Maranao language

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Not to be confused with Melanau language.
Maranaoan
Mëranaw
Pronunciation [ˈmәranaw]
Native to Philippines
Region twin provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur
Ethnicity Maranao people
Native speakers
(780,000 cited 1990 census)[1]
Latin;
Historically written in Arabic
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mrw
Glottolog mara1404[2]
Maranao language map.png
Area where Maranao is spoken

Maranaoan (Mëranaw [ˈmәranaw])[3] is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.

Iranun was once considered a dialect.

Unique among other Danao languages, Maranaoan is spoken with a distinct downstep accent, as opposed to stress accent.

Distribution[edit]

Maranao is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).

Orthography[edit]

Maranaoan was historically written in Arabic letters, which were known as Batang Arab. It is now written with Latin letters. [4]

A, B, D, AE/Ë, E, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, NG, O, P, R, S, T, U, W, Y [5]

"AE", also spelled as "Ë", is pronounced as /ə/.

Double vowels are pronounced separately. For example, "kapaar" is pronounced as /kapaʔaɾ/.

However, in some orthographies, "q" is used for the glottal stop regardless of position, and "di" is used to transcribe the /d͡ʒ/ sound, such as "radia" (from the Sanskrit word for "king", "Rāja").[6]

"H" is only used for Malay loanwords. [4]

Phonology[edit]

Below is the sound system of Mëranaw including underlying phonetic features.[7]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close ɪ u
Mid ə o
Open a

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Voiceless ʔ
Voiced b d ɡ
Fricative (h)
Flap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant w j

Velar fricative [h][edit]

According to Lobel (2013), [h] only occurs in a select number of Malay loanwords:

  • tohan 'God'
  • tahon 'astrological sign'
  • hadapan 'in front (of God)'

Consonant elongation[edit]

Consonants are also pronounced longer if preceded with a schwa ə. However, this process is not a form of gemination since consonant elongation in Mëranaw is not distinctive as seen in other Philippine languages such as Ilokano and Ibanag. Some of these are:

  • tëpad [təpːad] 'get off a vehicle'
  • tëkaw [təkːaw] 'startled; surprised'
  • Mëranaw is spoken by the Maranao tribe.
  • Solutan (Sultan) (Sultan of Gandamatu) Sultan sa Gandamatu.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maranaoan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Maranao". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ http://www.kwf.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/Ortograpiyang-Pambansa1.pdf
  4. ^ a b [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ A Maranao Dictionary, compiled by Howard P. McKaughan and Batua A. Macaraya.
  7. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

External links[edit]