Maoist Communist Party (Turkey)

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Maoist Communist Party

Maoist Komünist Partisi
FounderCüneyt Kahraman as TKP (M-L)
Cafer Cangöz as MKP
Founded18 April 1994 as TKP(M-L)
15 September 2002 as MKP
Split fromCommunist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist
Youth wingMaoist Youth Union
Women's wingMaoist Women's Union
Armed wingPeople's Libration Army
People's Partisan Forces
Political positionFar-left
National affiliationPeoples' United Revolutionary Movement[1]
European affiliationConference of Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Balkans
International affiliationRevolutionary Internationalist Movement
International Freedom Battalion
Party flag

Maoist Communist Party of Turkey (Turkish: Maoist Komünist Partisi abbreviated as MKP) is a Maoist insurgent organization in Turkey. It is the most significant of the Maoist organisations in Turkey; it upholds the legacy of Ibrahim Kaypakkaya. It maintains two armed wings: the People's Partisan Forces (Turkish: Partizan Halk Güçleri or PHG) and People's Libration Army (Turkish: Halk Kurtuluş Ordusu or HKO).[2] MKP is a part of Revolutionary Internationalist Movement and participates in the Conference of Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Balkans.[3]


MKP emerged in 1987 as TKP/ML - Eastern Anatolia Regional Committee (Doğu Anadolu Bölge Komitesi in Turkish, abbreviated as DABK) and broke away from the declining TKP/ML organisation. In 1993 it reunified with TKP/ML, but this proved unsuccessful; it broke away again in 1994 to become the Communist Party of Turkey (Marxist–Leninist) [abbreviated as TKP(ML) - not to be confused with TKP/ML]. After an increasing ideological divide between the TKP/ML and the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, the Committee of RIM (CoRIM) eventually ejected the ideologically stagnant TKP/ML. In 2003 TKP (ML) morphed into the Maoist Communist Party (MKP). MKP became a member of RIM and over the years gained influence becoming the most significant Maoist organisation in Turkey. MKP is determined to carry out a "Socialist People's War"[This quote needs a citation] in Turkey with its armed wing the People's Liberation Army. In 2013 the Party's 3rd congress established the People's Partisan Forces as a second armed wing.


Flag of HKO, MKP's armed wing in rural areas.
Flag of HKO
Flag of PHG, MKP's armed wing in cities.
Flag of PHG

The party has two armed wings: in rural areas Peoples' Liberation Army (Halk Kurtuluş Ordusu in Turkish, abbreviated as HKO) and in cities People's Partisan Forces (Partizan Halk Güçleri in Turkish, abbreviated as PHG).[4]

Maoist Youth Union (Turkish: Maoist Gençlik Birliği) is the youth organization of MKP.

Maoist Women's Union (Turkish: Maoist Kadınlar Birliği) - is women's organization of MKP.

The party has two periodicals titled Devrimci Demokrasi (Revolutionary Democracy) and Sınıf Teorisi (Theory of the Class).[5]

Federation of Democratic Rights (Turkish: Demokratik Haklar Federasyonu abbreviated as DHF) - is independent mass organization related to MKP.

Recent activity[edit]

In March 2009, Tamer Bilici, a doctor in service during a 2000 hunger strike in Kandıra F-type prison, was punished[clarification needed] by MKP-HKO for being a public enemy because he was blamed for deaths and permanent disabilities of inmates.[6] In September 2009 MKP-HKO claimed responsibility for the death of a retired colonel, Aytekin İçmez. In June 2015, MKP-PHG killed former colonel Fehmi Altinbilek.[7]

Designation as a terrorist organisation[edit]

The organisation is listed among the 12 active terrorist organisations in Turkey as of 2007 according to Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security (Turkish police).[8]

Human resources[edit]

A study carried out by the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security over a sample of files about people convicted of being terrorists under Turkish laws including 826 militants from the organisation and the three other currently active left-wing organisations (see reference 1) 65% of the members are aged 14 to 25, 16,8% 25 to 30 and 17,5% are older than 30. University graduates make up 20,4% of the members, high school graduates 33,5%, secondary school graduates 14%, primary school graduates 29,9% and illiterates 1,9% (while they have no sampled literate non-graduate members).[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement established for a joint struggle". Firat News Agency. 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
  2. ^ "Declaration on the 3rd Congress of the Maoist Communist Party of Turkey – Northern Kurdistan (MKP)". Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "MAOİST KOMÜNİST PARTİSİ-MKP/HKO". YouTube. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Leftist Parties of Turkey". Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  6. ^ "MKP: F Tipi katillerinden biri cezalandırıldı".
  7. ^ Hüseyin TÜCCAR- Erdoğan PAÇİN (2009-09-30). "MKP-HKO emekli albayı öldürdü". Sabah. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  8. ^ TÜRKİYE'DE HALEN FAALİYETLERİNE DEVAM EDEN BAŞLICA TERÖR ÖRGÜTLERİ: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2008-08-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Zaman. 25.12.2007. "Dikkat: Hangi yasadışı örgüte kimler üye olur?".

External links[edit]