Marburg acute multiple sclerosis
|Marburg acute multiple sclerosis|
|Other names||Acute multiple sclerosis, Marburg type|
Marburg acute multiple sclerosis, also known as Marburg multiple sclerosis or acute fulminant multiple sclerosis, is considered one of the multiple sclerosis borderline diseases, which is a collection of diseases classified by some as MS variants and by others as different diseases. Other diseases in this group are neuromyelitis optica (NMO), Balo concentric sclerosis, and Schilder's disease. The graver course is one form of malignant multiple sclerosis, with patients reaching a significant level of disability in less than five years from their first symptoms, often in a matter of months.
It took its name from Otto Marburg. It can be diagnosed in vivo with an MRI scan. If Marburg disease occurs in the form of a single large lesion, it can be radiologically indistinguishable from a brain tumor or abscess. It is usually lethal, but it has been found to be responsive to Mitoxantrone and Alemtuzumab, and it has also been responsive to autologous stem cell transplantation. Recent evidence shows that Marburg's presents a heterogeneous response to medication, as does standard MS.
Historically, acute MS was a fatal disease, with death occurring within a year of onset, often secondary to extensive brain stem demyelination. Treatment recommendations, based on anecdotes, include plasma exchange in conjunction with high-dose glucocorticoids(e.g., 1 to 2 g/day of methylprednisolone for 10 days followed by a slow taper). For patients who survive the acute attack, follow-up treatments include immunosuppression (monthly mitoxantrone or cyclophosphamide) either alone or in combination with IFN beta or GA.
Marburg variant of MS is an acute fulminant demyelinating process which in most cases progresses inexorably to death within 1–2 years. However, there are some reports of Marburg MS reaching stability by three years.
Pathology and pathogenesis
MOG antibody‐associated demyelinating pseudotumor
Some anti-MOG cases satisfy the MS requirements (lesions disseminated in time and space) and are therefore traditionally considered MS cases. After the discovery of the anti-MOG disease this classification is into revision.
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