Maoist insurgency in Turkey

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Maoist Insurgency in Turkey
Date 12 September 1980 – present
(37 years, 2 months and 1 week)
Location Turkey, mainly in the east Tunceli region
Result Ongoing low level insurgency
Belligerents
 Turkey TKP/ML-TİKKO
MKP-HKO-PHG
MLKP
Maoist Party Centre
THKP-C
(Dissolved)
THKO
(Dissolved)
Commanders and leaders
İbrahim Kaypakkaya 
Süleyman Cihan 
Kazım Çelik 
Mehmet Demirdağ 
Nubar Ozanyan 
Cüneyt Kahraman 
Cafer Cangöz 
Mahir Çayan 
Ulaş Bardakçı 
Cihan Alptekin 
Ömer Ayna 
Deniz Gezmiş Executed
Yusuf Aslan Executed
Hüseyin İnan Executed
Sinan Cemgi 
Kadir Manga 
Alpaslan Özdoğan 
Casualties and losses
600+ killed

The Maoist insurgency in Turkey, also known as People's War in Turkey (Turkish: Halk savaşı), is an ongoing low level insurgency in eastern Turkey between the Turkish government and Maoist rebels that appears to have begun in the 1980s. The insurgency declined in the late 1980s and 1990s and has been sidelined by the larger Kurdish separatist conflict. Low level armed attacks continue to be carried out by insurgent groups. The most significant of which are Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TİKKO) - armed wing of Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist and People's Liberation Army (HKO) and People's Partisan Forces (PHG), both armed wings of the Maoist Communist Party.

History[edit]

On April 24, 1972, the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist (sometimes TKP/ML is incorrectly referred to as "Partizan" after the name of one of its publications) was formed by a radical group led by İbrahim Kaypakkaya, it crafted 11-point program and intended to wage a People's War. However a year later Kaypakkaya was captured, tortured and killed. In 1978 the first conference was carried out affirming the TKP/ML's direction towards People's War and guerrilla warfare, however little progress was made in this direction.[1] TKP/ML was involved in political violence between left and right wing groups in the 70s.

TKP/ML's military wing, the Liberation Army of the Workers and Peasants of Turkey (TiKKO), carried out militant and guerrilla actions in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, mainly in the Tunceli region, who's inhabitants saw the Maoist guerrilla war as revenge for the Dersim Massacre in 1938.[2] TiKKO reached its height during this period carrying out guerrilla warfare in the mountainous areas of the Dersim and Black Sea regions.[3]

In the late 1980s the TKP/ML suffered from a series of splits following the party's second congress. 1993 TKP/ML attempted to reunifiy with the DABK group which ultimately proved unsuccessful.

On May 17, 1985, TKP/ML broadcast propaganda message to millions of television viewers in Istanbul, replacing the soundtrack for the evening news.[4]

2000–present[edit]

In 2000, Turkish security forces launched operations against TiKKO insurgents in the provinces of Tokat and Sivas. Discovering 12 hideouts, they recovered 9 machine guns, 4 rocket launchers, grenades and explosives as well as 10 tonnes of food and medicine.[5]

On December 11, 2000, TiKKO insurgents open fire on a police special task force, killing 2 and wounding 12.[6]

In 2001, police captured five insurgents and weapons including two 9K111 Fagot anti-tank missiles.[7]

On 16 June 2005, Turkish armed forces killed 17 members of MKP.[citation needed]

In March 2009, Tamer Bilici, a doctor in service during a 2000 hunger strike in Kandıra F-type prison, was punished[clarification needed] by MKP-HKO for being a public enemy because he was blamed for deaths, and permanent disabilities of inmates.[8] In September 2009 MKP-HKO claimed responsibility for the death of a retired colonel, Aytekin İçmez.[9]

On 29 June 2010, two guerillas of the TIKKO were killed in the mountains of Tunceli by the Turkish state forces.

On 2 February 2011, five guerillas of TIKKO in Tunceli died as a result of an avalanche.[10][11]

On 15 November 2012, 24 guerillas of HKO were surrounded and captured in Tunceli[12][13]

On 26 July 2013, the control building of a hydroelectric power plant regulator was bombed in the countryside of Tunceli Province by TIKKO militants.[14]

On 14 March 2014 TİKKO guerrillas attacked a police station in Tunceli. TKP/ML declared that the attack was revenge for the death of Berkin Elvan.[15][16]

On 8 July 2014 TİKKO guerrillas stopped a truck carrying five workers to a base station at Altınyüzük and set the vehicle on fire.[17][18]

In June 2015 MKP-PHG killed former colonel Fehmi Altinbilek.

On 10 October 2015 guerrillas of the PKK and the TKP / ML-TiKKO attacked military base of Geyiksuyu in the province of Tunceli.[19]

On 15 October 2015 TiKKO guerrillas attacked the military base of Amukta, in Hozatcounty.[20]

On 21 October 2015 three TİKKO guerrillas died in a clash with TSK in Ovacık.[21]

The funeral of guerillas was attended by hundreds of people, who sang songs and shouted revolutionary slogans.[22]

24-28 of November 2016 twelve guerillas of TKP/ML TİKKO died during an army operation at Aliboğazı region of the Dersim province[23]

On 10 February 2017 TİKKO fighters set fire to the AKP headquarter in Pendik district, Istanbul.[24]

On 18 June 2017 MKP-HKO guerillas attacked on the military base of Kuşluca in Tunceli.[25]

On 1 August 2017 three MKP-HKO guerillas were killed in a clash with TSK in Ovacık.[26][27]

On 18 August 2017 two MKP-HKO guerillas died when they were surrounded in Hozat by an Armed Forces.[28][29]

On 26 September 2017 two MKP-HKO guerillas were killed by TSK soldiers in Ovacık[30][31][32]

In culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of the Communist Movement in Turkey". www.bannedthought.net. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  2. ^ Construction of a Nation: The Early Years of the Turkish Republic and Dersim Events
  3. ^ Turkey and the War on Terror: "For Fortey Years we Fought Alone", page 27
  4. ^ A World to Win Magazine, 1985, "TKP/ML seizes the airwaves 8PM News Break"
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "RAND - NSRD - Projects - RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents". Smapp.rand.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  7. ^ [2][dead link]
  8. ^ "MKP: F Tipi katillerinden biri cezalandırıldı". Sosyalistforum.net. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  9. ^ Hüseyin TÜCCAR- Erdoğan PAÇİN (2009-09-30). "MKP-HKO emekli albayı öldürdü". Sabah. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "To the Press and the Public: 5 martyrs of TKP/ML-TIKKO died in Tunceli" (PDF). Bannedthought.net. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  11. ^ Mike Ely. "Turkey: Five Communist Fighters Killed in Avalanche". Kasama Project. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  12. ^ "24 MKP/HKO Militanı Teslim Oldu İddiası". Dersim News, Dersim Haber, Dersim, Tunceli Haber, Dersim Haber Sitesi, Dersim Haberleri, Tunceli Haberleri,Dersim 38, Kırmancki, Zazaca, Dersimce, Alevi Haberleri, Pülümür, Hozat, Ovacık, Mazgirt, Nazımiye, Çemişgezek, Erzincan, Erzincan Haber, Varto, Varto Haber, Kiğı, Kiğı Haber, Bingöl, Bingöl Haber, Gündem, Haber, Haberler, Avrupa Haber, Alevi Haber, Alevi Haberleri,. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  13. ^ "Arkadaşlar, siz de teslim olun askerler bize çok iyi davranıyor". Dersimnews.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  14. ^ "Hydroelectric Plant Regulator Bombed in Tunceli". Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "TİKKO'dan Berkin Elvan için misilleme eylemi". BestaNûçe Bestanuce.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  16. ^ Özgür Gelecek. "Gerilladan Berkin Elvan için misilleme eylemi". Ozgurgelecek.nl. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  17. ^ Özgür Gelecek. "Dersim'de gerilladan baz istasyonu eylemi". Ozgurgeleck.net. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  18. ^ "Communist terrorist group sets truck ablaze in eastern Turkey". dailysabah.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  19. ^ Turquie : La guérilla maoïste et la guérilla kurde mènent une opération conjointe
  20. ^ "TKP/ML -TİKKO'dan Ankara şehitlerinin anısına eylem - ATİK Online". www.atik-online.net. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  21. ^ 0, Özgür Gelecek. "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - YDG: Halk Savaşçıları Ölümsüzdür! Mücadeleniz, Mücadelemizdir!". www.ozgurgelecek.org. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  22. ^ Seyri Sokak (4 November 2015). "Mercan şehitleri:Cengiz, Hakan, Özgüç". Retrieved 11 September 2017 – via YouTube. 
  23. ^ Gelecek, Özgür. "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - TİKKO Rojava "12'leri anmak, onların boş kalan mevzilerini doldurmaktır"". ozgurgelecek1.net. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  24. ^ 0, Özgür Gelecek. "Özgür Gelecek - Paşêroja Azad - Günlük Haber Bülteni - TİKKO militanları Kürdistan için AKP binasını ateşe verdi". www.ozgurgelecek.org. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  25. ^ "MKP/HKO gerillalarından eylem!". Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  26. ^ MKP/HKO’dan Ovacık muharebesine ilişkin açıklama!
  27. ^ Ovacık'ta 3 MKP/HKO gerillası şehit düştü
  28. ^ Hozat’ta iki MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti
  29. ^ MKP/HKO gerillaları ölümsüzlük yolculuğunda
  30. ^ Dersim-Ovacık’ta 2 MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti
  31. ^ Ovacık’ta 2 MKP/HKO gerillası ölümsüzleşti
  32. ^ Ovacık’ta ölümsüzleşen HKO savaşçılarının isimleri netleşti!

External links[edit]