Marathi language

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मराठी
Marāṭhī
Devanāgarī and Modi scripts.svg
Marathi written in Devanagari and the Modi alphabet
Pronunciation [məˈɾaʈʰi]
Native to Maharashtra
Region Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and significant minority in the countries of Israel and Mauritius[1]
Ethnicity Marathi people
Native speakers
73 million (2007)[2]
Early forms
Dialects
Balbodh style[3][4][5][6] of Devanagari, Modi alphabet (Brahmic scripts)
Devanagari Braille
Indian Signing System
Official status
Official language in
 India - Maharashtra,Goa, Daman and Diu,[7] and Dadra and Nagar Haveli[8]
Regulated by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad & various other institutions
Language codes
ISO 639-1 mr
ISO 639-2 mar
ISO 639-3 Either:
mar – Modern Marathi
omr – Old Marathi
Linguist list
omr Old Marathi
Glottolog mara1378  (Modern Marathi)[9]
oldm1244  (Old Marathi)[10]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-o

Marathi (English pronunciation: Listeni/məˈrɑːti/;[11] मराठी Marāṭhī [məˈɾaʈʰi]) is an Indian language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. There were 73 million speakers in 2001; Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India.[12] Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 900 AD.[13] The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect.[14] Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

Marathi has several features that set it aside from most other Indian languages. Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of 'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and, in common with Gujarati, alveolar with retroflex laterals ([l] and [ɭ], Marathi letters and respectively).[15]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Marathi is primarily spoken in Maharashtra (India) and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The cities of Baroda, Surat, and Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Belgaum (Karnataka), Indore, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), Hyderabad (Telangana), and Tanjore (Tamil Nadu) each have sizeable Marathi-speaking communities. Marathi is also spoken by Maharashtrian emigrants worldwide, especially in the United States, United Kingdom, Israel, Mauritius, and Canada.[16]

Status[edit]

Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu[7] and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[8] In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for some official purposes in some case. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eight Schedule of the Constitution of India, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language".[17]

Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha[18] is the main regulator of Marathi

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large treasure of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed.

In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara,[19] Osmania University in Hyderabad,[20] Karnataka University in Dharwar,[21] Gulbarga University in Gulbarga,[22] Devi Ahilya University in Indore[23] and Goa University in Goa[24] have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi) has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.[25]

Marathi Day is celebrated on 27 February, the birthday of poet Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrit. Marathi is one of several languages that further descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. Further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi, however this is challenged by Bloch (1970), who states that Apabhraṃśa was formed after Marathi had already separated from the Middle Indian dialect.[26]

Marathi literature, 12th–17th centuries[edit]

Main article: Marathi literature

Yadava[edit]

Marathi literature began and grew owing to the rise of the Seuna dynasty of Devgiri, who adopted Marathi as the court language and patronised Marathi scholars. Further growth and usage of the language was because of two religious sects – the Mahanubhava and Varkari panthans – who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi had attained a venerable place in court life by the time of the Seuna kings. During the reign of the last three Seuna kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, medicine, Puranas, Vedanta, kings and courtiers were created. Nalopakhyan, Rukmini swayamvar and Shripati's Jyotishratnamala (1039) are a few examples.

The oldest book in prose form in Marathi, Vivēkasindhu (विवेकसिंधु), was written by Mukundaraja, a Nath yogi and arch-poet of Marathi. Mukundaraja bases his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy and the yoga marga on the utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya. Mukundaraja's other work, Paramamrta, is considered the first systematic attempt to explain the Vedanta in the Marathi language

Mahanubhava[edit]

Notable examples of Marathi prose are "Līḷācarītra" (लीळाचरीत्र), events and anecdotes from the miracle filled life of Chakradhar Swami of the Mahanubhava sect compiled by his close disciple, Mahimbhatta, in 1238. The Līḷācarītra is thought to be the first biography written in the Marathi language. Mahimbhatta's second important literary work is the Shri Govindaprabhucharitra or Rudhipurcharitra, a biography of Shri Chakradhar Swami's guru, Shri Govind Prabhu. This was probably written in 1288.

The Mahanubhava sect made Marathi a vehicle for the propagation of religion and culture. Mahanubhava literature generally comprises works that describe the incarnations of gods, the history of the sect, commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, poetical works narrating the stories of life of Krishna and grammatical and etymological works that are deemed useful to explain the philosophy of sect.

Medieval and Deccan Sultanate period[edit]

Dnyaneshwar wrote largest treatise of the initial time 1290 titled Dnyaneshwari. later, Saint Tukaram made important contributions to Marathi poetic literature in the Varkari panthan. Saints like Samarth Ramdas, Namdev, Moropant (creator of 'Aryas") and many others created famous literary works in Marathi.

Marathi was widely used during the Sultanate period. Although the rulers were Muslims, the local feudal landlords and the revenue collectors were Hindus and so was the majority of the population. Political expediency made it important for the sultans to make use of Marathi. Nevertheless, Marathi in official documents from the era is totally persianised in its vocabulary.[27] Marathi also became language of administration during the Ahmadnagar Sultanate.[28] Adilshahi of Bijapur also used Marathi for administration and record keeping.[29]

Varkari[edit]

The Varkari saint-poet Eknath lived from 1528–1599. He is well known for composing the Eknāthī Bhāgavat, a commentary on Bhagavat Purana and the devotional songs called Bharud.[30] Mukteshwar translated the Mahabharata into Marathi; Tukaram (1608–49) transformed Marathi into a rich literary language. His poetry contained his inspirations. Tukaram wrote over 3000 abhangs or devotional songs. He was followed by Samarth Ramdas. Writers of the Mahanubhava sect contributed prose while the Varkari composed poetry.

One of the famous Nath saints of this period was Dnyaneshwar (1275–1296), who wrote the Bhavarthadipika (1290), and Amritanubhava. He also composed abhangs. Dnyaneshwar gave a higher status to Marathi by translating the Bhagavad Gita.

Maratha Empire[edit]

Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha empire beginning with the reign of Chhatrapati Shivaji ( ruled 1674`–1680). Under Shivaji, the language used administrative documents became less persianised. Whereas in 1630, 80% of the vocabulary was Persian, it dropped to 37% by 1677 [31] Subsequent rulers extended the empire northwards to Attock, eastwards to Odisha, and southwards to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions. This period also saw the use of Marathi in transactions involving land and other business. Documents from this period, therefore, give a better picture of life of common people. There are lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi script from this period. But by the late 18th century, the Maratha Empire's influence over a large part of the country was on the decline

In the 18th century, some well-known works such as Yatharthadeepika by Vaman Pandit, Naladamayanti Swayamvara by Raghunath Pandit, Pandava Pratap, Harivijay, Ramvijay by Shridhar Pandit and Mahabharata by Moropanta were produced. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period. New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms. The most important hagiographies of Varkari Bhakti saints was written by Mahipati in the 18th Century.[32]

British colonial period[edit]

The British colonial period (also known as the Modern Period) saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Modi script. The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionaries was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.[33]

The late-19th century in Maharashtra was a period of colonial modernity. Like the corresponding periods in other Indian languages, this was the period dominated by English-educated intellectuals. It was the age of English prose, reformist activism and a great intellectual ferment.

The first Marathi translation of an English book was published in 1817, and the first Marathi newspaper was started in 1832. Newspapers provided a platform for sharing literary views, and many books on social reforms were written. The Marathi language flourished as Marathi drama gained popularity. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved. Keshavasut, the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in 1885. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in 1840 while first Marathi newspaper Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832.

The popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006

The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature, drama, music and film. Modern Marathi prose flourished through various new literary forms like the essay, the biographies, the novels, prose, drama etc. Chiplunkar's Nibandhmala (essays), N.C.Kelkar's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte, Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar's are particularly worth noting.

Marathi since Indian independence[edit]

After Indian independence, Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. On 1 May 1960, Maharashtra was re-organised along linguistic lines; this added Vidarbha and Marathwada regions to its fold and thus brought major portions of Marathi population socio-politically together. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the 1990s.

Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century includes Khandekar's Yayati, which won him the Jnanpith Award. Also Vijay Tendulkar's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra. P.L.Deshpande(PuLa), P.K.Atre & Prabodhankar Thackeray, were also known for their writings in Marathi in the field of drama, comedy and social commentary.

A literary event called Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Literature Meet) is held every year. In addition, the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Theatre Convention) is also held annually. Both events are very popular among Marathi speakers.

In 1958 the term "Dalit literature" was used for the first time, when the first conference of Maharashtra Dalit Sahitya Sangha (Maharashtra Dalit Literature Society) was held at Mumbai, a movement inspired by 19th century social reformer, Jyotiba Phule and eminent dalit leader, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar.[34]

Baburao Bagul (1930–2008) was a pioneer of Dalit writings in Marathi.[35] His first collection of stories, Jevha Mi Jat Chorali (जेव्हा मी जात चोरली) (When I Concealed My Caste), published in 1963, created a stir in Marathi literature with its passionate depiction of a cruel society and thus brought in new momentum to Dalit literature in Marathi.[36][37] Gradually with other writers like, Namdeo Dhasal (who founded Dalit Panther), these Dalit writings paved way for the strengthening of Dalit movement.[38] Notable Dalit authors writing in Marathi include Arun Kamble, Shantabai Kamble, Raja Dhale, Namdev Dhasal, Daya Pawar, Annabhau Sathe, Laxman Mane, Laxman Gaikwad, Sharankumar Limbale, Bhau Panchbhai, Kishor Shantabai Kale, Narendra jadhav, and Urmila Pawar.

In recent decades there has been a trend among Marathi speaking parents of all social classes in major urban areas of sending their children to English medium schools. There is some concern, though without foundation, that this may lead to marginalisation of the language.[39]

Dialects[edit]

Standard Marathi is based on dialects used by academics and the print media.

Indic scholars distinguish 42 dialects of spoken Marathi. Dialects bordering other major language areas have many properties in common with those languages, further differentiating them from standard spoken Marathi. The bulk of the variation within these dialects is primarily lexical and phonological (e.g. accent placement and pronunciation). Although the number of dialects is considerable, the degree of intelligibility within these dialects is relatively high.[40]

Jhadi Boli[edit]

Jhadi Boli or Jhadiboli is spoken in Jhadipranta (a forest rich region) of far eastern Maharashtra or eastern Vidarbha or western-central Gondvana comprising Gondia, Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gadchiroli and some parts of Nagpur and Wardha districts of Maharashtra.

Zadi Boli Sahitya Mandal and many literary figures are working for the conservation of this important and distinct dialect of Marathi.

Southern Indian Marathi[edit]

Thanjavur Marathi, Namdev shimpi Marathi and Bhavsar Marathi are spoken by many Maharashtrians in Southern India. This dialect is stuck in the 17th century and is old Marathi – it did not change from the time the Marathas conquered Thanjavur and Bangalore in southern India.[citation needed] It has speakers in parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Varhadi[edit]

Main article: Varhadi dialect

Varhadi (Varhādi), or Vaidarbhi, is spoken in the Eastern Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In Marathi, the retroflex lateral approximant [ɭ] is common, while in the Varhadii dialect, it corresponds to the palatal approximant y (IPA: [j]), making this dialect quite distinct. Such phonetic shifts are common in spoken Marathi and, as such, the spoken dialects vary from one region of Maharashtra to another.

Others[edit]

Phonology[edit]

Main article: Marathi phonology

The phoneme inventory of Marathi is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages. An IPA chart of all contrastive sounds in Marathi is provided below.

Consonants[41]
  Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex (Alveolo-)
palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal plain m ɳ (ɲ) (ŋ)
murmured n̪ʱ ɳʱ
Stop voiceless p t͡s ʈ t͡ɕ~t͡ʃ k
aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ t͡ɕʰ~t͡ʃʰ
voiced b d͡z~z ɖ d͡ʑ~d͡ʒ ɡ
murmured d̪ʱ d͡zʱ~ ɖʱ d͡ʑʱ~d͡ʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative s ʂ ɕ~ʃ h~ɦ
Approximant plain ʋ l ɭ j
murmured ʋʱ ()[42]
Flap/Trill plain ɾ ɺ̢[43]
murmured ɾʱ

Older aspirated *tsʰ, dzʱ have lost their onset, with *tsʰ merging with /s/ and *dzʱ being typically realised as an aspirated fricative, [zʱ]. This /ts, dz, zʱ/ series is not distinguished in writing from /tʃ, tʃʰ, dʒ, dʒʱ/.

Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i   u
Mid e ə o
Low   a  

There are two more vowels in Marathi to denote the pronunciations of English words such as of a in act and a in all. These are written as अॅ and . The IPA signs for these are [æ] and [ɒ], respectively. Maharashtri Prakrit, the ancestor of modern Marathi, is a particularly interesting case. Maharashtri was often used for poetry and as such, diverged from proper Sanskrit grammar mainly to fit the language to the meter of different styles of poetry. The new grammar stuck, which led to the unique flexibility of vowels lengths – amongst other anomalies – in Marathi. Marathi retains the original Sanskrit pronunciation of certain letters such as the anusvāra (for instance, saṃhar, compared to sanhar in Hindi). Moreover, Marathi preserves certain Sanskrit patterns of pronunciation, as in the words purṇa and rāma compared to purṇ and rām in Hindi.

Writing[edit]

Modi script was used to write Marathi
Main articles: Devanagari, Balbodh, and Modi script
An effort to conserve the "Modi Script" under India Post's My Stamp scheme. Here, the word 'Marathi' is printed in the "Modi Script".

Written Marathi first appeared during the 11th century in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates. The Marathi version of the Devanagari alphabet, called Balbodh, is similar to the Hindi Devanagari alphabet. From the 13th century until the mid-20th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script. Since 1950 it has been written in the Balbodh style of Devanagari.[44] Except for Father Stephen's Christ Puran in roman script in the 1600s, Marathi has mainly been printed using the devanagari script because William Carey, the pioneer of printing in Indian language only had the Devanagari Types. Subsequently, he tried Modi but by that time Balbodh Devanagari had been accepted for printing.[45]

Devanagari[edit]

Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right. The Devanagari alphabet used to write Marathi is slightly different from the Devanagari alphabets of Hindi and other languages: there are a couple of additional letters in the Marathi alphabet, and Western punctuation is used.

The Modi alphabet[edit]

See also: Modi alphabet

From the thirteenth century until 1950, Marathi, especially for business use, was written in the Modi alphabet — a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing.[46] Currently, due to the availability of Modi fonts and the enthusiasm of the younger speakers, the script is far from disappearing.[citation needed]

Latin alphabet[edit]

Since Devanagari was difficult to type on Latin alphabet keyboards and does not display properly on old computers without the proper fonts, it became common for people to type Marathi in Latin script on social networking sites like Facebook and in online chats. Since it was a new trend there was no standardisation of phonetic and spelling rules. There is now widespread support of Unicode and availability of easy to use Devanagari transliteration on modern computers.

Consonant clusters in Devanagari[edit]

In Devanagari, consonant letters by default come with an inherent schwa. Therefore, तयाचे will be 'təyāche', not 'tyāche'. To form 'tyāche', you will have to add त् + याचे, giving त्याचे.

When two or more consecutive consonants are followed by a vowel then a jodakshar (consonant cluster) is formed. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below:

  • त्याचे - tyāche - "his"
  • प्रस्ता - prastāv - "proposal"
  • विद्या - vidyā - "knowledge"
  • म्या - myān "Sheath"
  • त्वरा - tvarā "immediate/Quick"
  • महत्त्व - mahatva - "importance"
  • क्त - phakta - "only"
  • बाहुल्या - bāhulyā - "dolls"

In writing, Marathi has a few digraphs that are rarely seen in the world's languages, including those denoting the so-called "nasal aspirates" (ṇh, nh, and mh) and liquid aspirates (rh, ṟh, lh, and vh). Some examples are given below.

  • ण्हेरी - kaṇherī - "a shrub known for flowers"/ Oleander
  • न्हाणे - nhāṇe - "bath"
  • म्हणून - mhaṇūn - "therefore"
  • ऱ्हा - taṟhā - "different way of behaving"
  • कोल्हा - kolhā - "fox"
  • केंव्हा - keṃvhā "when"

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Marathi grammar

Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Gujarati, and Punjabi. The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi Grammar was printed in 1805 by William Carey.

Marathi employs agglutinative, inflectional and analytical forms.[47] Unlike most other Indo-Aryan languages, Marathi preserves all three grammatical genders from Sanskrit: masculine, feminine and neuter. The primary word order of Marathi is subject–object–verb[48] Marathi follows a split-ergative pattern of verb agreement and case marking: it is ergative in constructions with either perfective transitive verbs or with the obligative ("should", "have to") and it is nominative elsewhere.[49] An unusual feature of Marathi, as compared to other Indo-European languages, is that it displays inclusive and exclusive we also found in Rajasthani and Gujarati and common to the Austronesian and Dravidian languages. Other similarities to Dravidian include the extensive use of participial constructions[47] and also to a certain extent the use of the two anaphoric pronouns swətah andapəṇ.[50]

Vocabulary[edit]

Sharing of linguistic resources with other languages[edit]

Marathi neon signboard at Maharashtra Police headquarters in Mumbai.

Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. The primary influence of Prakrit, Maharashtri, Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit is understandable. At least 50% of the words in Marathi are either taken or derived from Sanskrit.[citation needed]

Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages, and foreign languages such as Persian, Arabic, English and a little from Portuguese.

While recent genome studies suggest some amount of political and trade relations between the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, Middle East, Central Asia over a millennium, these studies are still not conclusive about the exact effect on linguistics.[citation needed]

Noted freedom fighter and revolutionary, social emanicipator and Hindutva Ideologue Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, has contributed immensely to the language, by coining new marathi equivalents for words from other languages, mostly English. Prior to these marathi equivalents, words from other languages were used commonly which was unacceptable to Savarkar. He opined that intrusion of foreign words, polluted the marathi language, while also rendering the original marathi words, of the same meanings, obsolete.[citation needed] Following are some of the words coined and popularised by him for safeguarding cultural integrity:

School: शाळा, College: महाविद्यालय, Academy: प्रबोधिका, Headmaster: मुख्याध्यापक, Superintendent of highschool: आचार्य, Principal: प्राचार्य, Professor: प्राध्यापक, Dispensary: औषधालय, Consulting room: चिकित्सालय, Vakil(an Urdu word): विधिज्ञ, Fauj, Lashkar(Urdu): सेना, सैन्य, Skirmish: चकमक, Camp: शिबीर, छावणी, Submarine: पाणबुडी, Telephone: दूरध्वनी, Television: दूरदर्शन, Circular: परिपत्रक, Report: अहवाल, प्रतिवृत्त, इतिवृत्त, Jindabad: की जय, जय हो, अमर हो, Legislature: विधी मंडळ, Parliamentarian: संसदपटू, Ahmedabad: कर्णावती, Arabian sea: पश्चिम समुद्र, सिंधुसागर, Hyderabad(south): भाग्यनगर, Cinema hall:चित्रपटगृह, Cinema: चित्रपट, Film: चित्रावली, चित्रपट्टिका, Interval: मध्यंतर, Studio: कलागृह, कलामंदिर, Shooting: चित्रण, Three dimension: त्रिमितीपट, Green groom: नेपथ्य, Photograph: छायाचित्र, Camera: छायिक, Portrait: व्यक्तिचित्र, Tape recorder: ध्वनिमुद्रा, Scenario: पटकथा, चित्रकथा, Trailer: परिचयपट, Music director: संगीत नियोजक, Director: दिग्दर्शक, Editor: संकलक,[citation needed]

Morphology and etymology[edit]

Spoken Marathi contains a high number of Sanskrit-derived (tatsama) words.[citation needed] Such words are for example nantar (from nantara or after), purṇa (purṇa or complete, full, or full measure of something), ola (ola or damp), karaṇ (karaṇa or cause), puṣkaḷ (puṣkala or much, many), satat (satata or always), vichitra (vichitra or strange), svatah (svatah or himself/herself), prayatna (prayatna or effort, attempt), bhīti (from bhīti, or fear) and bhāṇḍa (bhāṇḍa or vessel for cooking or storing food). Other words ("tadbhavas") have undergone phonological changes from their Sanskrit roots, for example dār (dwāra or door), ghar (gṛha or house), vāgh (vyāghra or tiger), paḷaṇe (palāyate or to run away), kiti (kati or how many) have undergone more modification. Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include:

  • Aḍakittā "nutcracker" directly borrowed from Kannada
  • Aathya "aunt" borrowed from Tamil
  • Akkā "elder sister" borrowed from Tamil
  • Aai "mother" borrowed from Tamil
  • Hajērī Attendance from Haziri Urdu
  • Jāhirāta "advertisement" is derived from Arabic zaahiraat
  • Marjī "wish" is derived from Persian "marzi"
  • Shiphārasa "recommendation" is derived from Persian sefaresh

A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation, and are considered to be assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. These include "pen" (native Marathi lekhaṇii) and "shirt" (sadaraa).

Compounds[edit]

Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming compounds. For example, ati + uttam gives the word atyuttam, miith-bhaakar ("salt-bread"), udyog-patii ("businessman"), ashṭa-bhujaa ("eight-hands", name of a Hindu goddess).

Counting[edit]

Like many other languages, Marathi uses distinct names for the numbers 1 to 20 and each multiple of 10, and composite ones for those greater than 20.

As with other Indic languages, there are distinct names for the fractions 14, 12, and 34. They are paava, ardhaa, and pauṇa, respectively. For most fractions greater than 1, the prefixes savvaa-, saaḍe-, paavaṇe- are used. There are special names for 32 (diiḍ) and 52 (aḍich).

Powers of ten are denoted by separate specific words as depicted in below table.

Number power to 10 Marathi Number name[51][52] In Devanagari
100 Ek एक
101 dahaa दहा
102 Shambhar शंभर
103 Hazaar (Sahasra, Ayut) सहस्र/हजार
104 Daha Hazaar (dash-sahasra) दशसहस्र/दशहजार
105 Laakh (laksha) लाख/लक्ष
106 DahaaLaakh (Dasha-Laksha) दशलक्ष
107 Koti (Karoda) कोटी
108 dasha-koti दशकोटी
109 Abja (Arbud, Arab) अब्ज
1010 dasha-Abja दशअब्ज
1011 Vrunda वृंद
1012 Kharva (Kharab) खर्व
1013 Nikharva (Neela) निखर्व
1014 - -
1015 Mahaapadma (padma) महापद्म
1016 - -
1017 Shanku (shankha) शंकू
1018 - -
1019 jaladhi (samudra) जलधी
1020 - -
1021 Antya अंत्य
1022 - -
1023 Madhya मध्य
1024 - -
1025 paraardha परार्ध

A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two. For example, 1,234,567 is written as 12,34,567 and read as 12 laakha 34 hazaara 5 she 67.

Every two-digit number after 18 (11 to 18 are predefined) is read backwards. For example, 21 is read एक-वीस (1-twenty). Also, a two digit number that ends with a 9 is considered to be the next tens place minus one. For example, 29 is एकुणतीस/एकोणतीस (एक-उणे-तीस)(Thirty minus one). Two digit numbers used before hazaara, etc. are written in the same way.

Marathi on computers and the Internet[edit]

Shrilipee, Shivaji, kothare 2,4,6, Kiran fonts KF-Kiran[53] and many more (about 48) are clip fonts that were used prior to the introduction of Unicode standard for Devanagari script. Clip fonts are in vogue on PCs even today since most of the computers in use are working with English Keyboard. Even today a large number of printed publications of books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts. However, clip fonts cannot be used on internet since those did not have unicode compatibility.

Earlier Marathi suffered from weak support by computer operating systems and Internet services, as have other Indian languages. But recently, with the introduction of language localisation projects and new technologies, various software and Internet applications have been introduced. Various Marathi typing software is widely used and display interface packages are now available on Windows, Linux and macOS. Many Marathi websites, including Marathi newspapers, have become popular especially with Maharashtrians outside India. Online projects such as the Marathi language Wikipedia, with 36,000+ articles, the Marathi blogroll and Marathi blogs have gained immense popularity.[54]

Marathi organisations[edit]

Many government and semi-government organisations exist which work for the regulation, promotion and enrichment of the Marathi language. These are either initiated or funded by the government of Maharashtra. A few Marathi organisations are given below:[55]

Outside Maharashtra state[edit]

  • Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Mandal, Jabalpur[57]
  • Andhra Pradesh Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Hyderabad
  • Marathi Granth Sangrahalay, Hyderabad
  • Vivek Vardhini Shikshan Sanstha, Hyderabad
  • Maharashtra Mandal, Hyderabad
  • Vedic Dharma Prakashika High School, Hyderabad
  • Gomantak Marathi Academy, Goa[58]
  • Gomantak Sahitya Sevak mandal, Panaji, Goa[59]
  • Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Parishad, Jabalpur
  • Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Karnataka
  • Karnataka Sahitya Parishad, Gulbarga[59]
  • Chhattisgarh Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh[59]
  • Madhya Pradesh Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Bhopal[59]
  • Vadodara (Badode Sansthan-Gaikwad State), Gujarat Rajya, Bharat
  • Shri Maharashtra Sahitya Sabha, Indore
  • Sanand Nyas,Indore
  • Marathi Samaj, Indore
  • Maharashtra Rangayan, Delhi
  • Vrihanna Maharashtra Mandal, an umbrella body of all Marathis who stay outside Maharashtra
  • Marathi Association Sydney Incorporated, Sydney, Australia[60]
  • Maharashtra Mandal, London[61]
  • Marathi Bhashik Mandal, Toronto[62]
  • Lagos Nigeria

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://marathi.com/Marathi. Retrieved 5 December 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link] Marathi. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  2. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  3. ^ Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indian Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 437. ISBN 9780521299442. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. 
  4. ^ Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN 9788171880577. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. 
  5. ^ Ajmire, P.E.; Dharaskar, RV; Thakare, V M (22 March 2013). "A Comparative Study of Handwritten Marathi Character Recognition" (PDF). International Journal of Computer Applications. INTRODUCTION. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. 
  6. ^ Bhimraoji, Rajendra (28 February 2014). "Reviving the Modi Script" (PDF). Typoday. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014. 
  7. ^ a b The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes" in some case. The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, [1], pp. para 11.3 Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b [2] Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Modern Marathi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  10. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Old Marathi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  11. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  12. ^ "Abstract of Language Strength in India: 2001 Census". Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  13. ^ arts, South Asian." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite.
  14. ^ Dhoṅgaḍe, Rameśa; Wali, Kashi (2009). "Marathi". London Oriental and African language library. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 13: 101, 139. ISBN 9789027238139. 
  15. ^ Dhongde & Wali 2009, pp. 11–15.
  16. ^ Ethnologue report of Marathi language
  17. ^ http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/shed08.htm
  18. ^ a b http://rmvs.maharashtra.gov.in/
  19. ^ "Dept. of Marathi, M.S. University of Baroda". Msubaroda.ac.in. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  20. ^ "University College of Arts and Social Sciences". osmania.ac.in. 
  21. ^ kudadmin. "Departments and Faculty". kudacademics.org. 
  22. ^ "Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Marathi". kar.nic.in. 
  23. ^ "List of statutes (Devi Ahilya University of Indore)". 
  24. ^ "Dept.of Marathi, Goa University". Unigoa.ac.in. 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  25. ^ http://www.unitedstatesofindia.com/index.php/inspiration/today-in-history/item/888-01-may-1960
  26. ^ Bloch 1970, p. 32.
  27. ^ Kulkarni, G.T. (1992). "DECCAN (MAHARASHTRA) UNDER THE MUSLIM RULERS FROM KHALJIS TO SHIVAJI : A STUDY IN INTERACTION,PROFESSOR S.M KATRE Felicitation". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 51/52,: 501–510. JSTOR 42930434. 
  28. ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). Cambridge History of India: The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. 
  29. ^ Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Adil Shahi Kingdom (1510 CE to 1686 CE)". Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  30. ^ Keune, Jon Milton (2011). Eknāth Remembered and Reformed: Bhakti, Brahmans, and Untouchables in Marathi Historiography. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University press. p. 32. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  31. ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2005). The new Cambridge history of India. (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-521-25484-1. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
  32. ^ Callewaert,, Winand M.; Snell, Rupert; Tulpule, S G (1994). According to Tradition: Hagiographical Writing in India. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 166. ISBN 3-447-03524-2. Retrieved 9 April 2015. 
  33. ^ James, Molesworth, Thomas Candy, Narayan G Kalelkar (1857). Molesworth's, Marathi-English dictionary (2nd ed.). Pune: J.C. Furla, Shubhada Saraswat Prakashan. ISBN 81-86411-57-7. 
  34. ^ Natarajan, Nalini; Emmanuel Sampath Nelson (1996). "Chap 13: Dalit Literature in Marathi by Veena Deo". Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 363. ISBN 0-313-28778-3. 
  35. ^ Issues of Language and Representation:Babu Rao Bagul Handbook of twentieth-century literatures of India, Editors: Nalini Natarajan, Emmanuel Sampath Nelson. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN 0-313-28778-3. Page 368.
  36. ^ Mother 1970 Indian short stories, 1900–2000, by E.V. Ramakrishnan, I. V. Ramakrishnana. Sahitya Akademi. Page 217, Page 409 (Biography).
  37. ^ Jevha Mi Jat Chorali Hoti (1963) Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2. Editors Amaresh Datta. Sahitya Akademi, 1988. ISBN 81-260-1194-7. Page 1823.
  38. ^ "Of art, identity, and politics". The Hindu. Jan 23, 2003. 
  39. ^ Assayag,, Jackie; Fuller, Christopher John (2005). Globalizing India: Perspectives from Below. London, UK: Anthem Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-84331-194-1. 
  40. ^ Khodade, 2004
  41. ^ Colin Masica, 1993, The Indo-Aryan Languages
  42. ^ In Kudali dialect
  43. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  44. ^ "Marathi language, alphabet and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  45. ^ Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 49. ISBN 81-7188-057-6. 
  46. ^ [3] Archived 16 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  47. ^ a b Bhosale, G.; Kembhavi, S.; Amberkar, A.; Mhatre, M.; Popale, L.; Bhattacharyya, P. (2011), "Processing of Kridanta (Participle) in Marathi" (PDF), Proceedings of ICON-2011: 9th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, MacMillan Publishers, India 
  48. ^ "Wals.info". Wals.info. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  49. ^ Dhongde & Wali 2009, pp. 179–80.
  50. ^ Dhongde & Wali 2009, p. 263.
  51. ^ "Indian Numbering System". Oocities.org. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  52. ^ Sushma Gupta, Sushma, Gupta. "Indian Numbering System". Sushmajee.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  53. ^ "Welcome to www.kiranfont.com". Kiranfont.com. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  54. ^ Askari, Faiz. "Inside the Indian Blogosphere". Express Computer. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  55. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature Volume I, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 8126018038
  56. ^ http://www.marathi.pro/?do=poems
  57. ^ https://www.akhil-bharatiya-marathi-mandal.org/
  58. ^ http://www.dol.goa.gov.in/maracademy.html
  59. ^ a b c d "3 Puneites in race for Sammelan presidentship". The Times of India. 
  60. ^ http://marathisydney.org.au/
  61. ^ http://www.mmlondon.co.uk/
  62. ^ http://www.mbmtoronto.com/

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bloch, J (1970). Formation of the Marathi Language. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-2322-8. 
  • Dhongde, Ramesh Vaman; Wali, Kashi (2009). Marathi. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. ISBN 978-90-272-38139. 
  • A Survey of Marathi Dialects. VIII. Gāwḍi, A. M. Ghatage & P. P. Karapurkar. The State Board for Literature and Culture, Bombay. 1972.
  • Marathi: The Language and its Linguistic Traditions - Prabhakar Machwe, Indian and Foreign Review, 15 March 1985.
  • 'Atyavashyak Marathi Vyakaran' (Essential Marathi Grammar) - Dr. V. L. Vardhe
  • 'Marathi Vyakaran' (Marathi Grammar) - Moreshvar Sakharam More.
  • 'Marathi Vishwakosh, Khand 12 (Marathi World Encyclopedia, Volume 12), Maharashtra Rajya Vishwakosh Nirmiti Mandal, Mumbai
  • 'Marathyancha Itihaas' by Dr. Kolarkar, Shrimangesh Publishers, Nagpur
  • 'History of Medieval Hindu India from 600 CE to 1200 CE, by C. V. Vaidya
  • Marathi Sahitya (Review of the Marathi Literature up to I960) by Kusumavati Deshpande, Maharashtra Information Centre, New Delhi

External links[edit]

Dictionaries