Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa

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His Excellency
Manuel Gomes da Costa
GOTE GCA GOA
Gomes da costa.jpg
10th President of Portugal
In office
June 29, 1926 – July 9, 1926
Preceded by José Mendes Cabeçadas
Succeeded by Óscar Carmona
95th Prime Minister of Portugal
In office
June 17, 1926 – July 9, 1926
Preceded by José Mendes Cabeçadas
Succeeded by Óscar Carmona
Ministerial positions
Minister of the Interior
In office
July 6, 1926 – July 9, 1926
Acting
Preceded by António Claro
Succeeded by Felisberto Pedrosa
In office
June 17, 1926 – June 18, 1926
Preceded by José Mendes Cabeçadas (Acting)
Succeeded by António Claro
Minister of War
In office
June 1, 1926 – July 9, 1926
Prime Minister José Mendes Cabeçadas
Preceded by José Mendes Cabeçadas
Succeeded by Óscar Carmona
Acting Minister of the Colonies
In office
June 1, 1926 – June 19, 1926
Prime Minister José Mendes Cabeçadas
Preceded by José Mendes Cabeçadas
Succeeded by Armando da Gama Ochôa
Minister of Agriculture
Uninaugurated
In office
June 1, 1926 – June 3, 1926
Prime Minister José Mendes Cabeçadas
Preceded by José Mendes Cabeçadas
Succeeded by Ezequiel de Campos (Uninaugurated)
Personal details
Born Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa
(1863-01-14)January 14, 1863
Lisbon, Portugal
Died December 17, 1929(1929-12-17) (aged 66)
Lisbon, Portugal
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Henriqueta Mira Godinho
Occupation Military officer (General, posthumously Marshal)
Signature

Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa, GOTE, GCA, GOA, commonly known as Manuel Gomes da Costa (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ ˈɡomɨʒ dɐ ˈkɔʃtɐ]), or just Gomes da Costa (January 14, 1863 in Lisbon – December 17, 1929 in Lisbon), was a Portuguese army officer and politician, the tenth President of the Portuguese Republic and the second of the Ditadura Nacional.

Early life[edit]

Gomes da Costa was born as the son of Carlos Dias da Costa and Madalena de Oliveira; he grew up with two younger siblings, Lucrécia and Amália. He began his military career by studying at the Colégio Militar at age 10.

Generals Tamagnini and Gomes da Costa, together with General Haking.

Military career[edit]

As a soldier, he stood out in colonial campaigns in the African and Indian colonies. After Portugal had entered the First World War (See: Portugal in the Great War) on the Allied side in early 1917, he commanded the Second Division of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps. During the Battle of the Lys on April 9, 1918, the CEP lost 400 dead and around 6,500 prisoners, a third of its forces in the front line. Particularly Gomes da Costa's division was hit hard and was all but wiped out.[1]

For his command in the war, he was made a general and a Grand Officer of the Military Order of Avis.[2] Two years later, on 5 October 5, 1921 he received the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Avis.[3]

Gomes da Costa and his troops march victorious into Lisbon on 6 June 1926.

Revolution[edit]

A convinced monarchist, Gomes da Costa had consorted with people of various political convictions. That, and his reputation as a soldier, led to his choice by right-wing revolutionaries to lead the 28 May 1926 coup d'état in Braga that overthrew the Portuguese First Republic, after General Alves Roçadas, their original choice, had died.

After the success of the revolution he did not assume power at first, entrusting the posts of President of the Republic and President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) to José Mendes Cabeçadas, the leader of the revolution in Lisbon. Soon the coup leaders disliked the attitude of Mendes Cabeçadas, a choice of the previous president Bernardino Machado and still sympathetic towards the old republic.[4] He was replaced by Gomes da Costa in both posts in a meeting in Sacavém on June 17, 1926. The new government was the first to include the later prime minister and dictator of Portugal, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, as finance minister.

Overthrow and exile[edit]

Gomes da Costa's government lasted nearly as little as Cabeçadas's, because it was overthrown by a new coup on July 9 of the same year. This attempt was initiated by João José Sinel de Cordes and Óscar Carmona, after Gomes da Costa attempted to have Carmona removed as minister for foreign affairs.[5]

Carmona, the new President of the Republic and of the Council of Ministers, used the pretext that Gomes da Costa was "unfit for office" and had him sent to exile in the Azores Islands. However, he also made him a Marshal of the Portuguese Army.[6] In September 1927, he returned to mainland Portugal, already very ill; he died a few months later.

Personal life[edit]

On May 15, 1885 in Penamacor Gomes da Costa married Henriqueta Júlia de Mira Godinho (Lagos, Santa Maria, July 30, 1863 - February 22, 1936), by whom he had three children. Gomes da Costa was the father-in-law of Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim, Governor of Gaza, Angola, Mozambique and India.

Statue in Braga

Honours[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rodrigues, H. "Portugal in the Great War". France at War. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Gomes da Costa in Artigos de apoio Infopédia [em linha]. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003-2016. Accessed 28 December 2016.
  3. ^ Presidência da República Portuguesa. Accessed November 28, 2014.
  4. ^ Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses (2016). Salazar. A Political Biography. New York: Enigma Books, p. 31.
  5. ^ Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses (2016). Salazar. A Political Biography. New York: Enigma Books, pp. 31-32.
  6. ^ Gomes da Costa in Artigos de apoio Infopédia [em linha]. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003-2016. Accessed 28 December 2016.
  7. ^ a b c "Cidadãos Nacionais Agraciados com Ordens". Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas. Retrieved 28 January 2017. 

See also[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
José Mendes Cabeçadas
President and
Prime Minister of Portugal

1926
Succeeded by
António Óscar Carmona