Maoist insurgency in Turkey
|Maoist Insurgency in Turkey|
Maoist Party Centre
|Commanders and leaders|
|İbrahim Kaypakkaya †
Süleyman Cihan †
Kazım Çelik †
Mehmet Demirdağ †
Nubar Ozanyan †
Cüneyt Kahraman †
Cafer Cangöz †
Mahir Çayan †
Ulaş Bardakçı †
Cihan Alptekin †
Ömer Ayna †
Sinan Cemgi †
Kadir Manga †
Alpaslan Özdoğan †
|Casualties and losses|
The Maoist insurgency in Turkey, also known as People's War in Turkey (Turkish: Halk savaşı), is an ongoing low level insurgency in eastern Turkey between the Turkish government and Maoist rebels that appears to have begun in the 1980s. The insurgency declined in the late 1980s and 1990s and has been sidelined by the larger Kurdish separatist conflict. Low level armed attacks continue to be carried out by insurgent groups. The most significant of which are Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TİKKO) - armed wing of Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist and People's Liberation Army (HKO) and People's Partisan Forces (PHG), both armed wings of the Maoist Communist Party.
On April 24, 1972, the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist (sometimes TKP/ML is incorrectly referred to as "Partizan" after the name of one of its publications) was formed by a radical group led by İbrahim Kaypakkaya, it crafted 11-point program and intended to wage a People's War. However a year later Kaypakkaya was captured, tortured and killed. In 1978 the first conference was carried out affirming the TKP/ML's direction towards People's War and guerrilla warfare, however little progress was made in this direction. TKP/ML was involved in political violence between left and right wing groups in the 70s.
TKP/ML's military wing, the Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TiKKO), carried out militant and guerrilla actions in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, mainly in the Tunceli region, who's inhabitants saw the Maoist guerrilla war as revenge for the Dersim Massacre in 1938. TiKKO reached its height during this period carrying out guerrilla warfare in the mountainous areas of the Dersim and Black Sea regions.
In the late 1980s the TKP/ML suffered from a series of splits following the party's second congress. 1993 TKP/ML attempted to reunifiy with the DABK group which ultimately proved unsuccessful.
On May 17, 1985, TKP/ML broadcast propaganda message to millions of television viewers in Istanbul, replacing the soundtrack for the evening news.
In 2000, Turkish security forces launched operations against TiKKO insurgents in the provinces of Tokat and Sivas. Discovering 12 hideouts, they recovered 9 machine guns, 4 rocket launchers, grenades and explosives as well as 10 tonnes of food and medicine.
On December 11, 2000, TiKKO insurgents open fire on a police special task force, killing 2 and wounding 12.
On 16 June 2005, Turkish armed forces killed 17 members of MKP.
In March 2009, Tamer Bilici, a doctor in service during a 2000 hunger strike in Kandıra F-type prison, was punished[clarification needed] by MKP-HKO for being a public enemy because he was blamed for deaths, and permanent disabilities of inmates. In September 2009 MKP-HKO claimed responsibility for the death of a retired colonel, Aytekin İçmez.
On 29 June 2010, two guerillas of the TIKKO were killed in the mountains of Tunceli by the Turkish state forces.
In June 2015 MKP-PHG killed former colonel Fehmi Altinbilek.
On 10 October 2015 guerrillas of the PKK and the TKP / ML-TiKKO attacked military base of Geyiksuyu in the province of Tunceli.
The funeral of guerillas was attended by hundreds of people, who sang songs and shouted revolutionary slogans.
24-28 of November 2016 twelve guerillas of TKP/ML TİKKO died during an army operation at Aliboğazı region of the Dersim province
On 18 June 2017 MKP-HKO guerillas attacked on the military base of Kuşluca in Tunceli.
- Some songs of music bands such as Grup Munzur and Grup Yorum refer to insurgency in Dersim.
- Dersim'de Doğan Güneş
- Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)
- Political violence in Turkey (1976–80)
- DHKP/C insurgency in Turkey
- Gezi Park protests
- Armed resistance in Chile (1973–90)
- CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion
- Colombian conflict (1964–present)
- Internal conflict in Peru
- Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
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- Turquie : La guérilla maoïste et la guérilla kurde mènent une opération conjointe
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- Gelecek, Özgür. "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - TİKKO Rojava "12'leri anmak, onların boş kalan mevzilerini doldurmaktır"". ozgurgelecek1.net. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- 0, Özgür Gelecek. "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - TİKKO militanları Kürdistan için AKP binasını ateşe verdi". www.ozgurgelecek.org. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "MKP/HKO gerillalarından eylem!". Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- MKP/HKO’dan Ovacık muharebesine ilişkin açıklama!
- Ovacık'ta 3 MKP/HKO gerillası şehit düştü
- Hozat’ta iki MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti
- MKP/HKO gerillaları ölümsüzlük yolculuğunda
- Dersim-Ovacık’ta 2 MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti
- Ovacık’ta 2 MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti
- Ovacık’ta ölümsüzleşen HKO savaşçılarının isimleri netleşti!