María Elena Moyano

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María Elena Moyano

María Elena Moyano Delgado (29 November 1958 – February 15, 1992) was a Peruvian community organizer, feminist and activist of Afro-Peruvian descent who was assassinated by the Maoist Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) Terrorist group. Although only one of many atrocities committed during the most violent period of Peru's modern history, her death resulted in a public outcry.

Early life[edit]

Moyano was born in the Barranco district of Lima. Her activism began in her teens, as a member of the Movimiento de Jóvenes Pobladores, a youth movement in Villa El Salvador, a vast shantytown (pueblo joven) on the outskirts of the capital, largely populated by migrants from the interior of the country.

In 1984, at age 25, she was elected president of the Federación Popular de Mujeres de Villa El Salvador (Fepomuves), a federation of women from Villa El Salvador. Under her leadership, the organization grew to encompass public kitchens, health committees, the Vaso de Leche program (which supplied children with milk), income-generating projects, and committees for basic education. In 1990, Moyano left her position in Fepomuves and shortly thereafter was elected deputy mayor of the municipality of Villa El Salvador.

Maria Elena Moyano also supported the Organization Vaso de Leche (Glass of Milk). Organization Vaso de Leche organized to deliver milk to Lima's poor neighborhoods so that children could have at least one cup of milk a day.[1]

Maria Elena Moyano’s mother laundered clothes for a living, and had seven children. Moyano grew up with her six siblings: Rodolfo, Raul, Carlos, Narda, Eduardo, and Martha. For many years Maria Elena wanted to be a secretary, but her mother encouraged her to study law. Moyano's husband, Gustavo encouraged her to apply to Garcilaso de la Vega University so she could study sociology. The movie "Courage" (1999) depicted her studying poverty in Peru, and her turn towards secularism and socialism. Moyano believed that soup kitchens were a form of expressing grievances.

Shining Path in Peru[edit]

Shining Path, founded by Abimael Guzman Reynoso, was trying to consolidate its hold on the poorer neighborhoods of Lima. They were suspicious of all social organizations in Peru. Shining Path guerrillas planted a bomb on September 9, 1991 in a distribution center and blamed Maria Elena Moyano. Clearly, they falsely accused her in order to silence her.[citation needed]

Fear and terror pushed women (who lived in poverty) to speak up, and get involved in organized groups. The war between Shining Path and the military affected women for most of them were raped by both parts.[citation needed][dubious ] Cholas (the pejorative term for indigenous Peruvian females) were raped the most by men in the military, reported by Robin Kirk on a report she created for the Women’s Rights Project of Human Rights Watch. Shining Path additionally intimidated those that worked in social organizations through death threats, and ultimately killed quite a few.

Guzman, the leader of Shining Path was captured in September 1992. This was during the government of Alberto Fujimori who suspended the Constitution, dissolved congress and created a tight bond with the military. Under Fujimori’s rule, many were arrested and executed.

Shining Path considered Maria Elena as a conter-revolutionary and as a manipulator. She blamed the leftist movement in Peru for supporting Shining Path. Maria Elena went on to publicly confront Shining Path by calling them terrorists, and no longer revolutionaries. She also confronted the police, accusing them of violence and murders.

In a distributed pamphlet, Shining Path attacked Maria Elena accusing her of cheating, lying, and planting bombs. Maria Elena rebutted each attack by stating that she would never “destroy what [she] has built with [her] own hands.”

On February 14, Maria Elena protested. She was the leader of a march against Shining Path. The people carried white banners as a symbol of peace. After the protest, she was gunned down at fund-raising meal for a group of women.[2]

Death[edit]

After actively confronting Shining Path, she began to contemplate her death. She had good reason since many women activists in Peru were murdered. Maria Antenati Hilario and Margarita Astride de la Cruz were murdered for their attempt at change. Most importantly was the death of Juana Lopez in August 1991, where two weeks later Maria Elena began receiving death threats. The Shining Path began to tell her to leave her post, or she will die.

Shining Path guerrillas assassinated Maria Elena Moyano on February 15, 1992. It was the defiance that Maria Elena Moyano illustrated that triggered her death. She was killed in front of her son: Gustavo and her husband David Pineki (she married him in 1980).

Thousands of people attended her funeral. Later, in a plaza in the center of Villa El Salvador, a statue honoring Moyano was erected, and her autobiography was published.

The assassination of Moyano was one of the last major atrocities carried out by Shining Path. In September 1992, Guzmán was arrested and the leadership of the organization fell shortly thereafter. Subsequently, Shining Path was largely eradicated.

Moyano has been honored through a film after her death: Coraje (Courage). The film was written and directed by Alberto Durant.

A country filled with violence, inequality and danger; Maria Elena Moyano proved to be a signal of hope when approximately 300,000 people accompanied her coffin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moyano, Maria E. The Autobiography of Maria Elena Moyano: The Life and Death of a Peruvian Activist. Trans. Patricia S. Taylo Edmisten. University Press of Florida, 2000. Print.
  2. ^ Shaw, Lisa and Stephanie Dennison. Pop Culture Latin America: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO, 2005. Print.

External links[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Shaw, Lisa and Stephanie Dennison. Pop Culture Latin America: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO, 2005. Print.
  • Moyano, Maria E. The Autobiography of Maria Elena Moyano: The Life and Death of a Peruvian Activist. Trans. Patricia S. Taylo Edmisten. University Press of Florida, 2000. Print.
  • Heilman, Jaymie Patricia. Before the Shining Path: Politics in Rural Ayacucho, 1895–1980. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 2010. Print.
  • Gorriti, Gustavo, and Robin Kirk. The Shining Path. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1999. Print.
  • "Courage," (1999 film)