Marathon Man (film)
Movie poster by Bill Gold
|Directed by||John Schlesinger|
|Produced by||Robert Evans
|Screenplay by||William Goldman|
|Based on||Marathon Man
by William Goldman
|Music by||Michael Small|
|Edited by||Jim Clark|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
Marathon Man is a 1976 suspense/thriller film directed by John Schlesinger. It was adapted by William Goldman from his 1974 novel of the same name and stars Dustin Hoffman, Laurence Olivier, Roy Scheider, William Devane and Marthe Keller. The music score was composed by Michael Small.
The film was a critical and box office success, with Olivier earning a Supporting Actor Academy Award nomination for his role as the film's antagonist.
Thomas "Babe" Levy (Dustin Hoffman) is a history Ph.D. candidate and avid runner. Levy is researching the same field as his father, who committed suicide after the Communist witch hunts of the Joseph McCarthy era ruined his reputation. Babe's brother Henry (Roy Scheider), known as "Doc", presents himself as an oil company executive but is really a government agent, involved in an elaborate network of couriers who transport diamonds stolen during World War II from wealthy Jews seeking to flee Germany, which are then sold on world markets for the secret benefit of fugitive Nazi war criminal Dr. Christian Szell (Laurence Olivier). Szell, a dentist who tortured Jews in a concentration camp, escaped capture and is now living off the diamond sales as a fugitive in South America (echoing real life Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele).
Christian Szell's brother, 72-year-old Klaus (Ben Dova[N 1]), lives outside New York City and serves as the initial diamond courier. Klaus Szell dies in a Manhattan road rage incident, immediately after withdrawing some diamonds from a safe deposit box; Klaus was a random innocent victim of the accident, but Christian naturally suspects foul play, immediately putting everyone in the courier network under suspicion (anyone who obtains one of the two keys to the safe deposit box would immediately have access to a fortune in diamonds). Deducing this after having heard of the road rage incident from his boss Peter Janeway (William Devane), Doc realizes that Christian Szell will have to travel to New York to retrieve the diamonds.
After discovering the disappearances or deaths of fellow couriers, and escaping an attempt on his own life in Paris, Doc comes to New York under the guise of a visit to Babe. Meanwhile, Babe and his new girlfriend, Elsa Opel (Marthe Keller), who claims to be from Switzerland, are mugged by two men dressed in suits (whom we later learn are Nazi fugitives connected to Dr. Szell). Babe assumes the attack to be a random mugging, but Doc knows it's a warning signal for himself.
When Doc takes Babe and Elsa to a French restaurant, he tricks Elsa into revealing that she has been lying to Babe about her background. Doc suspects that she also may be connected to Szell, and warns Babe against her by claiming that she doesn't care for him and is only seeking an American husband so that she can become a U.S. citizen. After Szell arrives in America (and is met at the airport by the two men who mugged Babe and Elsa), Doc angrily confronts the three, accusing Szell of crossing a line by involving his brother. Szell, after questioning Doc as to his own safety, then stabs Doc with a blade concealed in his sleeve. Doc makes it back to Babe's apartment before dying in his arms.
The police interrogate Babe until government agents led by Doc's boss Janeway arrive. Janeway asks Babe what Doc told him before he died, and reveals that Doc was a government agent, working for a secret branch known as "The Division." Babe insists that his brother did not tell him anything. However, Janeway is convinced Doc would not have struggled all the way to Babe's apartment without giving him vital information.
Later that night, Babe is abducted from his apartment by the two men who mugged him in the park, and brought to Szell. Szell subsequently tortures Babe, using a dental probe on a cavity in Babe's tooth and repeatedly asking "Is it safe?" (to retrieve his diamonds). Babe truthfully denies any knowledge, but Szell tortures Babe relentlessly regardless of his answers. Babe is then rescued by Janeway, who explains that Szell is in America to recover the large cache of diamonds. Janeway presses Babe about Doc's dying words, but Babe still insists he knows nothing. Frustrated, Janeway reveals himself as a double agent and returns Babe to Szell. (It is subsequently revealed that Janeway and "The Division" enable the courier network because Szell helps them track down other Nazi fugitives.) Making a final attempt to extract information from Babe, Szell drills into one of his healthy teeth. When this also fails to reveal anything useful, Szell orders his men to "get rid of him". Babe eventually escapes, and aided by his skills as a marathon runner, evades Janeway's attempt to recapture him, making his way back to his Manhattan neighborhood.
Observing that Janeway and Szell's men are now waiting outside his apartment building, Babe arranges to sneakily procure a gun from his apartment (the same gun his father used to commit suicide). He also calls Elsa from a pay phone, and she agrees to drive to meet him. While ostensibly driving him to a safe place, she arrives at a country home, to Babe's increasing suspicion. Babe concludes that Elsa is also part of Szell's network and has set him up, forcing her to confess that the home was owned by Szell's deceased brother; it is also made clear that Elsa, despite her link to Szell, has developed genuine feelings for Babe.
Janeway and Szell's men arrive at the house, and Babe takes Elsa hostage. As one of Szell's men reaches for his gun he is shot by Babe, with Janeway joining in and shooting both of Szell's men, saying that they couldn't be trusted. Janeway then reveals where Babe can find Szell, ostensibly as restitution to Babe for Szell's murder of Doc, and Elsa implores Babe to leave. As Babe turns to leave, however, Janeway prepares to shoot Babe in the back. Elsa sees this and yells out a warning to Babe, whereupon Janeway shoots Elsa in retaliation. Alerted by Elsa, Babe sees this and shoots and kills Janeway, and leaves to find Szell.
Attempting to determine the value of his diamonds, Szell visits an appraiser in the Diamond District in midtown Manhattan, a heavily Jewish neighborhood. A shop assistant who is also a Holocaust survivor believes he recognizes Szell as a war criminal. After Szell hurriedly leaves the shop, an elderly Jewish woman also recognizes him. Trying to cross the street to get closer to Szell, the woman is hit by a taxi, causing a crowd to assemble to aid her. Amid the confusion, the shop assistant appears again, directly confronting Szell, who then slits the man's throat.
Szell retrieves his diamonds but, as he is leaving the bank, Babe appears behind him and tells him, "It's not safe". Szell immediately looks to see if anyone in his network is present; Babe tells him they're all dead, and forces him at gunpoint to walk to a water treatment plant in Central Park (where Babe regularly runs). Szell, in a gambit to negotiate his escape, offers Babe a portion of the diamonds; Babe declines, telling Szell he can keep as many diamonds as he can swallow. Szell initially refuses; Babe, taking possession of Szell's briefcase, taunts Szell by throwing handfuls of diamonds at him, which fall through the grating platform they're standing on and into the water below. Szell, aghast at Babe's actions, relents and swallows one diamond, but then refuses to cooperate further. Szell then accuses Babe's late father and brother of being as weak and predictable as Babe is, and spits at him; Babe strikes Szell, but loses his grip on his gun. Szell then reveals his dagger and lunges at him, but Babe manages to avoid it and throw the open briefcase with the remaining diamonds down a stairwell towards the water. Szell dives towards the diamonds, but stumbles and rolls down the steps, fatally falling on his own knife blade. Babe heads out into Central Park, throwing his father's gun into the reservoir, and symbolically walks away in the opposite direction of the park's running patrons.
- Dustin Hoffman as Thomas Babington "Babe" Levy
- Laurence Olivier as Dr. Christian Szell
- Roy Scheider as Henry "Doc" Levy
- William Devane as Peter Janeway
- Marthe Keller as Elsa Opel
- Richard Bright as Karl
- Marc Lawrence as Erhardt
- Tito Goya as Melendez
- Fritz Weaver as Professor Biesenthal
- Jacques Marin as LeClerc
The movie was filmed from September 1975 to January 1976.
Goldman was paid a reported $500,000 for the film rights to his novel and to do a screenplay.
Laurence Olivier was cast early on. However he had health issues and at one stage it was uncertain whether he would be able to do the film. Richard Widmark auditioned for the part, but Olivier eventually recovered and was able to make it.
Marathon Man was the second feature film production in which inventor/operator Garrett Brown used his then-new Steadicam, after Bound for Glory. However, it was the first feature using the Steadicam that saw theatrical release, predating the premieres of both Bound for Glory and Rocky by two months. This new camera stabilization system was used extensively in Marathon Man's running and chase scenes on the streets of New York City.
"Why don't you just try acting?"
Marathon Man is famous in acting circles for an often quoted and misquoted exchange between Hoffman and Olivier concerning a perceived difference in their approaches to acting. Hoffman later set the record straight in a retrospective interview, explaining: "When we got back to Los Angeles [Olivier] said, 'How did your week go, dear boy?' And I told him we did this scene where the character I was playing was supposed to be up for three days. He says, 'So what did you do?' I say, 'Well I stayed up for three days and three nights.' And [Olivier's] famous line was, 'Why don't you just try acting?' ... It became kind of legend. It's been quoted so many times, at least in the acting circles. And the truth is I was the first one to quote that line ... They leave out the reality and just put in what feels more provocative or a better story. And what accompanied him saying 'Why don't you just try acting?' ... He laughed, because he said, you know, "I'm one to talk." And then he was actually the first one that told me about risking his life every night jumping whatever it was twenty feet in the last act of Hamlet. And the truth of it is I didn't just stay up three days and three nights for the scene; it was a good excuse, because these were the days of wine and roses in Studio 54".
The film explores themes of endurance and the pursuit of nazi war criminals. Some critics believed that the violence exhibited was necessary to the film and to the character of Babe. Other critics found the violence to be offensive. Critic Pauline Kael considered the film a "Jewish revenge fantasy".
Babe originally has childish traits. As the film progresses, these childish traits are replaced with more adult ones. Michelle Citron of Jump Cut compared Babe to Carrie White in the 1976 film Carrie.
Reception and cultural impact
The film was a financial and critical success. Olivier's performance was particularly praised: he was nominated for an Oscar for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and he won a Golden Globe in the same category.
Roger Ebert gave Marathon Man 3 out of a possible 4 stars. He wrote: "If holes in plots bother you, "Marathon Man" will be maddening. But as well-crafted escapist entertainment, as a diabolical thriller, the movie works with relentless skill." Rotten Tomatoes ranks the film at 80%, with 35 reviews.
Dr. Szell was ranked as villain #34 on the American Film Institute's "100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains" list. The film itself was ranked #50 on the "100 Years...100 Thrills" list. He was also considered by Time Magazine as one of the 25 greatest movie villains to ever grace the screen. Both the novel and film contain a graphic depiction in which Szell tortures Babe by first probing a cavity in one of Babe's teeth with a curette, and later drilling into another tooth, without anesthetic, while repeatedly asking the question "Is it safe?" The quote "Is it safe?" was ranked #70 on the "100 Years...100 Movie Quotes" list. The dental torture scene was named #66 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments. The torture scene has been described as one of the most frightening sequences in film. Critics have remarked on the high level of talent and classiness.
Director Schlesinger said that Marathon Man was successful not only because it had elements of escapism, but also because the audience easily identified with Babe Levy. Schlesinger said that he "is definitely someone that you can root for. The film is about his survival in a grim and hostile world. In our present age of anxiety we can all identify with characters who are not trying to get ahead but simply to survive."
Deleted graphic scenes
Although the first preview of the movie was successful, the second one in San Francisco did not go well. The audience complained about all the violent scenes, so director John Schlesinger and editor Jim Clark chose to delete the following scenes and shots: the scene near the beginning of the film in which Doc fights with two assassins who have killed his friend; the graphic and gory close-ups of Szell disemboweling Doc with his wrist blade; and both of the torture scenes, which were heavily cut. Graphic insert shots from torture scene which were filmed by Clark were removed. Some photos, such as original lobby cards and stills, show Szell torturing Babe longer with dental instruments in the first torture scene and actual onscreen drilling of Babe's tooth in second torture scene.
Differences between the novel and film
An 8½-minute sequence was shot of Doc fighting with some men who kill a spy colleague of his. William Goldman speculated that the scene was cut because of its violence and called the cut "grievous" and to the detriment of the film. With the sequence missing, Doc's character seems to be less flawed than he really is.
The ending is speculated to have been rewritten because Hoffman was unhappy with it. Goldman was not sure who wrote it, but told an interviewer he thought the new, more famous ending was "shit" because it left out two important plot clarifications. The final confrontation between Babe and Szell, in particular, is changed: in the film, Babe "spares" Szell in a pump room, tries forcing him to swallow his diamonds and Szell then falls on his own retractable blade, dying. In the novel, Babe resolutely leads Szell to Central Park and shoots him multiple times, subsequently lecturing him. He then throws the diamonds away and is quietly led away by a policeman (Robert Towne rewrote the ending).
- A former vaudevillian and acrobat, Ben Dova was born Joseph Späh in Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France in 1905. On May 6, 1937 he was one of 61 survivors of the crash of the German airship Hindenburg when he jumped fifty feet from the burning airship when it burst into flame during landing at Lakehurst, NJ.
- Marathon Man: FSM Online Linear Notes. Film Score Monthly. Retrieved April 4, 2013
- "Marathon Man, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- BEN DOVA - The Drunk Daredevil TheHumanMarvels.com
- News of the Screen: Goldman's Latest Brings $500,000 Hart Crane's Life Subject of Film Columbia to Do Hallahan Novel By A, H, WEILER. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 26 May 1974: 43.
- William Goldman, "Widmark left indelible impressions", Variety April 4, 2008 accessed 2 February 2014
- "Steadicam 30th anniversary press release".
- Hoffman, Dustin (Actor). Marathon Man (DVD).
- Bouzereau, Laurent. Ultraviolent Movies: from Sam Peckinpah to Quentin Tarantino. Citadel Press, September 1, 2000, 136. ISBN 0-8065-2045-0, ISBN 978-0-8065-2045-2.
- Erens, Patricia. The Jew in American Cinema. Indiana University Press, 1988. 348. Retrieved from Google Books on January 9, 2012. ISBN 0-253-20493-3, ISBN 978-0-253-20493-6.
- Phillips, Gene D. Major Film Directors of the American and British Cinema, Volume 1999. Lehigh University Press, 1999. 236. Retrieved from Google Books on January 30, 2012. ISBN 0-934223-59-9, ISBN 978-0-934223-59-1.
- Bouzereau, Laurent. Ultraviolent Movies: from Sam Peckinpah to Quentin Tarantino. Citadel Press, September 1, 2000. 135. Retrieved from Google Books on January 9, 2012. ISBN 0-8065-2045-0, ISBN 978-0-8065-2045-2.
- "Carrie meets Marathon Man." Jump Cut. No. 14, 1977. P. 10-12.
- Bettencourt, Scott and Alexander Kaplan. "Marathon Man." Film Score Monthly. Vol. 13, no. 5. Retrieved on March 1, 2014.
- Dennis Brown, Shoptalk, Newmarket Press, 1992, p 70
- Mann, William J. Edge of Midnight: The Life of John Schlesinger. Random House Digital, Sep 1, 2006. 444. Retrieved from Google Books on January 10, 2012. ISBN 0-8230-8469-8, ISBN 978-0-8230-8469-2.
- Bettencourt, Scott. "Marathon Man". Film Score Monthly. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Bradey, John Joseph. The Craft of the Screenwriter: Interviews with Six Celebrated Screenwriters (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981), p. 162.
- Bradey, p. 166.
- Kerner, Aaron. Film and the Holocaust: New Perspectives on Dramas, Documentaries, and Experimental Films. Continuum International Publishing Group, May 5, 2011. 169-173. ISBN 1-4411-2418-7, ISBN 978-1-4411-2418-0.
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