Marcelo H. del Pilar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the name of school, see Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School.
Not to be confused with Gregorio del Pilar.
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Pilar, Marcelo H. del.jpg
Marcelo H. del Pilar ca. 1889
Born Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán
August 30, 1850
Bulacán, Bulacan, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Died July 4, 1896(1896-07-04) (aged 45)
Barcelona, Spain
Cause of death Tuberculosis
Resting place Marcelo H. del Pilar National Shrine
Nationality Filipino
Alma mater Colegio de San José
Universidad de Santo Tomás
Occupation Writer, lawyer, journalist
Organization La Solidaridad
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spouse(s) Marciana H. del Pilar
(1878–1896; his death)
Children Sofía H. del Pilar
Anita H. del Pilar de Marasigan
Parent(s) Julián H. del Pilar (father)
Blasa Gatmaitán (mother)

Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán (August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896), better known by his pen name Plaridel,[1] was a Filipino writer, lawyer, journalist, and freemason. Del Pilar, along with José Rizal and Graciano López Jaena, became known as the leaders of the Reform Movement in Spain.[2]

Del Pilar was born and brought up in Bulacán, Bulacan. At an early age, he became a critic of the monastic rule in the country. He was suspended and jailed in 1869 after he and the parish priest quarrelled over exorbitant baptismal fees. In the 1880s, he expanded his anti-friar movement from Malolos to Manila. He went to Spain in 1888 after an order of banishment was issued against him. 12 months after his arrival in Barcelona, he succeeded López Jaena as editor of the La Solidaridad (Solidarity).[3] He later planned to lead a revolution against Spain, but failed. He contracted tuberculosis in Barcelona and died in abject poverty in 1896.[4]

On November 15, 1995, the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee, created through Executive Order No. 5 by former President Fidel Ramos, recommended del Pilar along with the eight Filipino historical figures to be National Heroes.[5] The recommendations were submitted to Department of Education Secretary Ricardo T. Gloria on November 22, 1995. No action has been taken for these recommended historical figures.[5] In 2009, this issue was revisited in one of the proceedings of the 14th Congress.[6]


Early life (1850-1880)[edit]

Birth and family background[edit]

A replica of Marcelo H. del Pilar's ancestral house and birthplace in Bulacán, Bulacan. This is now a museum-library housing del Pilar memorabilia.[7]

Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitan was born on August 30, 1850 in Cupang (now Barangay San Nicolás), Bulacán, Bulacan.[8] He was baptized "Marcelo Hilario" on September 4, 1850.[9] The surname of his grandmother, "del Pilar", was added to comply with the decree issued by Governor-General Narciso Clavería in 1849.[10]

Del Pilar’s parents owned several farms, some fish ponds, and an animal-power mill.[11] His father, Julián Hilario del Pilar, was a well known Tagalog grammarian, poet, and speaker.[12] He was a "three time" gobernadorcillo (municipal mayor) of his pueblo (town). Julián later held the position of oficial de mesa (government clerk) of the alcalde mayor (provincial governor).[13] Blasa Gatmaitán, del Pilar’s mother, was a descendant of the noble Gatmaitáns. She was known as "Doña Blasica".[9]

The ninth of ten children, del Pilar's siblings were: Toribio (priest, deported to the Mariana Islands in 1872),[14] Fernando (father of General Gregorio del Pilar),[15] Andrea, Dorotea, Estanislao, Juan, Hilaria (married to Deodato Arellano),[16] Valentín, and María. The share of the inheritance of each child was very small and del Pilar renounced his in favor of his siblings.[1]

Early education (mid 1850s-1869)[edit]

Del Pilar learned to play the piano, violin, and flute at an early age.[17] He learned his first letters from his paternal uncle Alejo del Pilar, the clerk of the court of Quiapo in 1860.[18] He began his studies in the school of Sr. Hermenigildo Flores.[19] He later transferred at the Colegio de San José in Manila.[8] After obtaining his Bachiller en Artes, he pursued law at the Universidad de Santo Tomás.

Interruption of law studies at UST (1869)[edit]

In 1869, del Pilar acted as a padrino or godfather at a baptism in San Miguel, Manila.[14] Since he was not a resident of the area, he questioned the excessive baptismal fee charged by the parish priest. The priest was outraged by this statement. As a result, the judge, Félix García Gavieres, sent del Pilar to Old Bilibid Prison (then known as Carcel y Presidio Correccional). He was released after thirty days.[20]

Historical marker of the Cavite Mutiny in 1872.

Cavite mutiny (1872)[edit]

During the time of the Cavite Mutiny in 1872, del Pilar was living with a Filipino priest named Mariano Sevilla.[14] Sevilla was deported to the Mariana Islands along with del Pilar's eldest brother, Fr. Toribio Hilario del Pilar, due to allegations of being one of the organizers of the uprising.[21] The deportation of Fr. Toribio resulted into the early death of del Pilar's mother.

Activities after the Cavite mutiny and marriage (1873-1878)[edit]

Out of the university, del Pilar worked as oficial de mesa in Pampanga (1874-1875) and Quiapo (1878-1879).[22] In the month of February 1878, he married his second cousin Marciana (the "Chanay/Tsanay" in his letters) in Tondo.[23] The couple had seven children, six girls and one boy: Sofía, José, María Rosario, María Consolación, María Concepción, José, and Ana (Anita). Only two girls, Sofía and Anita, grew to adulthood (five children died before becoming adults).[24]

Return to UST and graduation (1878-1880)[edit]

In 1878, del Pilar resumed his law studies at the UST.[23] He earned his licenciado en jurisprudencia (equivalent to a Bachelor of Laws) in 1880.[25] After finishing law, he worked for the Real Audiencia de Manila (Royal Audience of Manila). Although practicing law in Manila, del Pilar spent more time in Bulacan, spreading nationalist and anti-friar ideas in cockpits, tiendas, and town plazas.[26]

Anti-friar campaign in the Philippines (1880-1888)[edit]

Diariong Tagalog (1882)[edit]

Del Pilar, together with Basilio Teodoro Moran, founded the short-lived Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper) in 1882.[14] Diariong Tagalog was the first bilingual newspaper in the Philippines and was financed by the wealthy Spanish liberal Francisco Calvo y Muñoz. Del Pilar became the editor of the Tagalog section.[27] José Rizal's essay El Amor Patrio was featured in the newspaper. Del Pilar translated it into Tagalog language, Ang Pagibig sa Tinubúang Lupà (Love of Country).[28]

Anti-friar activities in Malolos (1885)[edit]

The pre-1863 lithograph photo of Malolos Cathedral before the earthquake that tore down its clock tower in 1863. This was one of the sites of del Pilar's anti-friar activities.

Malolos became the center of del Pilar's anti-friar movement. The first success of the campaign was in 1885, when the liberal Manuel Crisóstomo was elected gobernadorcillo by the citizens of Malolos. Shortly after this victorious event, del Pilar, together with the cabezas de barangay (chiefs of the barangays) of Malolos, argued with the town's friar curate on the list of taxpayers. The friar curate wanted to bloat the list, a move meant for the parish's financial gain.[29]

The Binondo incident (1887)[edit]

In 1887, during an upcoming fiesta in Binondo, the notorious incident occurred between the natives, Chinese, and Chinese mestizos. The gobernadorcillo de naturales (gobernadorcillo of the natives) of Binondo, Timoteo Lanuza, requested Fr. José Hevia Campomanes, the friar curate of Binondo Church, to prioritize the natives over the Chinese in the fiesta.[30] Fr. Hevia rejected Lanuza's request and decided not to attend the celebration. Majority of the gobernadorcillos of Manila attended the celebration. Fr. Hevia was later removed as friar curate of Binondo by the governor-general. The whole incident had been prepared by Juan Zulueta, whose mentor was del Pilar.[31]

Benigno Quiroga, 1894

Implementation of Quiroga's decree on funerals (1887)[edit]

On October 18, 1887, Benigno Quiroga y López Ballesteros, the Director General of Civil Administration in Manila, issued an executive order prohibiting the exposition of dead bodies of cholera victims in the churches.[32] Crisóstomo, the gobernadorcillo of Malolos at that time, proclaimed Quiroga's decree by means of a parade led by a brass band. Friar Felipe García, the friar-curate of Malolos, aggravated the authorities by parading the body of the servant of Don Eugenio Delgado. Upon the advice of del Pilar, Crisóstomo addressed the problem to the Spanish governor of Bulacan, Manuel Gómez Florio. Gómez Florio reprimanded the fighting friar parish priest.[33]

Establishment of schools in Bulacan (1888)[edit]

On January 21, 1888, del Pilar worked for the establishment of a school of "Arts, Trades, and Agriculture" by drafting of a memorial to the gobernador civil (civil governor) of Bulacan.[34] This was signed by the gobernadorcillos, ex-gobernadorcillos, leading citizens, proprietors, industrialists, professors, and lawyers of the province.

Pedro Payo y Piñeiro, O.P. (1814 – 1889) was the 24th Archbishop of Manila who took charge in 1876 until his death in 1889.

Anti-friar protest in Manila (1888)[edit]

On the morning of March 1, 1888, the principales of the districts of Manila and the nearby provinces (led by Doroteo Cortés and José A. Ramos) marched to the office of the civil governor of Manila, José Centeno García.[17] They presented a manifesto addressed to the Queen Regent. This manifesto, entitled "Viva España! Viva el Rey! Viva el Ejército! Fuera los Frailes!" (Long live Spain! Long live the King! Long live the Army! Throw the friars out!), was believed to be written by del Pilar.[29] The manifesto enumerated the abuses/crimes of the friars and demanded their expulsion from the Philippines including Manila Archbishop Pedro P. Payo himself. A week after the demonstration, Centeno resigned and left for Spain. Governor-general Emilio Terrero's term also ended the following month. Terrero was succeeded by acting governor-general Antonio Molto.[35]

Del Pilar's defense of Rizal's Noli Me Tángere (1888)[edit]

José Rodríguez, an Augustinian priest, authored a pamphlet entitled ¡Caiñgat Cayó!: Sa mañga masasamang libro,t, casulatan (Beware!: of bad books and writings, 1888). The friar warned the Filipinos that in reading Rizal's Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) they commit "mortal sin". On August 3 of the same year, del Pilar wrote Caiigat Cayó (Be as Slippery as an Eel) under the pen name Dolores Manapat. It was a reply to Rodríguez's ¡Caiñgat Cayó!.[36]

Later activities in the Philippines and escape to Spain (1888)[edit]

Investigations under Molto were intensified upon the arrival of the new governor-general, Valeriano Weyler. Gómez Florio, the Spanish governor of Bulacan and del Pilar's friend, was removed from his position. An arrest warrant was issued against del Pilar, accusing him of being a filibustero or subversive. Upon the advice of his friends and relatives, del Pilar left Manila for Spain on October 28, 1888.[37]

The night before he left the country, del Pilar stayed at the house of his fellow Bulaqueño, Pedro Serrano y Lactao. Together with Rafael Enriquez, they wrote the Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayers and Mockeries), a mock-prayer book satirizing the Spanish friars.[38] They also wrote the Pasióng Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader).[39]

A copy of La Solidaridad, the principal organ of the Reform Movement in Spain.

Del Pilar was also able to organize the Caja de Jesús, María y José, the purpose of which was to carry on propaganda and provide scholarships to indigent children.[40] He headed it with the assistance of Mariano Ponce, Gregorio Santillán, Mariano Crisóstomo, Lactao, and José Gatmaitán. Caja de Jesús, María y José was later dissolved and replaced by Comité de Propaganda (Committee of Propaganda) in Manila.

Propaganda movement in Spain (1889-1896)[edit]

Del Pilar arrived in Barcelona on January 1, 1889.[41] He headed the political section of the Asociación Hispano-Filipina de Madrid (Hispanic Filipino Association of Madrid).[42] On February 17, 1889, del Pilar wrote a letter to Rizal, praising the young women of Malolos for their bravery. These 20 young women asked the permission of Governor-General Weyler to allow them to open a night school where they could learn to read and write Spanish. With Weyler's approval and over the objections of Friar Felipe García, the night school opened in the early 1889. Del Pilar considered this incident as a victory to the anti-friar movement. Upon his request, Rizal wrote his famous letter to the women of Malolos, Sa Mga Kababayang Dalaga Sa Malolos (To the Young Women of Malolos), on February 22, 1889.[40]

La Solidaridad (1889)[edit]

On December 15, 1889, del Pilar succeeded Graciano López Jaena as editor of the La Solidaridad.[3] Under his editorship, the aims of the newspaper expanded. Using propaganda, it pursued the desires for: assimilation of the Philippines as a province of Spain; removal of the friars and the secularization of the parishes; freedom of assembly and speech; equality before the law; and Philippine representation in the Cortes, the legislature of Spain.[43][44]

A photograph of the Ilustrados in Madrid (ca. 1890). Del Pilar is standing beside Rizal, second row, sixth from right.

The conflict between del Pilar and Rizal (1891)[edit]

In 1890, a rivalry developed between del Pilar and Rizal. This was mainly due to the difference between del Pilar's editorial policy and Rizal's political beliefs.[45]

On January 1, 1891, about 90 Filipinos gathered in Madrid. They agreed that a Responsable (leader) be elected.[46] Camps were drawn into two, the Pilaristas and the Rizalistas. The first voting for the Responsable started on the first week of February 1891. Rizal won the first two elections but the votes counted for him did not reach the needed two thirds vote fraction. After Mariano Ponce appealed to the Pilaristas, Rizal was elected Responsable. Rizal, knowing the Pilaristas did not like his political beliefs, respectfully declined the position and transferred it to del Pilar. He then packed up his bags and boarded a train leaving for Biarritz.[47] Inactive in the Reform Movement, Rizal ceased his contribution of articles on La Solidaridad.

Del Pilar then wrote to Rizal seeking apology for any mistakes he had committed. Rizal responded and said that he stopped writing for La Solidaridad because of many reasons: first, he needed time to work on his second novel El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed);[48] second, he wanted other Filipinos in Spain to work also; and lastly, he could not lead an organization without solidarity in work.

Closure of La Solidaridad (1895)[edit]

From 1890 to 1895, del Pilar published La Solidaridad almost on his own as funding was scarce in the Philippines. Publication of the fortnightly stopped on November 15, 1895. Before his death, del Pilar rejected the theory of assimilation. Planning an armed struggle, del Pilar stated:

This statement inspired the Katipunan, a revolutionary organization founded by Andrés Bonifacio.[50]

Later years, illness, and death (1895-1896)[edit]

Del Pilar's last years saw his descent into extreme poverty. He often missed his meals and during winter, he kept himself warm by smoking discarded cigarette butts he picked up in the streets. Suffering from tuberculosis, del Pilar decided to return to the Philippines. His illness worsened that he had to cancel his journey.[51] He was taken to the Hospital de la Santa Cruz (Hospital Civil) in Barcelona. Del Pilar died there on July 4, 1896, a few days before the Cry of Pugad Lawin (Cry of Balintawak).[52] He was buried the following day in a borrowed grave at the Cementerio del Sub-Oeste (Southwest Cemetery).

Marcelo H. Del Pilar
The National Shrine of Marcelo H. del Pilar in San Nicolás, Bulacán, Bulacan

Reactions after death[edit]

News of his death reached the Philippines. La Politica de España en Filipinas, the organ of the friars, paid homage to him:

Ramón Blanco y Erenas, the Governor-General of the Philippines at that time, eulogized del Pilar as:

Return of del Pilar's remains (1920) and final interment (1984)[edit]

Marcelo H. del Pilar's monument (Bulacan's provincial heroes' park, Bulacan State University).

Del Pilar's remains were returned to the Philippines on December 3, 1920 and was buried initially at the Manila North Cemetery.[56] It was later transferred to his birthplace in Bulacán, Bulacan on August 30, 1984, under a monument (see main article: Marcelo H. Del Pilar National Shrine).[57]

Historical controversy[edit]

Mastermind of the Katipunan[edit]

Some historians and scholars uphold the hypothesis that del Pilar was the true mastermind of the Katipunan.[58][59] According to the historian Renato Constantino, the by laws of the Katipunan were submitted by Bonifacio to del Pilar for approval.[60] Bonifacio used the letters he received from del Pilar to recruit more Katipuneros. Kalayaan (Liberty), the official newspaper of the Katipunan, carried the pen name of del Pilar as editor-in-chief. Bonifacio also copied the letters of del Pilar to his brother-in-law, Deodato Arellano. According to León María Guerrero, del Pilar's letters were considered by Bonifacio as sacred relics of the Philippine Revolution and guides for action.[29]

Historical remembrance[edit]

"Father of Philippine Journalism"[edit]

For his 150 essays and 66 editorials mostly published in La Solidaridad and various anti-friar pamphlets, del Pilar is widely regarded as the "Father of Philippine Journalism."[61]

Samahang Plaridel, an organization of veteran journalists and communicators, was founded in October 2003 to honor del Pilar's ideals. It also promotes mutual help, cooperation, and understanding among Filipino journalists.[62]

"Father of Philippine Masonry"[edit]

Del Pilar was initiated into Freemasonry in 1889.[63] He served as venerable master of the famous Solidaridad lodge of Madrid. He became a close friend of Miguél Moráyta Sagrario, a professor at the Universidad Central de Madrid and Grand Master of Masons of the Grande Oriente Español.[64]

Del Pilar was directly responsible for the establishment of the first national organization of Filipino Masons, the Gran Consejo Regional de Filipinas, in 1893. With this, he earned the recognition as the "Father of Philippine Masonry."

Del Pilar in popular culture[edit]

Notable works[edit]

  • Caiigat Cayó (Be as Slippery as an Eel, 1888)[36]
  • Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayers and Mockeries, 1888) [38]
  • Ang Cadaquilaan nang Dios (The Greatness of God, 1888)[66]
  • La Soberanía Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Supremacy in the Philippines, 1888)[67]
  • Pasióng Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader, 1888)[39]
  • La Frailocracía Filipina (Friarocracy in the Philippines, 1889)[68]
  • Sagót ng España sa Hibíc ng Filipinas (Spain's Reply to the Cry of the Philippines, 1889)[69]
  • Dupluhan... Dalits... Bugtongs (A Poetical Contest in Narrative Sequence, Psalms, Riddles, 1907)[70]
  • Sa Bumabasang Kababayan (unpublished)[70]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kahayon 1989, p. 52.
  2. ^ Guerrero, A. M. Bulacañana: A Heritage of Artistic Excellence. Provincial Youth, Sports, Employment, Art and Culture Office (PYSEACO), Provincial Government of Bulacan. pp. 10–11. 
  3. ^ a b Keat 2004, p. 756
  4. ^ Valeriano, A. B. "Marcelo H. del Pilar: Ang Kanyang Buhay, Diwa at Panulat". Samahang Pangkalinangan ng Bulakan, Bulacan. 
  5. ^ a b "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws Honoring Filipino Historical Figures". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved 2015-05-11. 
  6. ^ "Congressional Record: Plenary Proceedings of the 14th Congress, Third Regular Session" (PDF). Philippine House of Representatives. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  7. ^ Santos 2001, p. 48.
  8. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 105.
  9. ^ a b Villarroel 1997, p. 9.
  10. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (August 28, 2012), "Looking Back: Did M.H. del Pilar dream in color?", Philippine Daily Inquirer 
  11. ^ Reyes 2008, p. 261.
  12. ^ Mojares 1983, p. 131.
  13. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 58.
  14. ^ a b c d Schumacher 1997, p. 106.
  15. ^ Kalaw 1974, p. 3.
  16. ^ Kalaw 1974, p. 5.
  17. ^ a b Reyes 2008, p. 130.
  18. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 63.
  19. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 59.
  20. ^ Reyes 2008, p. 118.
  21. ^ Villarroel 1997, p. 10.
  22. ^ Batungbacal 1956, p. 27.
  23. ^ a b Villarroel 1997, p. 11.
  24. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 64.
  25. ^ Nepomuceno-Van Heugten, Maria Lina. "Edukasyon ng Bayani: Mga Impluwensya ng Edukasyong Natamo sa Kaisipang Rebolusyonaryo" (PDF). University of the Philippines Diliman Journals Online. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
  26. ^ "Marcelo H. del Pilar". Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  27. ^ Villarroel 1997, p. 42.
  28. ^ Reyes 2008, p. 150.
  29. ^ a b c Guerrero, Leon Ma. (December 13, 1952). "Del Pilar". The Philippines Free Press Online. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  30. ^ Fajardo 1998, p. 48.
  31. ^ Batungbacal 1956, p. 29.
  32. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 86.
  33. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 87.
  34. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 62.
  35. ^ "Masonry and the Philippine Revolution". Retrieved June 16, 2013. 
  36. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 121.
  37. ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 122.
  38. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 125.
  39. ^ a b Schumacher 1997, p. 126.
  40. ^ a b Zapanta 1967, p. 83.
  41. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 94.
  42. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 95.
  43. ^ del Pilar, Marcelo H. (April 25, 1889). "The aspirations of the Filipinos". Barcelona, Spain: La Solidaridad. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Liberalism in the Philippines - The Revolution of 1898 : The Main Facts". Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  45. ^ Mañebog, Jensen DG. (September 1, 2013). "The 'Love-and-Hate' Relationship of Jose Rizal And Marcelo del Pilar". Retrieved May 16, 2015. 
  46. ^ Corpuz 2007, p. 208.
  47. ^ Corpuz 2007, p. 210.
  48. ^ "The Reign of Greed by José Rizal". Retrieved 2015-02-01. 
  49. ^ Constantino 1975, p. 162.
  50. ^ Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996), "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution", Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3–12. 
  51. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 174.
  52. ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 293.
  53. ^
  54. ^ Zapanta 1967, p. 171.
  55. ^
  56. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (July 30, 2008), "Looking Back: The search for Plaridel’s remains", Philippine Daily Inquirer 
  57. ^ Lopez, Ron B. (June 11, 2013). "An afternoon at Plaridel's house". Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  58. ^ Gamos, Emil G. (August 29, 2014). "New studies reveal that Del Pilar was the "mastermind" of the "Katipunan"". Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  59. ^ Richardson, Jim (August 2014). "Marcelo H. del Pilar and the Katipunan - sources of confusion" (PDF). Retrieved February 15, 2015. 
  60. ^ Constantino 1975, p. 163.
  61. ^ Balabo, Dino (August 30, 2011). "Bulacan marks Marcelo H. del Pilar Day today". Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  62. ^ Roces, Alejandro R. (September 4, 2008). "Plaridel - a shining example for our journalists". Retrieved February 11, 2015. 
  63. ^ "Famous Filipino Mason - Marcelo H. del Pilar". Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Philippines. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  64. ^
  65. ^ List of the José Rizal Film Cast
  66. ^ Ramos 1984, p. 86.
  67. ^ Steinberg 2000, p. 245.
  68. ^ Schumacher 1997, p. 119.
  69. ^ Abdula, Allan Yasser (May 4, 2008). "Expat in the City: Isang Pagkukuro sa "Sagot Ng Espanya sa Hibik Ng Pilipinas"". Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  70. ^ a b Mojares 1983, p. 132.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]