Maquis shrubland

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"Macchia" redirects here. For other uses, see Macchia (disambiguation).
Low Maquis in Corsica
High macchia in Sardinia

Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs due to a history of long term deforestation, pastoral land use, overgrazing, man-driven erosion, poor soil management, and land degradation. Further degradation of the maquis or macchia results in the less dense vegetation of a garrigue.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

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  1. ^ Habitats of the world. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 2006. pp. 488, 492–493. ISBN 978-0761475231. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  2. ^ Costantini, Edoardo A.C. (ed.); Dazzi, Carmelo (ed.) (2013). The soils of Italy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 30,78,80,83,255,283. ISBN 978-9400756410. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  3. ^ Aranda Jimenez, Gonzalo; Montón Subías, Sandra; Sánchez Romero, Margarita (December 10, 2014). The Archaeology of Bronze Age Iberia: Argaric Societies (Routledge Studies in Archaeology) (Routledge Studies in Archaeology (Book 17) ed.). Routledge. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-1138821330. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  4. ^ Rackham, Oliver; Moody, Jennifer (1994). The making of the Cretan landscape. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 14, 23, 96. ISBN 978-0719036477. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  5. ^ Bresson, Alain; Rendall, Steven (translator) (2015). Making of the ancient greek economy : institutions,markets, and growth in the city-states. [S.l.]: Princeton Univ Press. pp. 38, 73, 75,. ISBN 978-0691144702. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Egerton, F. N. (2001). "A history of the ecological sciences: early Greek origins" (PDF). Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 82 (1): 93–97. 
  7. ^ Hughes, J. D. (1975). "Ecology in ancient Greece". Inquiry 18 (2): 115–125. doi:10.1080/00201747508601756. 

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