Maoist Communist Party (Turkey)

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Maoist Communist Party of Turkey and North Kurdistan
Leader Unknown
Armed wing People's Libration Army
Ideology Marxism-Leninism-Maoism
Political position Far-left
International affiliation Revolutionary Internationalist Movement
Colours Red
Politics of Turkey
Political parties

Maoist Communist Party of Turkey and North Kurdistan or MKP (Maoist Komünist Partisi / Türkiye – Kuzey Kürdistan in Turkish) is a Maoist insurgent organization in Turkey. It is the most significant of the Maoist organisations in Turkey, it upholds the legacy of Ibrahim Kaypakkaya. It maintains two armed wings, the "People's Guerrilla Forces" or PHG and "People's Libration Army" or HKO. [1] MKP is a part of Revolutionary Internationalist Movement and participates in the Conference of Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Balkans.[2]


MKP emerged in in 1987 as DABK and roke away from the declining TKP/ML organisation. In 1993 it reunified with TKP/ML, but this proved unsuccessful, it broke away again in 1994 becoming Communist Party of Turkey (Marxist-Leninist) [not to be confused with TKP/ML]. After an increasing ideological divide between the TKP/ML and the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, the Committee of RIM (CoRIM) eventually ejected the ideologically stagnant TKP/ML. In 2003 TKP (ML) morphed into the Maoist Communist Party (MKP). MKP became a member of RIM and over the years gained influence becoming the most significant Maoist organisation in Turkey. MKP is determined to carry out a "Socialist People's War" in Turkey with its armed wing the People's Liberation Army. In 2013 the Party's 3rd congress established the People's Guerrilla Forces as a second armed wing.


The armed wing of the party is named Peoples' Liberation Army (Halk Kurtuluş Ordusu in Turkish, abbreviated as HKO) and People's Guerrilla Forces (Partizan Halk Güçleri in Turkish, abbreviated as PHG).[3]

The party has two periodicals titled Devrimci Demokrasi (Revolutionary Democracy) and Sınıf Teorisi (Theory of the Class).[4]

Recent activity[edit]

In March 2009, Tamer Bilici, a doctor in service during 2000 Hunger Strike in Kandıra F-type prison was punished by MKP-HKO for being a public enemy because he was blamed for deaths, and permanent disabilites of inmates.[5] In September 2009 MKP-HKO claimed responsibility for the death of a retired colonel, Aytekin İçmez.[6]

Designation as a terrorist organisation[edit]

The organisation is listed among the 12 active terrorist organisations in Turkey as of 2007 according to Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security (Turkish police).[7]

Human resources[edit]

A study carried out by the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security over a sample of files about people convicted of being a terrorist under Turkish laws including 826 militants from the organisation and the three other currently active left-wing organisations (see reference 1) 65% of the members are aged 14 to 25, 16,8% 25 to 30 and 17,5% are older than 30. University graduates make up 20,4% of the members, high school graduates 33,5%, secondary school graduates 14%, primary school graduates 29,9% and illiterates 1,9% (while they have no sampled literate non-graduate members).[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Declaration on the 3rd Congress of the Maoist Communist Party of Turkey – Northern Kurdistan (MKP)". Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ "MAOİST KOMÜNİST PARTİSİ-MKP/HKO". YouTube. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Leftist Parties of Turkey
  5. ^ "MKP: F Tipi katillerinden biri cezalandırıldı". 
  6. ^ Hüseyin TÜCCAR- Erdoğan PAÇİN (2009-09-30). "MKP-HKO emekli albayı öldürdü". Sabah. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Zaman. 25.12.2007. "Dikkat: Hangi yasadışı örgüte kimler üye olur?".
  • First Congress of the Maoist Communist Party of Turkey, Revolutionary Worker #1187
  • History of the Communist Movement in Turkey People's March

External links[edit]