Manzanilla olive

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Manzanilla
Manzanilla olives.jpg
Olive (Olea europaea)
OriginSpain, California
Notable regionsSeville
UseTable and oil
Oil contentLow
Growth formSpreading
LeafElliptic
WeightMedium to large
ShapeOvoid
SymmetryAsymmetrical

Manzanilla olives ("man-zah-nee-ya") or Manzanillo, also Manzanilla de Sevilla (in Spain), originally from the area of Seville, Spain, are sometimes referred to as Spanish olives but along with Arbosana, Arbequina, Cacereña, Hojiblanca, Empeltre, and Gordal there are over two hundred varieties grown in Spain as well as other areas.

Manzanillo olives are dual-purpose, used for table olives and olive oil. Manzanillo olive cultivars are grown in many geographic areas around the world. Canned Manzanillo olives are generally black olives manufactured using the "California black-ripe" curing method.

Synonyms[edit]

There are over two hundred olive varieties grown in Spain.[1] Synonyms include Early Manzanillo, Romerillo, Redondil, Manzanillo Fino, Chorrúo de Espiga, Manzanilla olive, Manzanilla Rabuda, Common chamomile, Chamomile Basta, Chamomile of Carmona, Long, olive White Chamomile, Camomile of Two Sisters, and Varetuda.[2][3]


Closely related varieties[edit]

"Manzanilla Cacereña" along with "Manzanilla de Sevilla" (a vecera variety) found in high-density orchards.[4] Askal is a hybrid of Barnea and Manzanillo. Arno, Tevere, and Basento are hybrids of Picholine and Manzanillo.[5] Manzanilla Caceres and Manzanilla Alorena. Manzanillo Cacereño i-69 is a potential for superintensive olive trees in hedges.[6]


Characteristics[edit]

Manzanilla olives are dual purpose medium to large drupe or stone fruit of the Olea europea tree used as table olives and for olive oil production. Table olives can be whole with the pit in, pitted and stuffed with pimentos, garlic, peppers, or almonds, or sliced.[7]

Curing[edit]

Curing is a process to remove bitter phenolic compounds that includes oleuropein and ligstroside found in the flesh and skin.[8]

Black olives[edit]

Manzanilla's have been a popular variety in California since the 1960s. The "California black-ripe" curing method, developed circa 1905-1910,[9] has led to the Manzanilla variety mainly being used for canned black olives.[10] These are labeled as "ripe" are green olives that have been cured.[11] The process involves lye-curing in an oxygenated solution, that takes approximately 24 hours instead of six to eight weeks, and treatment with ferrous gluconate that fixes the black color. The olives are then placed in cans in mild brine then pressured and heat processed.[12]

Other areas of cultivation[edit]

The Mediterranean area soil and phenological events has proven to be idea for Manzanilla but other areas also cultivate the variety. The winter chilling must be enough to allow flowering after dormancy known as vernalization. Warmer weather allows "bud burst" and flowers that set fruit. The chilling weather should not go below 22 degrees or the plant may be damaged.[13]

New Olive cultivars[edit]

With advancement of health benefits of the Mediterranean diet there has been a sharp rise in the consumption and use of olives and olive oil. The traditional cultivation systems has a steady but lower yield than is commercially viable so newer alternative cultivars are sought that can be adapted to different geographical areas and mechanized harvesting. With more than two thousand recorded cultivars, clones or sub-clones, the use of various forms of grafting, free, cross- and self-pollination of trees creating hybrids, research is continually on-going to find genetically dominant cultivars.[14] Backcrossing or recurrent hybridization is also used.

Australia[edit]

With over eleven million trees in Australia covering 35,000 hectares (86,000 acres) the Manzanilla has shown to adapt to the climate.


Florida[edit]

Manzanilla trees are pest and disease resistant, self-pollinating, and cold hardy to at least 12 degrees.[15] The University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center planted five different types of olive cultivars to research if olives could be established in Florida. The climate does not get cold enough for the trees to become dormant but growers have used liquid CO2 into the ground as a means to create dormancy.[16]

Louisiana[edit]

LSU Ag Center has been performing field evaluations on fifteen varieties near Hammond[17] and the Manzanilla has shown as one variety that could be cultivated south of the I-10/I-12 corridor for small crops or as ornamental trees.[18]

South America[edit]

Mexico, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay produce olives and olive oil.[19]


Texas[edit]

Olive trees are considered an exotic crop in Texas. The Arbequina, Arbosana, Frantoio, Manzanilla, Mission, Pendolino, and Picual are grown but the Pendolino is a poor performer and planted to pollinate the Manzanilla. A severe freeze can kill olive trees so the best area is north of Laredo and southwest of San Antonio, in the region known as the Winter Garden.[20]

See also[edit]

List of olive cultivars

References[edit]

  1. ^ The importance of the varietie- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  2. ^ Manzanillo synonyms- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  3. ^ Manzanilla-Cacerena synonyms- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  4. ^ Science Direct: Cold storage of ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ and ‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ mill olives from super-high density orchards- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  5. ^ Vollmann, Johann; Rajcan, Istvan (2009). Oil Crops. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 408. ISBN 0387775943.
  6. ^ Other varieties that adapt to the olive grove in hedge- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  7. ^ Vitamin, Nutrients & Health Benefits of Manzanilla Olives- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  8. ^ Olive Fruit Maturation- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  9. ^ Olive Production in California (UC Davis, by Patricia Lazicki and Daniel Geisseler)- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  10. ^ Manzanilla black olives- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  11. ^ National Geographic: The Bitter Truth About Olives- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  12. ^ How Products are Made: Other curing and canning methods- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  13. ^ Olive Cultivation in the Southern Hemisphere: Flowering, Water Requirements and Oil Quality Responses to New Crop Environments- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  14. ^ Aims, Methods, and Advances in Breeding of New Olive (Olea Europaea L.) Cultivars (by S. Lavee)- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  15. ^ Olive trees in Florida? You bet (by Kathy Edenhofer, posted 2007-04-28)- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  16. ^ Olive Oil Times: As Citrus Struggles, Some Olive Growers Take Root in Florida(by Daniel Dawson, 2018-10-19)- Retrieved 2019-02-08
  17. ^ AgCenter evaluating olives for Louisiana (by Allen Owings, 2015-05-22)- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  18. ^ Growing Olives in Louisiana: An Initial Evaluation (by Jason Stagg and Allen Owings, 2017-10-02)- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  19. ^ 13 Olive Oils From Latin America Awarded at NYIOOC- Retrieved 2019-02-09
  20. ^ Best Olives to Grow in Texas- Retrieved 2019-02-09