Maranao language

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Maranao
Mëranaw
Pronunciation [ˈmәranaw]
Native to Philippines
Region Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur
Ethnicity Maranao people
Native speakers
(780,000 cited 1990 census)[1]
Latin;
Historically written in Arabic
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mrw
Glottolog mara1404[2]
Maranao language map.png
Area where Maranao is spoken

Maranao (Mëranaw [ˈmәranaw])[3] is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.

Iranun was once considered a dialect.

Unique among other Danao languages, Maranaoan is spoken with a distinct downstep accent, as opposed to stress accent.

Distribution[edit]

Maranao is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).

Orthography[edit]

Maranaoan was historically written in Arabic letters, which were known as Batang Arab. It is now written with Latin letters. [4]

A, B, D, AE/Ë, E, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, NG, O, P, R, S, T, U, W, Y [5]

"AE", also spelled as "Ë", is pronounced as /ə/. However, in modern Maranao spelling, "AE"/"Ë" is merged with "E", except in some pronunciation guides.

Double vowels are pronounced separately. For example, "kapaar" is pronounced as /kapaʔaɾ/.

In some older orthographies, "q" is used for the glottal stop regardless of position[6], while in others an apostrophe is used. Nowadays, the glottal stop, regardless of position, is not marked in contemporary spelling.

The final /w/ sound in diphthongs and "W" were marked with "-o" in older orthographies, as in other Philippine languages, but both are nowadays spelled as "W". Also, "i" was used in older orthographies to transcribe /j/, which is currently spelled as "Y".

"H" is only used for Malay loanwords[4], and "sh" (pronounced as /ʃ/) is used for Arabic loanwords and names such as "Ishak" (Isaac)[6].

"Di" or "j" are used to transcribe the /d͡ʒ/ sound, such as "radia/raja" (from the Sanskrit word for "king", "Rāja") or the English name "John"[6].

Phonology[edit]

Below is the sound system of Mëranaw including underlying phonetic features.[7]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close ɪ u
Mid ə o
Open a

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Voiceless p t k ʔ
Voiced b d ɡ
Fricative (s) (h)
Flap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant w j

Velar fricative [h][edit]

According to Lobel (2013), [h] only occurs in a select number of Malay loanwords:

  • tohan 'God'
  • tahon 'astrological sign'
  • hadapan 'in front (of God)'

Consonant elongation[edit]

Consonants are also pronounced longer if preceded with a schwa ə. However, this process is not a form of gemination since consonant elongation in Mëranaw is not distinctive as seen in other Philippine languages such as Ilokano and Ibanag. Some of these are:

  • tëpad [təpːad] 'get off a vehicle'
  • tëkaw [təkːaw] 'startled; surprised'
  • Mëranaw is spoken by the Maranao tribe.
  • Solutan [solutːan] (Sultan of Gandamatu) Sultan sa Gandamatu.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maranao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Maranao". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  4. ^ a b [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ a b c A Maranao Dictionary, compiled by Howard P. McKaughan and Batua A. Macaraya.
  7. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

External links[edit]