March 1900

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March 24, 1900: The last passenger pigeon in the wild is killed
March 7, 1900: The Wilhelm der Grosse becomes the first ship to install wireless radio
March 1, 1900: Samoa becomes a colony of Germany
March 27, 1900: Standard kite patented by William Eddy

The following events occurred in March 1900:

March 1, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The German flag was formally hoisted at Apia, the capital of Samoa, and Wilhelm Solf became the colony's first governor. Chief Mata'afa, who had fought against the Germans, and Chief Tamasese, who had been the puppet ruler during German occupation, reconciled.[1] Mata'afa was named as the Paramount Chief of the Western Samoa colony, although Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II was designated as the Paramount King.[2]
  • Britain and its subjects celebrated across the world when the news arrived of the relief of the South African fortress Ladysmith. "London went literally mad with joy, and throughout England the scenes witnessed have no parallel in the memories of this generation."[3]

March 2, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • The University of Kansas basketball team would win three NCAA championships (1952, 1988 and 2008), but suffered its worst loss of all time on this evening in Lincoln, falling to the University of Nebraska 48–8. "Coach Naismith, who is the originator of the game of basket ball, came up from Lawrence yesterday afternoon and brought a team that represents fine physical specimens of manhood", wrote a local paper, "but they were slow in following the ball. The complained of the slickness of the floor ..."[4]
  • The first high school basketball game in Illinois was played, at Elgin, Illinois. Englewood High School of Chicago defeated Elgin 16–12.[5]
  • Pope Leo XIII, who would live to be the oldest pontiff in history, celebrated his 90th birthday.
  • Born: Kurt Weill, German, and later American, composer, in Dessau (d. 1950)
  • Died: U.S. Representative Sydney Epes, 34, at Garfield Hospital in Washington following an appendectomy. The Virginia Democrat had been a Congressman for less than one year.[6]

March 3, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In Cleveland, the owners of baseball's National League met with representatives of the newly organized American League to avert a crisis over player signings. In return for the National League dropping objections to AL franchises in Cleveland and Chicago, the former Western League would operate as a minor circuit for 1900, with its players subject to being called up by the Nationals.[7] The AL's eight teams for the 1900 season would be the Buffalo Bisons, Chicago White Sox, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Indianapolis Indians, Kansas City Blues, Milwaukee Brewers, and the Minneapolis Millers.
  • In New York, a drunken spectator twice approached the carriage carrying President William McKinley and Secretary George Cortelyou, attempting to open the vehicle's door in an attempt to shake hands with the President. NYPD Commissioner Murphy recalled the incident after McKinley's assassination in Buffalo in 1901[8]

March 4, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The first railway service in Nigeria was inaugurated with the opening of a line between Lagos and Ibadan. Built by the British colonial government, the railroad track extended for ​122 12 miles and cost 1,000,000 pounds.[9]
  • Born: Herbert Biberman, blacklisted American screenwriter and film director, in Philadelphia; winner of 1954 Academy Award (d. 1971)

March 5, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Hall of Fame for Great Americans, the inspiration for many Halls of Fame in the years that followed, was founded with the help of a $250,000 donation by Helen Miller Shepard, to commemorate persons deemed by a committee of 100 to have made great contributions to the United States. [10] In addition to still-famous individuals like George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Benjamin Franklin, the first group of enshrinees included Supreme Court justice Joseph Story, Congressman Horace Mann, and botanist Asa Gray. [11]
  • Two U.S. Navy cruisers, the USS Detroit and the USS Marblehead, were sent to Central America to protect American interests in a dispute between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The War Department sent the ships at the request of the American envoy to Costa Rica.[12]
  • Wallack's Theatre in New York was closed under decree by Chief Devery of the NYPD on grounds that its presentation of the play Sapho was "a public nuisance in that is an offense against public decency". Lead actress Olga Nethersole and producer Hamilton Revelle were both arrested as well.[13] The same evening, David Belasco's production of Madame Butterfly opened at the Herald Square Theatre on Broadway. The play, not to be confused with Puccini's 1904 opera, had been adapted from the story by John Luther Long[14]

March 6, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

March 7, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • A new era in transportation safety began on reports of the first successful transmission of wireless signals from a passenger ship to a distant receiver. The German steamer SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, carrying 1,500 passengers, transmitted from on ship to Borkum, fifty miles away.[18]
  • The Montreal Shamrocks, holders of the Stanley Cup since 1899, retained the trophy after beating the Halifax Crescents 11–0 in the second game of a best of three series.[19]
  • The first withdrawal of American troop from the Philippines was ordered by the President to General Otis.[20]

March 8, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

March 9, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

March 10, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In Springfield, Illinois, the remains of Abraham Lincoln and his family were removed so that renovations could be made of his tomb. Held in a vault for more than a year, the remains were returned to the tomb, without public ceremony, on April 24, 1901.[24]
  • After escaping from Frankfort, Kentucky Secretary of State Caleb Powers was arrested in Lexington for conspiracy in the murder of Governor William Goebel. Powers and State Guard Captain Davis had put on uniforms and escaped on a train.,[25] Powers served eight years in prison, but was pardoned in 1908 and later served as a United States Congressman from 1911 to 1919.
  • Born: Erich Kästner, last surviving German veteran of World War I, in Schönefeld, Germany; (d. January 1, 2008)

March 11, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Captain Umberto Cagni of Italy, with ten men and 102 dogs, set off from the base camp at Franz Josef Land, established by the Arctic expedition of the Duke of Abruzzi. Cagni's men did not reach the North Pole, but planted the Italian flag at 86–34 N on April 25, closer than anyone had before, before turning back.[26]
  • Religious broadcasting was launched in Elkhart, Indiana, as the Reverend E.H. Gwynne of the First Presbyterian Church, began preaching his sermons by telephone technology. A transmitter, designed by inventors from the Home Telephone Company for the benefit of a crippled parishioner, was placed on the pulpit, "and every word was as distinctly heard as though the listeners were present in the church", a reporter noted;[27]
  • At the Mount Olivet Baptist Church at 53rd Street near Broadway in New York, Pastor C.T. Walker baptized 184 African-Americans at the end of revival services.[28] Nicknamed "the Colored John the Baptist", Walker was originally from Augusta, Georgia, where a school bears his name.[29]

March 12, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

Flag of the Orange Free State.svg

March 13, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The U.S. House of Representatives voted 166–120 in favor of passage of the Gold Standard Act, also known as the Overstreet Act, and the measure was sent to President William McKinley for his signature[33]
  • At 10:00 am, British forces marched into Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange Free State, and took possession. Led by the Royal Engineers Corp C.E.Shaw captured the Orange Fee State flag atop the capital building replacing it with a white flag. Mayor Kellner and other officials, reported Lord Roberts, "met me two miles from the town and presented me with the keys to the public offices." When Roberts and his soldiers entered the city at noon, he was cheered by the conquered Boers.[34][35]
  • Born: Queen Salote of Tonga, Queen for 47 years from 1918 until her death on December 16, 1965.

March 14, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

de Vries
  • Botanist Hugo de Vries submitted a paper to the German journal Comptes Rendus, outlining a rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity. Both de Vries and German botanist Carl Correns had been working independently of each other in 1900 and found Gregor Mendel's 1865 paper on genetics. Correns paper was completed on April 22. Wrote De Vries, "I draw the conclusion that the law of segregation of hybrids as discovered by Mendel for peas finds very general application in the plant kingdom ... This memoir, very beautiful for its time, has been misunderstood and forgotten."[37]

March 15, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In Louisburg and Morrisville, North Carolina, an unusual weather phenomenon appeared in the form of black rain that fell from an intensely dark cloud.[38] Professor M.S. Davis of Louisburg College collected a sample of the black rainwater and had it analyzed by chemists at the University of North Carolina. Drs. Baskerville and Weller concluded, in an article in Science magazine, that the rain had a high, and unexplained, concentration of soot.[39]*Elsewhere in the nation, ​6 12 inches of snow fell in New York; 8 inches in Washington, and snow fell in the South in Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and North Texas[40]
  • The Standard Oil Company paid the largest dividend ever distributed up to that time, disbursing to shareholders a total of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000) in cash based on $20 a share. The dividend had been declared on February 6, and broke a record of a stock dividend paid by the Pullman car company.[41]

March 16, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

March 17, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Topeka Daily Capital published its final "Sheldon Edition", bringing to a close an experiment that had started on March 13. The publisher of the Capital had challenged author Charles M. Sheldon to try editing a daily newspaper as Jesus might. Sheldon, the author of In His Steps (and the originator of WWJD?, the question "What would Jesus do?"), edited the paper for five days, emphasizing "good news" stories. During the experiment, the circulation of the Capital increased from about 12,000 to more than 350,000 (with the help of presses in Chicago and New York). Rather than closing with a Sunday paper, Sheldon published a "Saturday Evening Edition" following the regular morning paper, with instructions that even the news carriers were "to deliver their papers in time to reach home themselves before Sunday", and there was "no news of the world". Sheldon wrote, "The human race can be just as happy and useful and powerful if it does not know every twenty-four hours the news of the wars and the sports and the society events of the world."[45]
  • Richard P. Leary, the American Governor of Guam, issued a proclamation abolishing slavery on the island.[46]
  • American forces, led by Major Henry Hale of the 44th Infantry Battalion, arrived at Tagbilaran and took control of Bohol Island in the Philippines[47] The Boholanos resisted American occupation for years thereafter.[48]
  • Born: Composer Alfred Newman, who won nine Academy Awards in a career of creating musical scores for films, in New Haven, Connecticut; (d. 1970)

March 18, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Comedian W.C. Fields, recently signed by the William Morris Agency, broke into big time show business when he opened for the Orpheum vaudeville circuit in San Francisco. Fields, age 20, was billed as "The Tramp Juggler", and was touring Europe by the end of 1900.[49]
  • Died Maud S., a race horse beloved by millions of Americans and known as "The Race Track Queen", died a week short of turning 26 years old. Owned by wealthy philanthropist Robert E. Bonner, whom she outlived by almost a year, she had set a record on October 20, 1891, for running a mile in two minutes, 8.75 seconds. [50]

March 19, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • Harry Lauder (1870–1950), celebrated as Scotland's greatest entertainer, made his professional debut at Gatti's Music Hall in London. A former coal miner who entertained his co-workers in the mines, Lauder was encouraged to try out at local talent competition, where he was discovered and signed to a contract. At one time, Lauder was the highest-paid entertainer in the world.[51]
  • The city of Glendora, Mississippi, was founded
  • Born: Frédéric Joliot, French physicist, recipient in 1935 of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, in Paris; (d. 1958)

March 20, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Nikola Tesla received patent No. 645,576 for wireless transmission of electrical power, the first in a series of patents for sending "industrially significant amounts of power" from one station to another without electrical wires.[52] Tesla's U.S. Patent 685,012 "Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillations" was granted the next day.[53]
Secretary Hay

March 21, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • George C. Hale, Chief of the Kansas City Fire Department and inventor of the Hale tower and the automatic harness, demonstrated the first heat sensitive automatic fire alarm – "When the temperature goes above the maximum fixed for the building, an electric circuit is opened that puts into operation a phonograph which talks into a telephone, telling Fire Headquarters that there is a fire at whatever address the alarm is located."[55]

March 22, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Anne Rainsford French was awarded a Steam Engineer's License (Locomobile Class), issued by the City of Washington, D.C., making her one of the first, if not the first, women to receive a driver's license. However, Mrs. John Howell Phillips received a license, in Chicago, in late 1899.[56]

March 23, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

March 24, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Press Clay Southworth, 14, shot the last passenger pigeon in the wild, near his farm in Sargents, Ohio.[58] The species became extinct when the last living passenger pigeon died on September 1, 1914, in the Cincinnati Zoo.
  • Mayor Van Wyck broke ground for the underground "rapid transit tunnel" that would become the first part of the New York City Subway, linking Manhattan and Brooklyn. Using a silver spade, Van Wyck started in front of City Hall. "Tunnel day, for as such it will be known", wrote the New York Times, "was a greater day to the people, for it marked a beginning of a system of tunnels in future years and for future generations ..."[59]
  • The first workplace smoking ban was issued by the Willis L. Moore, Chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau, the forerunner of the National Weather Service, for all of its offices.[60] The Director's Instruction No. 51 declared that "The smoking of cigarettes in the offices of the Weather Bureau is hereby prohibited. Officials in charge of stations will rigidly enforce this order, and will also include in their semiannual confidential reports information as to those of their assistants who smoke cigarettes outside of office hours."[61]
  • The Puerto Rican appropriation bill of $2,095,455.88 was signed by President McKinley after passing House 135–87[62]

March 25, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Socialist Party was founded in the United States by a committee meeting in New York from members of the Social Democratic and Socialist Labor parties.[63]

March 26, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

Rabbi Wise
  • Died: Isaac Mayer Wise, 81, known as "The Father of American Judaism" and "The Moses of America". Two days earlier, Dr. Wise had collapsed while delivering a lecture at the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati.[64]

March 27, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

General Joubert
  • United States Patent No. 646,375 was granted to William Abner Eddy for the "Eddy kite", the diamond shaped, two stick kite that became the standard for kite flying. Eddy, of Bayonne, New Jersey, had applied for the patent on August 1, 1898.[65]
  • Queen Victoria received, at Windsor Castle, delegates from the British colonies in Australia to discuss the Australian Commonwealth Bill in preparation for federation and an independent state, and voiced her disagreement with the word "commonwealth". "She found the title obnoxious to her", wrote one author, "She had an ingrained dislike for the word 'Commonwealth,' which she identified with Cromwell and his Republican form of government." The Queen's suggestion was that the new nation be called the "Dominion of Australia", similar to the title of the Canadian state. The assembled delegates persuaded the Queen that the word "commonwealth" had other meanings beyond those associated with Oliver Cromwell, and she reluctantly dropped further objections, giving her full support for Australian independence.[66]
  • As British forces prepared to advance on Pretoria, South Africa's greatest General, Piet Joubert died of peritonitis at the age of 68.[67]
  • U.S. Secretary of War Root announced the creation of the Division of the Pacific to administer the Philippines, with sub-departments for Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao & Jolo[68]

March 28, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The War of the Golden Stool was triggered in the Britain's Gold Coast colony (modern-day Ghana) after Colonial Governor Frederick M. Hodgson offended a gathering of the chiefs of the Ashanti Kingdom. In Kumasi, Governor Hodgson demanded the Golden Stool, the most sacred relic of the Asante nation. After summoning the chiefs, Governor Hodgson refused to sit at the chair provided and demanded "Why did you not take the opportunity of my coming to Kumasi to bring the Golden Stool and give it to me to sit upon?" War broke out, and Hodgson and his party barely escaped with their lives.[69]
  • In Calcutta, the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon addressed the British governing council and announced that nearly 5,000,000 victims of famine were now receiving relief. Curzon stated that the cost was 525 "lacs of rupees". The value of 52,500,000 rupees was equivalent to £3,500,000 at the time.[70]

March 29, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

March 30, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • Legislation took effect in France, reducing the workday for women and children from 12 hours to 11 hours. The law provided further that on April 1, 1902, the workday would go to 10​12 hours, and to ten hours by April 1, 1904.[72]
  • Died: Father Leonard Murialdo, 71, founder of the Society of St. Joseph. He would be canonized by Pope Paul VI on May 3, 1970.[73]

March 31, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]


  1. ^ "Germany in Samoa", New York Times, March 15, 1900, p7
  2. ^ "Tutuila (U.S.)", The Atlantic Monthly, 1904, p213
  3. ^ "All England is Rejoicing; Ladysmith is Now Relieved; Butler Reaches Beleaguered Town at Last", Atlanta Constitution March 2, 1900, p1
  4. ^ "Nebraska Beats Kansas", Nebraska State Journal, March 3, 1900, p3; Media Guide (Kansas Jayhawks basketball)
  5. ^ "One Magical Century: The Story of Illinois High School Basketball", by Patrick C. Heston
  6. ^ "Congressman Epes Dead", New York Times, March 3, 1900, p1
  7. ^ Russell Schneider, The Cleveland Indians Encyclopedia, (Sports Publishing LLC, 2005) pp10–11
  8. ^ Jeffrey W. Seibert, I Done My Duty: The Complete Story of the Assassination of President McKinley (Heritage Books, 2002) p41
  9. ^ William Nevill Montgomerie Geary, Nigeria Under British Rule (Routledge, 1965), p64
  10. ^ Gorton Carruth, et al., eds., The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates (Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1962) p389
  11. ^ Bronx Community College website
  12. ^ "Warships Sent South", New York Times, March 6, 1900, p1
  13. ^ "'Sapho' Stopped by the Police" Id.
  14. ^ "A Purveyor of Rarities Is Back in Business", by Alvin Klein, New York Times, June 29, 1997
  15. ^ Virgil Anson Lewis, History and Government of West Virginia (American Book Company, 1904) pp266–67
  16. ^ "The Gold Standard Act of 1900", The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1901 p191
  17. ^ Annual Register of World Events, p7
  18. ^ "Messages From a Vessel", New York Times, March 8, 1900, p1
  19. ^ Stephan Müller, International Ice Hockey Encyclopaedia: 1904–2005 (Books on Demand, 2005) p465
  20. ^ "News of the Week", Public Opinion, March 15, 1900, p347
  21. ^ "Congressional Notes", New York Times, March 9, 1900, p1; A Biographical Congressional Directory, 1774–1903 (GPO 1903), p356
  22. ^ "London Gives Way to Exultation", Atlanta Constitution, March 9, 1900, p1
  23. ^ "Debs and Harriman Make the Ticket", Atlanta Constitution, March 10, 1900, p1
  24. ^ Alexander Kelly McClure, "Abe" Lincoln's Yarns and Stories (Western W. Wilson, 1901), p512; "National Lincoln Monument – Illinois 1869"
  25. ^ "Kentucky Suspects Held in Lexington", New York Times, March 11, 1900, p1
  26. ^ Fergus Fleming, Ninety Degrees North: The Quest for the North Pole (Grove Press, 2001), pp320–22
  27. ^ "Preaching by Telephone", New York Times, March 12, 1900, p1
  28. ^ "Colored Converts Baptized", New York Times, March 12, 1900, p12
  29. ^ "Colored John the Baptist", Atlanta Constitution, March 12, 1900, p1
  30. ^ "British Occupy Bloemfontein", New York Times, March 15, 1900, p1
  31. ^ "House Ousts a Democrat", New York Times, March 13, 1900, p7
  32. ^ A Biographical Congressional Directory, 1774–1903 (GPO, 1903) p892
  33. ^ "Gold Standard Bill Passes the House", New York Times, March 14, 1900, p1
  34. ^ "Bloemfontein Surrenders; Robert's Entry Triumphal", Atlanta Constitution, March 15, 1900, p1
  35. ^ "British Occupy Bloemfontein", New York Times, March 14, 1900, p1
  36. ^ "Gold Now the Standard", New York Times, March 15, 1900, p1
  37. ^ James Schwartz, In Pursuit of the Gene: From Darwin to DNA (Harvard University Press, 2008) p107
  38. ^ Jerome Clark and John Clark, Unnatural Phenomena: A Guide to the Bizarre Wonders of North America (ABC-CLIO, 2005), p241
  39. ^ "Black Rain in North Carolina", Science, June 27, 1902, p1034
  40. ^ "Snow, Sleet, and Hail in March", New York Times, March 16, 1900, p1
  41. ^ "Oil Dividends of $20,000,000; Standard Pays Largest Dividend Known", Daily Iowa Capital, March 16, 1900, p1
  42. ^ The Manual of Statistics: Stock Exchange Hand-book (Financial News Association, 1912) p363
  43. ^ "Warship To Go to China", New York Times, March 17, 1900, p1
  44. ^ "The Nashville Goes to Taku", New York Times, June 10, 1900, p1
  45. ^ Judith Mitchell Buddenbaum and Debra L. Mason, Readings on Religion as News (Blackwell Publishing, 2000) p155
  46. ^ "News of the Week", Public Opinion, March 22, 1900, p379
  47. ^ Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900, p414
  48. ^ Joseph Cummins, History's Great Untold Stories: Obscure Events of Lasting Importance (Murdoch Books, 2006) p139
  49. ^ Frank Cullen, Florence Hackman, Donald McNeilly, Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America, (Routledge, 2007) p385
  50. ^ Gorton Carruth, et al., eds., The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates (Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1962) p389
  51. ^
  52. ^ Thomas H. Lee, Planar Microwave Engineering: A Practical Guide to Theory, Measurement, and Circuits (Cambridge University Press, 2004) p34
  53. ^ "Tesla’s Wireless Energy... For the 21st Century!!!"
  54. ^ "The 'Open Door' Letters", New York Times, March 28, 1900, p7; E.A. Benians, The Cambridge History of the British Empire, pp326–327
  55. ^ "Automatic Fire Alarm", New York Times, March 22, 1900, p1
  56. ^ Gordon Morris Bakken and Brenda Farrington, Encyclopedia of Women in the American West (SAGE, 2003) pp106–07
  57. ^ Ann Cynthia Brown, Arthur Evans and the Palace of Minos, (Ashmolean Museum, 1983) p37
  58. ^ "Passenger pigeon met demise 100 years ago", Cincinnati Enquirer, March 24, 2000;; Andrew D. Blechman, Pigeons: The Fascinating Saga of the World's Most Revered and Reviled Bird, (University of Queensland Press, 2007) p117
  59. ^ "Rapid Transit Tunnel Begun", New York Times, March 25, 1900, p2
  60. ^ "Draws Line at Cigarettes", Nebraska State Journal, March 26, 1900, p1; Cassandra Tate, Cigarette Wars: The Triumph of "the Little White Slaver", (Oxford University Press US, 2000) pp31–32; p373.
  61. ^ "Smoke-Free Zones: An American Innovation?" Archived 2008-11-21 at the Wayback Machine, by Michael Glantz,
  62. ^ "Paper now has the signature of Mr. M'Kinley", Atlanta Constitution, March 25, 1900, p2; World Almanac 1901, p93
  63. ^ Harry W. Laidler, Social-Economic Movements, pp586–587
  64. ^ Max Benjamin May, Isaac Mayer Wise: The Founder of American Judaism; a Biography (G.P. Putnam, 1916), p392; "Dr. Isaac M. Wise Dead", New York Times, March 27, 1900, p1
  65. ^ Maxwell Eden, The Magnificent Book of Kites: Explorations in Design, Construction, Enjoyment & Flight (Sterling Publishing Company, 2002) p149
  66. ^ Sidney Lee, Queen Victoria: A Biography (Smith, Elder & Co., 1904) pp547–48
  67. ^ "The Advance on Pretoria Begins"; "Joubert Dies At Pretoria", New York Times, March 25, 1900, p3
  68. ^ "New Departments Created", Atlanta Constitution, March 28, 1900, p1
  69. ^ Samuel Henry Jeyes, Mr. Chamberlain: His Life and Public Career (Sands & Co., 1903) pp587–588
  70. ^ "Cost of Famine Relief in India", New York Times, March 23, 1900, p6
  71. ^ "Delagoa Railroad Award", New York Times, March 30, 1900, p1
  72. ^ Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of New York (State of New York, 1901), p139
  73. ^ Butler's Lives of the Saints (Continuum International Publishing Group) pp280–82
  74. ^ Ann Cynthia Brown, Arthur Evans and the Palace of Minos, (Ashmolean Museum, 1983) p54; [1]
  75. ^ Thomas Pankenham, The Boer War (Random House, 1979) pp414–16