March 1913

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March 4, 1913: Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as U.S. President
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March 18, 1913: King George of Greece assassinated

The following events occurred in March 1913:

March 1, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

March 2, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Soldiers of the Ninth U.S. Cavalry, stationed in Douglas, Arizona, traded gunfire with Mexican Army troops who were across the border in Agua Prieta, in a skirmish between the border patrols of both nations. Reportedly, four Mexican federal soldiers were killed, and some of the U.S. Army soldiers charged across the border into Mexico to pursue the retreating Mexican troops.[5]

March 3, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

March 4, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated as the 28th President of the United States at 1:34 p.m., 94 minutes after the expiration of the term of President Taft.[8]
  • Hours before leaving office, outgoing President William H. Taft signed legislation creating the United States Department of Labor. The former U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor was renamed as the U.S. Department of Commerce. Taft's signing came with a statement that "I think that nine departments are enough for the proper administration of the government".[9]
  • Born: John Garfield, blacklisted American film actor, as Jacob Garfinkle in New York City (d. 1952)

March 5, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Seventy-one men were drowned when the German destroyer S-178 was rammed by the German cruiser Yorck in the North Sea off of Helgoland.[3][10]
  • The U.S. Army established the first American air military unit, then known as 1st Aero Squadron. It is now the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron of the U.S. Air Force.[11]

March 6, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

March 7, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • More than forty people were killed in Baltimore when 340 tons of dynamite on the steamship Alum Chine exploded. Most of the dead were on the tugboat Atlantic, which had returned to the ship to rescue two sailors who had not been evacuated.[3][16]
  • Born: Elmer Lower, American television news executive, in Kansas City, Missouri (d. 2011)
  • Died: Pauline Johnson, 51, Canadian-Mohawk author

March 8, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The second criminal trial of renowned lawyer Clarence Darrow, on charges of attempted bribery, ended in a hung jury, with 8 of the 12 jurors in favor of conviction, less than the unanimous vote necessary. After the first two trials failed to reach a verdict, a third trial was not attempted and Darrow would return to practice.[17]
  • The Federal League, intended as a third major baseball league to challenge the existing National and American Leagues, was founded in Indianapolis by John T. Powers. It would last for two seasons, 1914 and 1915.[18]
  • Died: Louis Saint-Gaudens, 59, French sculptor

March 9, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Dr. Friedrich Friedmann of Germany, who had announced that he had developed a cure for tuberculosis that he would sell for one million dollars, gave the first demonstration of his treatment before U.S. government officials. Seven patients were injected with the Friedmann vaccine at the Mount Sinai hospital, in the presence of more than 30 physicians and surgeons.[19]
  • The Liberal Party won a majority of seats in the Cortes in Spanish elections.[3]

March 10, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Quebec Bulldogs, champions of the NHL-forerunner National Hockey Association kept the Stanley Cup in a two-game sweep in a challenge by the Sydney Millionaires of the Maritime Professional Hockey League. After winning the first game 14-3, the Bulldogs won the second one, 6-2.
  • French sculptor Camille Claudel was committed to a mental hospital at Ville-Evrard near Paris, where she would spend the remaining 30 years of her life.[20]
  • Died: Harriet Tubman, 98, former slave famous for conducting thousands to freedom on the "underground railroad". She was given a burial with full military honors at Auburn, New York.[21]

March 11, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

March 12, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The new capital of Australia was christened in a ceremony that saw the unveiling of three pillars of a memorial column by Governor-General Denman, Prime Minister Fisher, and Minister for Home Affairs King O'Malley. At noon, Lady Denman opened a gold cigarette case, withdrew the paper inside, and announced "I name the Capital of Australia 'Canberra'." [24] "Canberra", which among almost 1,000 suggestions submitted to the federal government, had first been used in 1826 by J. J. Moore in an application to purchase land in what would become the Australian Capital Territory. Other suggestions had been Kangaremu, Blueducks, Eucalypta, Myola, Gonebroke, Swindleville and Cooeeoomoo, and the second most popular proposal had been Shakespeare.[25]
  • Plans were announced by the British Prime Minister to reform the House of Lords, taking away its veto power and abolishing the hereditary succession.[3]

March 13, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Film stuntman and daredevil Rodman Law, who billed himself as "The Human Bullet", attempted to become the first passenger in a manned rocket flight. Law constructed a 44 foot long steel missile, set it up on a vacant lot in Jersey City, set the angle at 45 degrees and aimed the craft at Elizabeth, New Jersey, twelve miles away. Wearing a parachute, he then climbed into a seat on the rocket and told his assistant, fireworks factory manager Samuel Serpico, to light the fuse to ignite of 900 pounds of gunpowder. Law told the crowd that his plan was to bail out when he reached an altitude of 3,500 feet, but the rocket exploded on the launchpad. Law was only slightly injured in the blast, and no spectators were hurt, and he "continued to perform stunts, though never again in a rocket".[26]
  • Dr. Simon Flexner announced to an audience of physicians at Johns Hopkins University that he had discovered the germ that caused infantile paralysis (polio).[27] The germ proved to be a virus, although Flexner's discovery that antibodies, yet to be discovered, could successfully attack the disease would send research in the direction of finding a means of developing the immunization against the poliomyelitis virus.[28]
  • Born: William J. Casey, 13th Director of Central Intelligence for the American CIA (1981-1987), in New York City (d. 1987); and H. P. Grice, British-American philosopher, in Birmingham (d. 1988)
  • Died: Thomas Krag, 44, Norwegian novelist

March 14, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • The first esophagectomy and resection was performed by Dr. Franz Torek at the Lenox Hill Hospital in New York, as Dr. Torek operated upon a patient with esophageal cancer and performed a bypass. The unidentified patient survived for 13 more years after the operation.[29]
  • In South Africa, Justice Malcolm Searle ruled that only Christian marriages were legal under the nation's laws, effectively invalidating the marital status of most of the British Indian residents.[30]
  • Born: Smoky Dawson, Australian country music singer, in Collingwood, Victoria (d. 2008); and Sergey Mikhalkov, Soviet-Russian writer and lyricist, in Moscow (d. 2009)
  • Died: William Hale White, 81, British novelist,

March 15, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson assembled about 100 reporters in his office and began the practice of holding a regular "presidential press conference". President Wilson's secretary, Joseph P. Tumulty, arranged the first and subsequent events and introduced the President on each occasion, becoming, in effect, the first White House Press Secretary.[31]
  • The Antarctic ship Aurora arrived in Tasmania, Australia at Hobart, with the news of the deaths of two of the three members of the Far Eastern Party of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (Belgrave Ninnis and Xavier Mertz) and the stranding of Douglas Mawson.[32]

March 16, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The first animated cartoon series made its debut in movie theatres, as filmmaker Émile Cohl produced 13 episodes adapting The Newlyweds, a comic strip by George McManus. The first installment, featuring the characters of "Maggie and Jiggs" from what would later be called Bringing Up Father, was entitled "When He Wants a Dog, He Wants a Dog".[33]
  • A crowd of 120,000 demonstrators turned out at Le Pré-Saint-Gervais, near Paris, to protest a recent decision by French Army officials to require three years of military service.[34]
  • Died: Louis-Maurice Boutet de Monvel, 63, French painter

March 17, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

  • New York State Senator Franklin D. Roosevelt, 31, was sworn into office as the youngest Assistant Secretary of the Navy in American history, and the first federal government job for the future United States President.[35]

March 18, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Exactly 50 years after his March 18, 1863 selection, King George I of Greece was assassinated in Salonika while walking the streets of the city recently captured from Turkey. The King, who had refused bodyguards and was accompanied only by his equerry, was shot in the back by Aleko Schinas, a Greek citizen.[36][37] The King had told a lunch guest earlier that day that he intended to abdicate in October, on the jubilee of his coronation;[38] Schinas would die two months later, after plummeting from a balcony while in police custody.[39]
  • Prime Minister Aristide Briand, who had recently taken office after Raymond Poincaré's election as President, resigned along with his entire cabinet after a vote that undid the new electoral reform law.[40]
  • Utah became the first U.S. state to have a minimum wage law take effect, with the authorization for a wage, and creation of a commission to regulate it, taking effect upon enactment. Massachusetts and Oregon had enacted laws earlier, which would go into effect during the summer.[41]
  • U.S. President Wilson announced that the U.S. government was withdrawing approval of American banks in the proposed six-nation loan to China. The bankers withdrew the next day.[37][42]
  • Born: René Clément, French film director, in Bordeaux (d. 1996); and Werner Mölders, German fighter pilot who was first to shoot down 100 enemy airplanes; in Gelsenkirchen (killed in air accident 1941)
  • Died: Louis André, 75, former French Minister of War

March 19, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

March 20, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Song Jiaoren (Sung Chiao-jen), the President of the Kuomintang Party in the Republic of China, was shot and fatally wounded while waiting for a train in Shanghai; Song would die two days later. Song's killer, Wu Shiying, had been assisted by Ying Guixing, and a search of their apartments found documents linking the murder to cabinet Minister Hong Shuzu, Interior Minister Zhao Bingjun, and even President Yuan Shikai. Ying would be murdered in January after escaping from prison, and Wu would be found dead in his cell shortly afterward.[44]
  • Kansas became the first of the United States to legalize the practice of chiropractors. Massachusetts would become the last, legalizing chiropractic treatment in 1966.[45]

March 21, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

March 22, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Wireless communication between the United States and France began when the U.S. station at Arlington, Maryland sent a message received at the Eiffel Tower in Paris.[37]
  • Vajiravudh, King Rama VI of Siam, decreed two laws governing the surnames and the citizenship of subjects in what is now Thailand. Besides requiring all persons to have the family name of their father or husband, Rama VI also decreed that all persons born to a Siamese father, anywhere in the world, were Siamese citizens, as were all persons born to a Siamese mother when the father was unknown, and any foreign woman with a Siamese husband.[48]
  • Born: Lew Wasserman, American studio executive, in Cleveland (d. 2002); and Chuck Dederich, American cultist and founder of the religious movement Church of Synanon, in Toledo, Ohio (d. 1997)

March 23, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • On Easter Sunday, tornadoes swept through Omaha, Nebraska and killed 150 people.[37] The storm activity was followed by heavy rainfall as it moved eastward over the next four days, killing more than 1,000 people in "the most widespread natural disaster the United States had ever endured." [49]
  • The March 23 date was the earliest Easter Sunday during the 20th Century. March 23 would also be the earliest date for Easter in the 21st Century (March 23, 2008) and will be the earliest in the 22nd Century (March 23, 2160). March 22 is the very earliest possible date for Easter (as the first Sunday after the first full Moon after the spring equinox), with the last occurrence on March 22, 1818, and the next one not to happen until March 22, 2285.

March 24, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

Downtown Dayton, Ohio

March 25, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

March 26, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

March 27, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Arkansas Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Futrell v. Oldham that State Senate President pro tempore Junius Futrell was the Governor of Arkansas, after Futrell and former President pro tempore William Kavanaugh Oldham had both claimed the office. Joseph Taylor Robinson had resigned on March 8, and Oldham had acted as Governor. When Futrell was selected as President pro tempore five days later, on March 13, Oldham claimed that he was still the Acting Governor, while Futrell sued on grounds that only the President pro tem could serve in the Governor's duties. For the next two weeks, Governor Futrell kept his offices in the south wing of the State Capitol at Little Rock, while Governor Oldham served in the north wing.[54]

March 28, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • Died: Floyd Allen and his son, Claud Allen, who had murdered the judge, sheriff, county prosecutor and three other people in Carroll County, Virginia on March 14, 1912 after Floyd had been convicted of obstruction of justice. The two were put to death in the electric chair, with Floyd going first and Claud second.[55]

March 29, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

March 30, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

March 31, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New German Dreadnought", New York Times, March 2, 1913, p1
  2. ^ "Over 200 Lost in Storm", New York Times, March 8, 1913
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (April 1913), pp414-417
  4. ^ Gerald Early, Ralph Ellison: Invisible Man (Marshall Cavendish, 2009) p11; other sources place the date in 1914
  5. ^ "Mexicans Killed by U.S. Troopers Near the Border", The Milwaukee Sentinel, March 3, 1913, p1
  6. ^ Craig R. Smith, Silencing the Opposition: How the U.S. Government Suppressed Freedom of Expression During Major Crises (SUNY Press, 2011) p162-163; Elizabeth Frost-Knappman and Kathryn Cullen-DuPont, Women's Suffrage in America (Infobase Publishing, 2009) pp295-296
  7. ^ "Marching for the Vote: Remembering the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913", by Sheridan Harvey, Library of Congress American Memory site
  8. ^ "NATION ACCLAIMS WOODROW WILSON ITS PRESIDENT", Washington Post, March 5, 1913, p1 [1]
  9. ^ "Adds to the Cabinet— Taft Signs Labor Department Bill Under Protest", Washington Post, March 5, 1913, p13; The U.S Department of Labor Historical Timeline
  10. ^ "German Destroyer Sunk; 66 Drowned", New York Times, March 6, 1913
  11. ^ "The Birth of the United States Air Force". U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency. 9 January 2008. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 
  12. ^ Eileen Welsome, The General and the Jaguar: Pershing's Hunt for Pancho Villa: A True Story of Revolution and Revenge (University of Nebraska Press, 2007) p36
  13. ^ Patricia Herlihy, The Alcoholic Empire: Vodka & Politics in Late Imperial Russia (Oxford University Press, 2002) p138
  14. ^ The U.S Department of Labor Historical Timeline
  15. ^ "Wilson Cabient Assumed Office in Quiet Manner- Redfield to Take Oath Today", Titusville (PA) Herald, March 6, 1913, p1
  16. ^ "Ship Blows Up; 40 Die, 100 Hurt", New York Times, March 8, 1913; Robert C. Keith, Baltimore Harbor: A Pictorial History (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005) pp39-42
  17. ^ Donald McRae, The Last Trials of Clarence Darrow (HarperCollins, 2009) pp49-50
  18. ^ Daniel R. Levitt, The Battle That Forged Modern Baseball: The Federal League Challenge and Its Legacy (Rowman & Littlefield, 2012) p37
  19. ^ "Uncle Sam Makes Test of Friedmann", Meriden (CT) Morning Record, March 10, 1913, p1
  20. ^ Delia Gaze, Concise Dictionary of Women Artists (Taylor & Francis, 2001) p262
  21. ^ "Tubman, Harriet", in Making It in America: A Sourcebook on Eminent Ethnic Americans, Elliott R. Barkan, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2001) p383
  22. ^ "New Altitude Record", New York Times, March 12, 1913; Tom D. Crouch, Wings: A History of Aviation from Kites to the Space Age (W. W. Norton & Company, 2003) p121
  23. ^ "Triangle Shirtwaist Fire", in Work in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Policy and Society (ABC-CLIO, 2003) p567
  24. ^ Brian Carroll, Australia's Governors General: From Hopetoun to Jeffery (Rosenberg Publishing, 2004) p64
  25. ^ Mary Machen, Pictorial History Canberra (Kingsclear Books, 2000) p42
  26. ^ William E. Burrows, This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age (Random House Digital, 1999) p23; "Skyrocket Bursts with Man on Board; Law Near Death When He Attempts to Shoot Himself Far Through the Air", New York Times, March 14, 1913
  27. ^ "Identifies Paralysis Germ — Dr. Flexner Announces Another Step Toward Combating Child Disease", New York Times, March 15, 1913, p1
  28. ^ Post Polio Health International
  29. ^ "Transthoracic Resection of the Esophagus", by Jerry L. Port, et al., in General Thoracic Surgery, Volume II (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004) p1987
  30. ^ James W. Douglass, Gandhi and the Unspeakable: His Final Experiment With Truth (Orbis Books, 2012) p18; Sean Chabot, Transnational Roots of the Civil Rights Movement: African American Explorations of the Gandhian Repertoire (Lexington Books, 2011) p25
  31. ^ W. Dale Nelson, Who Speaks for the President?: The White House Press Secretary from Cleveland to Clinton (Syracuse University Press, 2000) pp29-30
  32. ^ Robert Dixon, Photography, Early Cinema and Colonial Modernity: Frank Hurley's Synchronized Lecture Entertainments (Anthem Press, 2011) p20
  33. ^ Donald Crafton, Before Mickey: The Animated Film (University of Chicago Press, 1993) pp81-83
  34. ^ Michael Curtis, Three Against the Third Republic: Sorel, Barrès and Maurras (Transaction Publishers, 2010) p43
  35. ^ William H. Garzke and Robert O. Dulin, Battleships: United States Battleships, 1935-1992 (Naval Institute Press, 1995) p293
  36. ^ "King of Greece Murdered at Salonika; Slayer Mad; Political Results Feared", New York Times, March 19, 1913; "George a Tactful, Democratic King", New York Times, March 19, 1913
  37. ^ a b c d e f g "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (May 1913), pp545-548
  38. ^ Philip Eade, Prince Philip: The Turbulent Early Life of the Man Who Married Queen Elizabeth II (Macmillan, 2011) p20
  39. ^ Elaine Thomopoulos, The History of Greece (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p93
  40. ^ "French Cabinet Out; Defeated in Senate", New York Times, March 19, 1913
  41. ^ The Minimum Wage: A Failing Experiment (Executive Committee of Merchants and Manufacturers of Massachusetts, 1916) p12
  42. ^ Frank Tannenbaum, The Balance of Power in Society (Simon and Schuster, 1969) p82
  43. ^ Henry Edward Krehbiel, A Second Book of Operas (Macmillian, 1917, reprinted by Wildside Press, 2007) p209
  44. ^ Michael Dillon, China: A Modern History (I.B.Tauris, 2012) p150
  45. ^ Kristyn S. Appleby and Joanne Tarver, Medical Records Review (Aspen Publishers Online, 1999) pp192-193
  46. ^ Illies, Florian (2012). 1913. 
  47. ^ "Honduras in Fear as President Dies", New York Times, March 22, 1913
  48. ^ Tamara Lynn Loos, Subject Siam: Family, Law, And Colonial Modernity in Thailand (Cornell University Press, 2006) pp133-134
  49. ^ "The Great Flood of 1913", by Trudy E. Bell, The Rotarian, p32
  50. ^ "800 Dead in Dayton Now Is Estimate", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 29, 1913, p1
  51. ^ Lee Davis, Natural Disasters (Infobase Publishing, 2009) pp191-193
  52. ^ Sylvia Kedourie, ed., Turkey: Identity, Democracy, Politics (Routledge, 1996) p20
  53. ^ Burton Kirkwood, The History of Mexico, Second Edition (Greenwood, 2009) p138
  54. ^ "Junius Marion Futrell (1870–1955)", Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture online
  55. ^ "Allens March to the Electric Chair- Sire and Son Pay Supreme Penalty for Shooting Up Court at Hillsville", Milwaukee Sentinel, March 29, 1913, p2
  56. ^ Oliver Neighbour, et al., Second Viennese School: Schoenberg, Webern, Berg (W. W. Norton & Company, 1998) p144
  57. ^ "Jim Hogg County", in Encyclopedia of Texas, Nancy Capace, ed. (North American Book Distribution LLC, 2001) p407