Marc Garneau

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marc Garneau
Garneau in 2018
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
January 12, 2021 – October 26, 2021
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byFrançois-Philippe Champagne
Succeeded byMélanie Joly
Minister of Transport
In office
November 4, 2015 – January 12, 2021
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byLisa Raitt
Succeeded byOmar Alghabra
Member of Parliament
for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
(Westmount—Ville-Marie; 2008–2015)
In office
October 14, 2008 – March 8, 2023
Preceded byLucienne Robillard
Succeeded byAnna Gainey
Personal details
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau

(1949-02-23) February 23, 1949 (age 74)
Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Political partyLiberal
Residence(s)Westmount, Quebec, Canada
Alma materRoyal Military College of Canada (B.S., 1970)
Imperial College London (Ph.D., 1973)
Canadian Forces College
WebsiteOfficial website
Military service
Allegiance Canada
Branch/service Maritime Command
Years of service1974–1989
Rank Captain(N)
Space career
National Research Council
Canadian Space Agency
Time in space
29d 02h 01min
Selection1983 NRC Group
MissionsSTS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97
Mission insignia

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau PC CC CD (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian retired politician, retired Royal Canadian Navy officer and former astronaut who served as a Cabinet minister from 2015 to 2021. A member of the Liberal Party, Garneau was the minister of foreign affairs from January to October 2021 and minister of transport from November 2015 to January 2021. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount.

Prior to entering politics, Garneau served as a naval officer and was selected as an astronaut, part of the 1983 NRC Group. On October 5, 1984, he became the first Canadian in outer space as part of STS-41-G and served on two subsequent Space Shuttle missions—STS-77 and STS-97.

Early life[edit]

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau was born on February 23, 1949, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. He attended primary and secondary schools in Quebec City and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. He also has a brother, Philippe Garneau.[1]

Education and military career[edit]

Garneau graduated from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1970 with a bachelor of science in engineering physics and began his career in the Canadian Forces Maritime Command.[2]

In 1973 he received a PhD in electrical engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, England. His thesis was entitled "The Perception of Facial Images". The Photofit analogue computer was used by him to discriminate facial features.[3]

In 1974, Garneau served as a naval combat systems engineer aboard HMCS Algonquin.

From 1982 to 1983, he attended the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College in Toronto. While there, he was promoted to the rank of commander and was transferred to Ottawa in 1983. In January 1986, he was promoted to captain(N). Garneau retired from the Canadian Forces in 1989.[2]

Space career[edit]

Garneau was one of six first Canadian Astronauts and he became the first Canadian in outer space on October 5, 1984.[4] In 1984, he was seconded to the new Canadian Astronaut Program (CAP), one of six chosen from over 4,000 applicants; of these six he was the only military officer.

Garneau flew on the Space Shuttle Challenger, STS-41-G from October 5 to 13, 1984, as payload specialist. He was promoted to captain(N) in 1986, and left the Canadian Forces in 1989, to become deputy director of the CAP. In 1992–93, he underwent further training to become a mission specialist. He worked as CAPCOM for a number of shuttle flights and was on two further flights himself: STS-77 (May 19 to 29, 1996) and STS-97 (to the ISS, November 30 to December 11, 2000). He has logged over 677 hours in space.[5]

In February 2001, Garneau was appointed executive vice-president of the Canadian Space Agency, and became its president on November 22, 2001.[4]

Political career[edit]

Garneau has served as the member of Parliament (MP) for the Montreal riding of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount, and its predecessor Westmount—Ville-Marie since the 2008 federal election, winning by over 9,000 votes.[6] He was re-elected to the House of Commons in the 2011 federal election by 642 votes,[7][8] and in the 2015 federal election with a majority of over 18,000. Previously, he unsuccessfully stood in the riding of Vaudreuil-Soulanges at the 2006 federal election.

On November 28, 2012, Garneau announced his candidacy for the leadership of the Liberal Party to be decided in April 2013. On March 13, 2013, Garneau formally withdrew his bid for the party leadership.[9] On November 4, 2015, Garneau was appointed as Minister of Transport in the 29th Canadian Ministry. He became Minister of Foreign Affairs on January 12, 2021 after a cabinet reshuffle.[10]

Initial candidacy[edit]

Garneau resigned as the president of the Canadian Space Agency to run for the Liberal Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election in the riding of Vaudreuil—Soulanges, which was then held by Meili Faille of the Bloc Québécois.[11] The Liberal Party's support dropped off considerably in Quebec after the Sponsorship scandal and though considered a star candidate, Garneau lost to Faille by over nine thousand votes.[12][13]

In the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election Garneau announced his support for perceived front-runner Michael Ignatieff, who lost to Stéphane Dion on the final ballot.[14] With the resignation of Liberal MP Jean Lapierre in 2007, Garneau expressed interest in being the party's candidate in Lapierre's former riding of Outremont.[15] Dion instead appointed Jocelyn Coulon as the party's candidate, who went on to be defeated by the New Democratic Party's Thomas Mulcair in the by-election.[16]

In May 2007, Garneau filed nomination papers to be the party's candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie, after former Liberal Party deputy leader Lucienne Robillard announced she would not be seeking re-election. However, a week after filing his nomination papers Dion announced that he had hand-picked a candidate for the riding. Garneau later withdrew his nomination papers and announced he no longer had an interest in politics. In October 2007, Garneau and Dion held a joint news conference where they announced that Garneau would be the Liberal Party candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie.[15] Robillard announced her resignation as Member of Parliament in January and a by-election was later scheduled for September 8, 2008.[17][18] However, the by-election was cancelled during the campaign when Prime Minister Stephen Harper called a general election for October 14, 2008. Though some pundits predicted a close race between Garneau and NDP candidate Anne Lagacé-Dowson, Garneau went on to win the riding by over 9,000 votes.[6][19]

41st Parliament and leadership campaign[edit]

Garneau was narrowly re-elected in the 2011 election where he beat New Democratic Party candidate Joanne Corbeil. He was Liberal House leader and served as Liberal foreign affairs critic. He was a candidate for interim leadership of the Liberal Party, but was ultimately defeated by Bob Rae.[20][21] Garneau announced later that year that he was considering a bid for the permanent leadership of the party.[22] In the summer of 2012, he announced that he was looking for a "dream team" to run his leadership bid and that he would only run if he could find the right people.[23][24]

On November 21, 2012, Garneau was named his party's natural resources critic after David McGuinty resigned the post.[25]

On November 28, 2012, Garneau announced his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party, placing a heavy focus on the economy.[26][27] While fellow leadership candidate Justin Trudeau was widely seen as the front-runner in the race, Garneau was thought to be his main challenger among the candidates.[28] With his entrance into the leadership race he resigned his post as Liberal House leader, while remaining the party's critic for natural resources.[29]

At the press conference announcing his candidacy Garneau ruled out any form of co-operation with the Green Party or New Democratic Party to help defeat the Conservative Party in the next election, which was proposed by leadership candidate Joyce Murray.[30]

On January 30, 2013, Garneau was replaced as natural resources critic by Ted Hsu. Garneau had been serving in the position on an interim basis.[31]

Garneau and other members of Trudeau's cabinet welcoming U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security John F. Kelly in March 2017

On March 13, 2013 Garneau announced his withdrawal from the race, and threw his support to front-runner Justin Trudeau. On September 18, 2013, Garneau was named co-chair of the Liberal International Affairs Council of Advisors, providing advice on foreign and defence issues to Liberal Party of Canada leader Justin Trudeau.[32][33]

Minister of Transport[edit]

In the 2015 elections held on October 19, 2015, Garneau was re-elected as MP in the newly created riding of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount. Two weeks later, on November 4, 2015, Garneau was appointed the minister of transport by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

In May 2017, Garneau introduced an airline passenger bill of rights to standardize how passengers can be treated by airlines which operate any flights in and out of Canada. The legislation would create minimum compensation rates for overbooking, lost or damaged luggage, and bumping passengers off flights. It would also prohibit airlines from removing people from the flight if they have purchased a ticket and set the standard for tarmac delays and airline treatment of passengers when flights are delayed or cancelled over events in the airline's control, or because of weather conditions.[34]

Garneau meets with U.S. Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken in Reykjavik in May 2021.

In March 2019, after days of initial refusal to take actions following the crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, Garneau finally agreed to ground and prohibit all Boeing 737 Max aircraft from flying in Canadian airspace.[35] This stood in contrast to the ministry's previous stance, where he insisted the plane was safe to fly, thus making Canada one of the only two nations still flying a substantial number of Boeing 737 Max planes at the time.[36][37] Garneau even went so far as saying he would board 737 MAX 8 "without hesitation", as an apparent show of support for the Boeing Company.[38]

Minister of Foreign Affairs[edit]

On January 12, 2021, following the resignation of Navdeep Bains as minister of innovation, science and industry, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau shuffled the Cabinet, with Garneau becoming Minister of Foreign Affairs.[39] Garneau was described as one of the most qualified and capable members of Cabinet.[40][41][42]

Following the cabinet reshuffle stemming from the election in October 2021, Garneau was dropped from Cabinet on October 26, despite being re-elected to his seat in the House.[43] Some have speculated that Garneau did not remain in cabinet due to his age, being sacrificed in the name of gender parity, and that he reportedly refused to be subservient to the Prime Minister’s Office.[40][41][42]


On March 8, 2023, Garneau announced that he would resign his seat and retire from politics.[44] He gave his farewell speech in the House of Commons the same day.[45][46] The by-election to replace him in parliament was scheduled for June 19, 2023.[47]

Awards and honours[edit]

Ribbon Description Notes
Companion of the Order of Canada (C.C.)
  • Awarded on: May 8, 2003
  • Invested on: December 12, 2003 [48]
Officer of the Order of Canada (O.C.)
  • Awarded on: December 17, 1984
  • Invested on: April 10, 1985 [48]
125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
  • 1993
  • As an officer of the Order of Canada, he has also received the 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal.[49]
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2002
  • As an officer of the Order of Canada, he has also received the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal of Canada Medal.[49][50]
  • Canadian version
Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2012
  • * As a Companion of the Order of Canada, and an elected Member of Parliament he has also received the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal.[49][51]
  • Canadian version
Canadian Forces' Decoration (C.D.)

Garneau was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1984 in recognition of his role as the first Canadian astronaut. He was promoted the rank of Companion within the order in 2003 for his extensive work with Canada's space program.

He was awarded the Canadian Forces' Decoration for 12 years of honourable service with the Canadian Forces.

He is honoured with a high school named after him, Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute in Toronto [52] and É.S.P. Marc-Garneau[53] in Trenton, Ontario.

Garneau is the Honorary Captain of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. In addition, no 599 Royal Canadian Air Cadets squadron is named in his honour.

Garneau was awarded the Key to the City of Ottawa from Marion Dewar the Mayor of Ottawa on December 10, 1984.[54][55]

He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1992.[56]

Honorary degrees[edit]

Location Date School Degree
 Ontario May 17, 1985 Royal Military College of Canada Doctor of Military Science (DMSc) [57]
 Nova Scotia 1985 Technical University of Nova Scotia Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng) [58]
 Quebec 1985 Laval University
 Quebec 1990 Royal Military College Saint-Jean
 Ontario 1997 University of Ottawa Doctor of the University (D.Univ) [59]
 Alberta Spring 2001 University of Lethbridge Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [60]
 Ontario Spring 2002 York University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [61]
 Quebec December 2004 Concordia University Doctor of Laws (LL.D) [62]
 Ontario November 2005 McMaster University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [63]
 Alberta 2006 Athabasca University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [64]
 British Columbia 2006 British Columbia Institute of Technology Doctor of Technology (D.Tech) [65]

Electoral record[edit]

2021 Canadian federal election: Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Marc Garneau 24,593 53.84 -2.45
New Democratic Emma Elbourne-Weinstock 8,753 19.16 +3.75
Conservative Mathew Kaminski 6,407 14.03 +2.58
Bloc Québécois Jordan Craig Larouche 2,409 5.27 +0.59
Green Sam Fairbrother 1,829 4.00 -6.72
People's David Freiheit 1,498 3.28 +2.16
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman 126 0.28 +0.14
Christian Heritage Geofryde Wandji 65 0.14
Total valid votes 45,680
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 62.17 -4.06
Eligible voters 45,680
Liberal hold Swing -3.10
Source: Elections Canada[66]

2019 Canadian federal election: Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 28,323 56.28 -1.39 $77,287.54
New Democratic Franklin Gertler 7,753 15.41 -6.35 $45,608.88
Conservative Neil Drabkin 5,759 11.44 -2.93 none listed
Green Robert Green 5,397 10.73 +7.67 $9,697.34
Bloc Québécois Jennifer Jetté 2,359 4.69 +2.21 none listed
People's André Valiquette 565 1.12 $4,895.49
Independent Jeffery A. Thomas 98 0.19 none listed
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman 67 0.13 -0.22 $0.00
Total valid votes/expense limit 50,321 99.12
Total rejected ballots 446 0.88
Turnout 50,767 66.23
Eligible voters 76,649
Liberal hold Swing +4.96
Source: Elections Canada[67][68]
2015 Canadian federal election: Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 29,755 57.67 +19.43 $116,633.55
New Democratic James Hughes 11,229 21.76 −13.29 $121,985.65
Conservative Richard Sagala 7,414 14.37 −3.28 $23,826.12
Green Melissa Kate Wheeler 1,581 3.06 −1.32 $1,243.50
Bloc Québécois Simon Quesnel 1,282 2.48 −1.59 $2,358.94
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman 181 0.35
Independent Lisa Julie Cahn 151 0.29
Total valid votes/Expense limit 51,593 100.00 $214,383.86
Total rejected ballots 311 0.60
Turnout 51,904 65.21
Eligible voters 79,597
Source: Elections Canada[69][70]

2011 Canadian federal election: Westmount—Ville-Marie
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 15,346 37.18 −9.29
New Democratic Joanne Corbeil 14,704 35.62 +12.69
Conservative Neil Drabkin 7,218 17.49 +1.68
Bloc Québécois Véronique Roy 2,278 5.52 −1.74
Green Andrew Carkner 1,516 3.67 −3.37
Rhinoceros Victoria Haliburton 140 0.34 +0.18
Communist Bill Sloan 73 0.18 +0.09
Total valid votes/expense limit 41,275 99.60  
Total rejected ballots 165 0.40 −0.18
Turnout 41,440 53.36 +2.72
Electors on the lists 77,656
Liberal hold Swing −10.99
2008 Canadian federal election: Westmount—Ville-Marie
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 18,041 46.47 +0.79 $78,009
New Democratic Anne Lagacé Dowson 8,904 22.93 +7.56 $79,186
Conservative Guy Dufort 6,139 15.81 −1.84 $34,968
Bloc Québécois Charles Larivée 2,818 7.26 −5.30 $8,281
Green Claude William Genest 2,733 7.04 −1.31
Rhinoceros Judith Vienneau 62 0.16
Marxist–Leninist Linda Sullivan 49 0.13 −0.10
Independent David Rovins 47 0.12 $30
Communist Bill Sloan 34 0.09 −0.08 $2,433
Total valid votes/expense limit 38,827 99.43   $83,153
Total rejected ballots 224 0.57 −0.06
Turnout 39,051 50.64 −3.05
Eligible voters 77,112
Liberal hold Swing −3.39
2006 Canadian federal election: Vaudreuil—Soulanges
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Meili Faille 27,012 43.16 −1.13 $85,133
Liberal Marc Garneau 17,768 28.39 −10.41 $79,413
Conservative Stephane Bourgon 11,889 19.00 +10.81 $35,090
New Democratic Bert Markgraf 3,468 5.54 +1.64 $3,385
Green Pierre Pariseau-Legault 2,450 3.91 +0.14 $1,144
Total valid votes/Expense limit 62,587 100.00 $85,543
Bloc Québécois hold Swing +9.28

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Marc Garneau | the Canadian Encyclopedia".
  2. ^ a b "Marc Garneau Biography". Liberal Party of Canada. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  3. ^ Garneau, Marc Jean-Pierre (1973). The Perception of Facial Images (PDF). London: Imperial College of Science and Technology.
  4. ^ a b "Marc Garneau (PH.D.) Astronaut, Canadian Space Agency (Former)". NASA. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  5. ^ "Biographical Data: Mark Garneau". NASA. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
  6. ^ a b C, Martin (October 15, 2008). "Spaceman lands safely in Westmount-Ville Marie". The Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  7. ^ Faure, Elisabeth (May 3, 2011). "Garneau wins by 658 votes". The Westmount Examiner. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  8. ^ "Official Voting Results / Résultats officiels du scrutin FORTY-FIRST GENERAL ELECTION 2011 / QUARANTE ET UNIÈME ÉLECTION GÉNÉRALE 2011". Elections Canada. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  9. ^ Beardsley, Keith (March 13, 2013). "Garneau Stayed in the Race too Long". Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  10. ^ "PM to shuffle cabinet with Navdeep Bains retiring from politics". CTVNews. January 11, 2021.
  11. ^ "Canadian to live on space station". The Calgary Herald. February 12, 2008. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  12. ^ "Voters deliver high-profile wins, defeats". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 24, 2006. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  13. ^ "Conservatives make breakthrough in Quebec; Bloc wins 51 seats". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 24, 2006. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  14. ^ "Backroom pressure mounts". Canwest News Service. December 2, 2006. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  15. ^ a b "Garneau confirmed on local ballot". Westmount Examiner. October 19, 2007. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  16. ^ "NDP takes Outremont". The Montreal Gazette. September 18, 2007. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  17. ^ Larsen, Wayne (June 11, 2008). "Garneau looks forward to by-election". Montréal Express. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  18. ^ "Harper calls three federal by elections for early September". Canadian Press. July 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  19. ^ "Tight Liberal/NDP race predicted for Westmount-Ville Marie by-election". The West Island Chronicle. August 13, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  20. ^ "Liberals choose Rae as interim leader". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  21. ^ "Rae takes over the Liberal reins". Toronto Star. May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  22. ^ "MP Garneau eyes run at Liberal leadership". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 25, 2011. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
  23. ^ Berthiaume, Lee (August 15, 2012). "Marc Garneau searching for mission control before launching Liberal leadership bid". Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  24. ^ Den Tandt, Michael (September 11, 2012). "Marc Garneau preparing for liftoff with Liberals". Retrieved September 24, 2012.
  25. ^ "MP McGuinty drops critic role over 'go back to Alberta' gibe". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 21, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  26. ^ LeBlanc, Daniel (November 28, 2012). "'Mr. Harper is a one-trick pony,' Marc Garneau says, launching Liberal leadership bid". Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  27. ^ "Garneau's Liberal leadership campaign officially blasts off". CTV News. November 28, 2012. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  28. ^ Abma, Derek (November 28, 2012). "Does Marc Garneau create problems for Justin Trudeau?". Global News. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  29. ^ Blatchford, Andy (November 28, 2012). "Ex-astronaut Marc Garneau blasts into federal Liberal leadership race". The Record. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  30. ^ MacKinnon, Leslie (November 28, 2012). "Ex-astronaut Marc Garneau launches Liberal leadership bid". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  31. ^ "The return of David McGuinty". Maclean's. January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  32. ^ Den Tandt, Michael (September 18, 2013). "Andrew Leslie, former commander of Canadian Army, joins Trudeau's team as adviser". National Post. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  33. ^ "Liberals Unveil Co-Chairs of International Affairs Council of Advisors". Liberal Party of Canada. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  34. ^ "Canada government tables airline passenger bill of rights". BBC News. May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  35. ^ "Canada grounds Boeing 737 Max 8, bans jet from airspace following fatal crashes | CBC News".
  36. ^ "US and Canada are the only two nations still flying many Boeing 737 Max planes". CNN. March 12, 2019.
  37. ^ "Canada's transport minister has no plans to ground Boeing 737". CTV news. March 12, 2019.
  38. ^ "Transport Minister Marc Garneau Would Board Boeing 737 'Without Hesitation' Despite Crash". HuffPost Canada. March 11, 2019. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  39. ^ "Trudeau to shuffle ministers as Navdeep Bains leaves cabinet". CBC News. January 11, 2021. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  40. ^ a b "Peter F. Trent: Trudeau shows he holds little regard for competency by turfing cabinet's brightest light, Marc Garneau". National Post. October 27, 2021.
  41. ^ a b "Opinion: Marc Garneau, the 'anti-politician,' deserves better".
  42. ^ a b Ibbitson, John (October 25, 2021). "Garneau's departure means Trudeau will have had five foreign affairs ministers in six years. That's a travesty". The Globe and Mail.
  43. ^ Ballingall, Alex (October 26, 2021). "Justin Trudeau drops Marc Garneau from cabinet, but won't say why". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  44. ^ Raycraft, Richard (March 8, 2023). "Former cabinet minister Marc Garneau resigning from House of Commons". Archived from the original on March 8, 2023.
  45. ^ Nardi, Christopher; Lévesque, Catherine (March 8, 2023). "'Great loss': Veteran Liberal MP Marc Garneau is resigning his seat".
  46. ^ "Debates of the House of Commons - Hansard No. 166 - 44-1" (PDF). March 8, 2023. p. 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 9, 2023.
  47. ^ "4 federal byelections set for June in Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba |". Global News. Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  48. ^ a b General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Captain Marc Garneau". The Governor General of Canada.
  49. ^ a b c "Commemorative Medals of The Queen's Reign in Canada". Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  50. ^ General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Dr. Marc Garneau". The Governor General of Canada.
  51. ^ General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Marc Garneau". The Governor General of Canada.
  52. ^ Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute, Toronto, Ontario Archived October 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ "Accueil – École secondaire publique Marc-Garneau". Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  54. ^ "Ottawa Citizen – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  55. ^ "Key to the City". Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  56. ^ "5 Inducted Into Space Hall of Fame". El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. Associated Press. October 5, 1992. p. 8 – via
  57. ^ Bennett, Pete (July 19, 2016). "Royal Military College of Canada Honorary Degree Recipients".
  58. ^ "1892 ‑ 1999 Honorary Degree Recipients". Dalhousie University. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  59. ^ "GARNEAU, Marc – Office of the President – University of Ottawa". Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  60. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients" (PDF). University of Lethbridge. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 9, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  61. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients". Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  62. ^ "Honorary degree citation – Marc Garneau". Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  63. ^ "University Secretariat".
  64. ^ "Past Honorary Degree Recipients". Convocation, Athabasca University. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  65. ^ "BCIT : : About the Institute : : Honorary Doctorate of Technology Recipient". Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  66. ^ "List of confirmed candidates – September 20, 2021 Federal Election". Elections Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  67. ^ "List of confirmed candidates". Elections Canada. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  68. ^ "Official Voting Results". Elections Canada. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  69. ^ Canada, Elections. "Election Night Results – Electoral Districts".
  70. ^ "Elections Canada – Preliminary Election Expenses Limits for Candidates". Archived from the original on August 15, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2018.

External links[edit]

Academic offices
Preceded by Chancellor of Carleton University
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by
Caucus Chair of the Liberal Party in Quebec
Succeeded by
Preceded by Quebec Lieutenant of the Liberal Party
Succeeded by
Vacant, then Pablo Rodriguez
29th Ministry – Cabinet of Justin Trudeau
Cabinet posts (2)
Predecessor Office Successor
François-Philippe Champagne Minister of Foreign Affairs
January 12, 2021 – October 26, 2021
Mélanie Joly
Lisa Raitt Minister of Transport
November 4, 2015 – January 12, 2021
Omar Alghabra