, only immigrants receiving the right to legally work around the age of 21 would be allowed to receive the pension to which they would have contributed throughout their careers. "The role of the Left is not to deny democratic changes, nor to hide the size of deficits ... The Left can advocate an à la carte pension system and increasing the pay-in period."[53]

Views on religion[edit]

In 2002, as mayor of Évry, he opposed a branch of the national grocery store chain Franprix, located in a predominately Muslim neighbourhood, deciding to sell only halal-certified meat/products and products that do not contain alcohol.[54]

As parliamentarian and interior minister, he took strong stances on secularism, supported crackdowns on the wearing of niqābs in public and defended a nursery which sacked an employee for demanding to wear one at work. He had harsh words for anti-gay marriage protesters.[55] When Catholics protested against "Golgota Picnic", he supported the theatre director in the name of freedom of speech.[56]

When Dieudonné's quenelle gesture became popular in 2013, Valls said he would consider "all legal means" to ban Dieudonné's "public meetings", given that he "addresses in an obvious and insufferable manner the memory of victims of the Holocaust."[57] In July 2014, following violent anti-Israel protests in Paris, Valls denounced what he called a "new form of anti-Semitism".[58]


On 12 October 2009, Valls expressed "total disagreement" with a proposal by Daniel Vaillant for decriminalisation or legalisation of cannabis. The plan involved depriving traffickers of a source of income. Valls argued, "The question of drugs that produce considerable damage in some neighbourhoods and nourish the underground economy, cannot be handled this way. There is a certain number of rules that cannot be removed."[59]


Valls said after the 2015 Paris attacks that French society needed a "general mobilisation" against the appeal of "deadly" doctrines.[60] After the 2016 Nice truck attack, Valls said, "Times have changed, and France is going to have to live with terrorism, and we must face this together and show our collective sang-froid. France is a great country and a great democracy and we will not allow ourselves to be destabilized."[24] The comments on the Nice attack provoked criticism in France.[61]


National honours[edit]

Foreign honours[edit]

Political offices[edit]

Governmental functions

  • Prime Minister: 31 March 2014 to 6 December 2016
  • Minister of Interior: May 2012 to March 2014

Elected offices

  • City councillor of Barcelona: June 2019 to August 2021.
  • Member of the National Assembly of France for Essonne (1st constituency): 2002–2018. Elected in 2002, re-elected in 2007 and 2012. He was replaced by his deputy Carlos Da Silva from 2012 to 2017.
  • Vice-president of the Regional Council of Île-de-France: 1998–2002 (Resignation).
  • Regional councillor of Île-de-France: 1986–2002 (Resignation).
  • Mayor of Évry: 2001–2012 (Resignation). Re-elected in 2008.
  • Municipal councillor of Évry: 2001–2018. Re-elected in 2008 and 2014
  • Deputy-mayor of Argenteuil: 1989–1998 (Resignation).

Personal life[edit]

In 1987, Valls married Nathalie Soulié, with whom he had 4 children before divorcing. On 1 July 2010, he married[62] Anne Gravoin, a violinist and winner of the Conservatoire de Paris' prestigious Premier Prix for Violin and Chamber Orchestra.[63][64] He met Susana Gallardo in Menorca;[65] in August 2018 they began dating,[66] and they married on 14 September 2019.[67]

Owing to his family background, Valls is fluent in French, Spanish, Catalan and Italian,[68] and is distantly related to the Marquesses del Bosch de Arés.[citation needed]


  • La laïcité en face, a dialogue with Virginie Malabard, Paris, Éditions Desclée de Brouwer, 2005
  • Les habits neufs de la gauche, Paris, Éditions Robert Laffont, 2006
  • Pour en finir avec le vieux socialisme... et être enfin de gauche, a dialogue with Claude Askolovitch, Paris, Éditions Robert Laffont, 2008
  • Pouvoir, Paris, Éditions Stock, 2010
  • Sécurité : la gauche peut tout changer, Paris, Éditions du Moment, 2011
  • L'énergie du changement : Abécédaire optimiste, Paris, Éditions Eyrolles, 2011
  • La Laïcité en France, Paris, Éditions Desclée de Brouwer, 2013
  • L'Exigence. Paris, France: Éditions Grasset. 2016.
  • Zemmour, l'antirépublicain, Éditions de l'observatoire, 2022


  1. ^ "S'il échoue à Barcelone, Manuel Valls arrêtera "sans doute" la politique". 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Valls candidat à la mairie de Barcelone ? "Il sait qu'il est un peu cramé en France"". Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - French National Assembly - Overseas 5th Race - Jun 05, 2022". Archived from the original on 3 September 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  4. ^ L'homme qui veut être le Sarko de la gauche Archived 30 June 2012 at archive.today, Le Point, #1820, 2 August 2007, pp. 24–27.(in French)
  5. ^ Biographie de Xavier Valls Archived 3 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine on claude-bernard.com website
  6. ^ Ana María Preckler, Historia del arte universal de los siglos XIX y XX, Editorial Complutense, 2003, vol. II, p. 509; ISBN 9788474917079. (in Spanish)
  7. ^ Ratier, Emmanuel (2014). "Emmanuel Ratier répond aux menteurs de Canal+" (in French). E&R. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  8. ^ "French Prime Minister Manuel Valls to step down, run for president". Fox News. Associated Press. 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b Larousse, Éditions. "Manuel Valls - LAROUSSE". www.larousse.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  10. ^ à 20h41, Par Le 2 juillet 2016 (2 July 2016). "Mort de Michel Rocard : la classe politique salue "un homme d'Etat"". leparisien.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ "Les anciens de l'Unef, aujourd'hui au pouvoir, dans une situation inconfortable". La Croix. 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 11 March 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017 – via www.la-croix.com.
  12. ^ Fraysse, Bertrand, "Passeur", challenges.fr, 29 November 2007.(in French)
  13. ^ Tchakaloff, Gaël. "Alain Bauer" Archived 25 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Le Nouvel économiste no. 1292. vol. 4. 10 March 2005.(in French)
  14. ^ Alain Bauer and Emmanuel Ratier. "L'écrivain nationaliste: Faits & documents". no. 98. vol 15. Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine 30 October 2000. (in French) describes the relationship between the two men, and the work of Nathalie Soulié, Valls ex-wife, as the secretary for AB Associates, a personal security company founded by Bauer in the 1990s.
  15. ^ "Archives Manuel Valls – mai 2012 – avril 2014/Archives – Ministère de l'Intérieur" (in French). Interieur.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  16. ^ "Manuel Valls : "Les militants du PS doivent élire Ségolène Royal dès le premier tour"". Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  17. ^ "Manuel Valls : "Il serait logique que le maire d'Évry succède au maire de Neuilly"". Le Point (in French). 30 June 2009. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  18. ^ "Les resultats". Archived from the original on 7 April 2012.
  19. ^ "Manuel Valls, ministre de l'Intérieur". Le Figaro (in French). 16 May 2012. Archived from the original on 26 October 2015.
  20. ^ Caroline Vigoureux (7 September 2012), Face à Cambadélis, Désir engrange les soutiens Archived 4 August 2023 at the Wayback Machine Le Journal du Dimanche.
  21. ^ "French President Hollande names Valls as new PM". BBC. 31 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  22. ^ "Manuel Valls nommé Premier ministre "de combat"". Libération (in French). 31 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 March 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  23. ^ magazine, Le Point (2 April 2014). "VIDÉO. Remaniement - Gouvernement Valls : tous les ministres, tous les postes". Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  24. ^ a b "How the terror attacks have changed life for the French". Financial Times. 16 July 2016. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  25. ^ "Attack on Nice: French PM Valls booed at commemoration". BBC News. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  26. ^ Willsher, Kim (6 December 2016). "Bernard Cazeneuve named French PM as Manuel Valls resigns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  27. ^ "Résultats de la primaire à gauche : Montebourg reconnaît sa défaite et appelle à voter Hamon". Le Monde. 22 January 2017. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  28. ^ "Benoît Hamon, vainqueur inattendu de la primaire à gauche". Le Monde. 29 January 2017. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  29. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (29 January 2017). "French Socialists choose leftwing rebel Benoît Hamon for Élysée fight". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  30. ^ Samuel, Henry (29 March 2017). "French Left on brink of implosion as ex-PM Manuel Valls backs Emmanuel Macron for president". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  31. ^ "Manuel Valls s'explique sur son refus de parrainer Benoît Hamon". Le Monde.fr (in French). 19 March 2017. ISSN 1950-6244. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  32. ^ Stothard, Michael (29 March 2017). "France's former PM Valls backs Macron in presidential election". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  33. ^ "Macron election: French ex-PM Manuel Valls wants to join En Marche". BBC News. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  34. ^ Agnew, Harriett (9 May 2017). "Former French PM Manuel Valls says his Socialist party is dead". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  35. ^ "French Socialist party opens process to boot out ex-PM Manuel Valls". 10 May 2017. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  36. ^ McGuinness, Romina (15 May 2017). "'He's mean' Ex-French PM Valls hits out as Macron 'refuses' to let him join En Marche". Express. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  37. ^ Zappi, Sylvia (19 June 2017). "Manuel Valls élu de justesse, Farida Amrani conteste les résultats". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  38. ^ Gasparet, Mariano (22 April 2018). "La apuesta por Valls alienta la expectativa de Cs de arrebatar las grandes capitales a Podemos". El Español (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  39. ^ "Ex-French PM Manuel Valls to run for Barcelona mayor". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 25 September 2018. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  40. ^ Segura, Cristian (3 April 2019). "Manuel Valls registra su propio partido". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona: Prisa. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  41. ^ "Registro de partidos políticos". Ministry of the Interior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  42. ^ "Valls admite el "fracaso" pese a mejorar resultados de Ciudadanos". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona. 27 May 2019. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  43. ^ García de Blas, Elsa; Segura, Cristian (20 June 2019). "Manuel Valls: "Con Vox acabas ensuciándote las manos y, de alguna forma, el alma"". El País. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  44. ^ "Valls acusa a Cs de "manchar su alma" al pactar con Vox y Villegas le responde: "Son frases muy bonitas"". El HuffPost. 20 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  45. ^ Frédéric Martel (6 July 2014). "Sarkozy/Berlusconi, Valls/Renzi: l'Italie, nouveau modèle de la vie politique française" (in French). Franceinfo.fr. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  46. ^ a b "Manuel Valls aime bien qu'on le compare à Matteo Renzi, beaucoup moins à Napoléon" (in French). Lelab.europe1.fr. 15 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  47. ^ Retraites: Valls appelle à un "pacte national" Archived 4 June 2012 at archive.today. Retrieved 25 April 2015.(in French)
  48. ^ Megahigh (29 August 2013). "Manuel Valls Raciste Anti Noir". YouTube. Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  49. ^ "Opinion poll on "Les Français et l'affaire Leonarda"" (PDF) (in French). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  50. ^ "HIRTU ET AUTRES c. FRANCE". European Court of Human Rights (in French). 14 May 2020. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  51. ^ "European Convention on Human Rights" (PDF). Convention_ENG.PDF: 34. 3 December 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  52. ^ actuelles, La rédaction de Valeurs (17 June 2020). "Affaire Traoré, privilège blanc, colonisation… Ce qu'il faut retenir de l'interview de Manuel Valls dans Valeurs actuelles". Valeurs actuelles (in French). Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  53. ^ Ira, Kumaran and Lantier, Alex. After French regional election victory: Socialist Party leaders call for austerity policies Archived 27 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine, World Socialist website, 2 April 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  54. ^ "A Evry, le maire contre le Franprix halal" (in French). Bladi.net. Archived from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  55. ^ Stéphanie Le Bars, "Manuel Valls, partisan d'une « laïcité exigeante" Archived 17 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 1 April 2014. (in French)
  56. ^ Eric Martin (10 January 2014). "Quand Valls défendait la liberté d'expression... à propos de Golgota Picnic, une pièce de théâtre antichrétienne" (in French). Ndf.fr. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  57. ^ "France to ban 'anti-Semitic' comedian" (in French). Radio France Internationale. 27 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  58. ^ "French youth go on rampage in Paris suburb after banned protest of Israel's Gaza offensive". Fox News. Associated Press. 20 July 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  59. ^ "Cannabis: Valls en "désaccord total" avec la proposition de Vaillant" (in French). Tempsreel.nouvelobs.com. 12 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  60. ^ Kim Willsher. "France to set up a dozen deradicalisation centres". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  61. ^ "French PM Valls booed as he attends tribute to Nice victims". Financial Times. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  62. ^ Manuel Valls va se marier en juillet, Le Nouvel Observateur, 10 January 2010.(in French)
  63. ^ "La table de chevet de... Manuel Valls" Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Les Échos, nb60, 15 February 2008, p. 50. (in French)
  64. ^ Manuel Valls ouvre les fenêtres de la musique Archived 16 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Radio classique, 16 May 2008. (in French)
  65. ^ Bercovitz, Vera; Guerra, Andrés (27 May 2019). "Manuel Valls y Susana Gallardo: así es su amor en Barcelona". Vanity Fair (in Spanish). Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  66. ^ "Manuel Valls y Susana Gallardo posan juntos por primera vez". El País (in Spanish). Madrid: Prisa. 16 October 2018. Archived from the original on 1 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  67. ^ Fernández Romo, Luis (1 June 2019). "La ventajosa y exprés boda de Susana Gallardo y Manuel Valls". El Mundo (in Spanish). Unidad Editorial Información General S.L.U. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  68. ^ qu'il faut savoir de Manuel Valls Archived 13 September 2013 at archive.today, lejdd.fr, 16 May 2012. (in French)

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Christian Olivier
Mayor of Évry
Succeeded by
Francis Chouat
Preceded by Minister of the Interior
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of France
Order of precedence
Preceded byas Former Prime Minister Order of precedence of France
Former Prime Minister
Succeeded byas Former Prime Minister