March 23 Movement
|March 23 Movement|
Mouvement du 23-Mars (in French)
|Leader||Bertrand Bisimwa (president)|
Sultani Makenga (military chief)
Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero (former president)
|Dates of operation||April 4, 2012– present|
|Active regions||Democratic Republic of the Congo, primarily North Kivu|
|Notable attacks||M23 rebellion|
M23 offensive (2022)
|Size||At least 5,500 (c. late 2012)|
The March 23 Movement (French: Mouvement du 23 mars), often abbreviated as M23 and also known as the Congolese Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire du Congo), is a rebel military group based in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), mainly operating in the province of North Kivu. The M23 rebellion of 2012-13 against the DRC government led to the displacement of large numbers of people. On 20 November 2012, M23 took control of Goma, a provincial capital with a population of one million people, but was requested to evacuate it by the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region because the DRC government had finally agreed to negotiate with them. In late 2012 Congolese troops, along with UN troops, retook control of Goma and M23 announced a ceasefire, saying it wanted to resume peace talks.
A United Nations report found that Rwanda created and commanded the M23 rebel group. Rwanda ceased its support following international pressure as well as the military defeat by the DRC and the UN in 2013.
In 2017, M23 elements resumed their insurgency in the DR Congo, but the operations of this splinter faction had little local impact. In 2022, a larger portion of M23 started an offensive, eventually resulting in the capture of the Congolese border town of Bunagana by the rebels. After the M23 attacks of 2022, the Congolese government blamed Rwanda, and accused President Paul Kagame's government of supporting the rebels, charges which Kigali denied.
On 23 March 2009, the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP) signed a peace treaty with the DRC government, where it became a political party, and the M23 soldiers integrated into the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC). M23 takes its name from the date of these peace accords. The armed wing of the group is led by General Makenga Sultani, who has served as acting president of the group since the 28 February 2013 removal of Bishop Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero, a former CNDP member.
The M23 was formed on 4 April 2012 when nearly 300 soldiers - the majority of them former members of the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP) - turned against the DRC government, citing poor conditions in the army and the government's unwillingness to implement the 23 March 2009 peace deal. General Bosco Ntaganda, also known as "The Terminator", was accused by the Government of Kinshasa of leading the group, and President Kabila called for his arrest on 11 April 2012. The government had threatened to redeploy former CNDP soldiers away from North Kivu before the full implementation of the peace agreement, which prompted many of them to defect from the army and create the M23.
The M23 is made up primarily of Tutsis and opposes the Hutu Power militia Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (a group that counts among its number the original members of the Interahamwe that carried out the 1994 Rwandan Genocide) as well as area Mai-Mai (community militias mostly created and supported by the Democratic Republic of Congo). To be able to upstaff the troops, occupied villages were asked to deliver youngsters for the formation of village defence committees. This way, a larger number of more experienced soldiers could be stationed on the battlefield. However, this approach backfired when M23 troops tried to extort from the local population, since the armed youngsters defended their own villagers.
Following military successes, M23 rebels made additional demands, citing issues of human rights, democracy, as well as good governance. They have accused President Kabila of cheating in the November 2011 elections. The rebels have threatened to march on Kinshasa and depose the president.
The rebels were active in North Kivu province, fighting government forces in the Rutshuru and Masisi territories. On 6 June 2012 a Congolese spokesman reported that 200 M23 soldiers had died in the mutiny and that over 370 soldiers had surrendered to FARDC, including 25 Rwandan citizens. On 8 July 2012, Colonel Sultani Makenga announced that a government offensive to dislodge the group from their hideouts had failed, and that they had in turn captured several towns towards Goma, the provincial capital.
Late 2012 offensive
March 23 Movement forces had advanced to the outskirts of Goma by 18 November 2012 and warned the UN peacekeepers (MONUSCO) not to support government troops. Congolese government spokesman Lambert Mende accused Rwanda of backing the rebels. "The DRC has "not yet declared war, but we are ready to face it. This is our country, our duty".
M23 rebels advanced on Goma 20 November, and the Congolese Army retreated with little fighting. M23 forces paraded through the city, and some residents turned out to welcome them. Congolese customs officers abandoned their posts, leaving the border to Rwanda open. United Nations peacekeepers watched the occupation without intervening, stating that their mandate was limited to protecting the safety of civilians. Jeune Afrique later reported that M23 rebels acquired as well as six artillery pieces (type 26 and BM-type rocket launchers)approximately ~20 shipping containers filled with arms and ammunitions of various caliber, all of which were abandoned by the FARDC during their retreat from Goma.
DR Congo president Joseph Kabila urged Goma's citizens to "resist" the M23 takeover. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon criticized the M23 for alleged human rights violations during the takeover, including "intimidation of journalists", and abduction of women and children. Noting that the First Congo War had begun with fighting in the same region, the New York Times described the takeover of Goma as "raising serious questions about the stability of Congo as a whole".
On 21 November 2012, during the siege more than 2,000 Congolese soldiers and 700 policemen defected to M23.
On 22 November, the FARDC, in cooperation with local Mai-Mai elements, routed the M23 rebels from the nearby town of Sake, 27 kilometers from Goma, as they marched towards Bukavu. Also 22 November, Kabila suspended General Gabriel Amisi's FARDC commission because of an inquiry into his alleged role in arms sales to various rebel groups, including the FDLR, in the eastern part of the country, so it implicated M23. On 23 November, M23 rebels retook Sake from the FARDC after an intense four-hour battle and reinforced their position in the town, as they reportedly moved toward Kirotshe to the south, Mushaki to the north-west, and Kingi to the north. Meanwhile, the FARDC reinforced their position in Minova, near the South Kivu provincial border, with more than 3500 soldiers. The UN has declared that it lost access to 30 of its 31 refugee camps in the area due to the M23 offensive.
On 24 November in South Kivu, Colonel Albert Kahasha, who had surrendered and joined government troops along with other leaders of Mai-Mai militia groups Raïa Mutomboki and Nyatura. On 13 November he defected again from the FARDC. At a regional meeting in Kampala, leaders of the Great Lakes area gave M23 a two-day ultimatum to leave Goma. A combined force which would include international troops, a FARDC company, and a M23 company would be posted near Goma Airport and would take charge of security. When the ultimatum expired on 26 November, M23 still controlled the city.
The FARDC, had previously withdrawn after raping almost 126 women, some of them less than 10 years old, according to the United Nations and looting the money and possessions of the local population, came from Minova in a counteroffensive launched against M23 positions in the Masisi, North Kivu region on 27 November. M23 set up a road block on the road from Goma to Sake and reportedly extorted funds from drivers.
Following a peace deal negotiated in Uganda, the M23 said it would withdraw from Goma by 1 December. On 30 November, M23 troops began to withdraw from Sake and Masisi. A first contingent of 200 police officers also arrived in Goma on 30 November, in anticipation of M23’s withdrawal. M23 operatives allegedly kept a presence there, dressed in civilian police uniforms. On the eve of the withdrawal, FARDC forces accused M23 rebels of going door to door in some of Goma’s suburbs on the eve of their withdrawal, looting personal possessions, money and vehicles. The political wing of the movement denied this accusation, and said that criminal elements who had escaped from Munzenze prison were responsible for the looting.
On 3 December 2012, FARDC and Congolese government officials re-enter Goma, two days after M23 left the city.
On 24 February 2013, leaders of eleven African nations signed an agreement designed to bring peace to the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, among them Rwanda and Uganda. Both had been accused of aiding the M23 rebellion, a charge they denied. M23 was not represented either in the negotiations, or at the signing.
On 18 March 2013, Bosco Ntaganda handed himself in to the U.S. embassy in Kigali, Rwanda, where he requested transfer to the International Criminal Court in The Hague, Netherlands. Though the reasons for his surrender are unknown it was speculated that he was either pressured to do so by Rwanda or feared infighting within the M23 movement and its military leader Sulani Makenga, which had recently forced Ntaganda's forces to flee the DRC into Rwanda. Though Rwanda was not a signatory to the Rome Statute, the media speculated it would be forced to turn him over to the ICC. The U.S. also had listed him on its Rewards for Justice Program. On 22 March, he was detained by the ICC and appeared for the first time in front of the ICC on 26 March, to which he denied charges of rape, murder, and other offenses.
End of the first rebellion
In March 2013, the United Nations Security Council authorized the deployment of an intervention brigade within MONUSCO to carry out targeted offensive operations, with or without the Congolese national army, against armed groups that threaten peace in eastern DRC. The brigade is based in North Kivu and is made up of a total of 3,069 peacekeepers. It is tasked with neutralizing armed groups, reducing the threat posed to State authority and civilian security and make space for stabilization activities. The FIB alongside the Government Forces (FARDC) engaged the M23 in July 2013, August 2013 and September to October 2013.
On 6 November 2013 government forces launched an assault on M23 rebel position in the east of the country. This occurred one day after insurgents called for a ceasefire. The following day M23 issued a document that said they had "decided from this day to end its rebellion" and instead to pursue its goals "through purely political means". On 7 November, Sultani Makenga, the leader of M23, surrendered with about 1,500 M23 fighters in Mgahinga National Park, Uganda. They were eventually moved to refugee camps in Uganda.
After peace declarations were signed between the DRC Government and M23 rebels on 12 December 2013, issues of legal accountability for the rebellion remain because of international pressure.
In 2017, M23 commander Sultani Makenga and about 100 to 200 of his followers fled from Uganda to resume their insurgency, setting up camp at Mount Mikeno in the border area between Rwanda, Uganda, and the DR Congo. The operations of this splinter group remained marginal, and were not supported by the rest of M23. In March 2022, Makenga's group launched an offensive from their remote bases; these first attacks achieved little. After failed peace talks in April 2022, however, the M23 faction of Bisimwa joined the offensive. In May 2022, M23 fighters launched their most sustained attack since the start of their new offensive, overrunning a Congolese army base at Rumangabo. On 13 June, the rebels captured the important border town of Bunagana.
On 25 February 2013, disagreement between factions of the M23 about how to react to the peace agreement led to violence. M23's political leader, Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero, was sacked. In a statement signed by M23's military leader, Sultani Makenga, he was accused of treason because of "financial embezzlement, divisions, ethnic hatred, deceit and political immaturity". Makenga declared himself interim leader and clashes between those loyal to Sultani Makenga and those loyal to Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero, who is allied with Bosco Ntaganda, have killed ten men and two others were hospitalized. M23 has denied that it is hit by dissent.
- "Bertrand Bisimwa, the man leading M23". dailymaverick. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "DR Congo: M23's Makenga and Runiga factions 'clash'". bbcnews.com. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "M23 rebels set conditions for Goma exit". aljazeera.net. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "M23 rebels in DR Congo deny shooting down UN helicopter". BBC. 30 March 2022.
- "Rwanda denies backing armed group in DRC". The East African. 27 May 2022.
- Mike Pflanz (20 November 2012). "DRC Rebels Capture Goma Without Firing a Shot". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Rebels Vow to Take All of Congo, as Army Troops and Police Defect in Goma". CTV News. Associated Press. 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "DR Congo: Bunagana residents flee M23 clashes to Uganda". bbcnews.com. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "Goma: M23 rebels capture DR Congo city". BBC News. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Paul Kagame, War Criminal?". Newsweek. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Subcommittee Hearing: Developments in Rwanda - Committee on Foreign Affairs". Committee on Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 15 July 2017. http://docs.house.gov/meetings/FA/FA16/20150520/103498/HHRG-114-FA16-Transcript-20150520.pdf p. 74
- ICG 2022, p. 10.
- Sabiti, Djaffar; Bujakera, Stanis (13 June 2022). "Congo rebels seize eastern border town, army blames Rwanda". Reuters. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
- "Rwanda denies backing armed group in DRC". The East African. 27 May 2022.
- "DR Congo government, CNDP rebels 'sign peace deal'". AFP. 23 March 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "DR Congo troops shell rebel bases". Al Jazeera English. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Congo's 'Terminator': Kabila calls for Ntaganda arrest". BBC News. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Malcolm Webb (18 May 2012). "Thousands flee renewed violence in DRC". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Melanie Gouby (6 October 2012). "Congo: M23 rebels aim for Uganda border town". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- "RDC : les chefs d'Etat des Grands lacs donnent 2 jours au M23 pour quitter Goma" (in French). Radio Okapi. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- "DR Congo fighters jubilant after taking Goma". Al Jazeera English. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Melanie Gouby (4 April 2012). "Congo-Kinshasa: General Ntaganda and Loyalists Desert Armed Forces". AllAfrica. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Malcolm Webb (6 June 2012). "Clashes in eastern DR Congo claim lives". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Albert Kambale (8 July 2012). "DR Congo rebel chief pledges to withdraw from captured towns". AFP. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "UPDATE 4-Congo rebels advance to outskirts of Goma". Reuters. 18 November 2012. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Josh Kron (19 November 2012). "Congo Rebels Seize Provincial Capital". New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- David Blair (20 November 2012). "Goma falls to Congo's 'M23' rebels without expected bloodbath". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Pete Jones and David Smith (20 November 2012). "Congo rebels take Goma with little resistance and to little cheer". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Jeffrey Gettleman and Josh Kron (20 November 2012). "Congo Rebels Seize Provincial Capital". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Prises de guerre du M23 à Goma : "Kinshasa nous approvisionne depuis le début"" (in French). Jeune Afrique. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Goma: M23 rebels capture DR Congo city". BBC News. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Phil Moore (20 November 2012). "DR Congo rebels capture Goma, accused of atrocities". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Nord-Kivu : la coalition FARDC-Maï-Maï aurait repoussé le M23 de Sake" (in French). Radio Okapi. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "RDC : le président Kabila suspend le général major Amisi, le chef des forces terrestres" (in French). Radio Okapi. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "Sake: les affrontements entre FARDC et M23 font 4 morts" (in French). Radio Okapi. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Nord-Kivu: les FARDC renforcent leurs positions à Minova" (in French). Radio Okapi. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "RDC/Nord-Kivu: le HCR n'a accès qu'à un seul camp de déplacés sur 31" (in French). Romandie.com. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Bukavu: le colonel Kahasha fait à nouveau défection" (in French). Radio Okapi. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- David Mackenzie (27 November 2012). "Congo rebels refuse to quit captured city of Goma". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- "DR Congo: Initial findings by UN confirm human rights violations amid recent violence". 18 December 2012.
- "Nord-Kivu: les FARDC contre-attaquent le M23 à Masisi" (in French). Radio Okapi. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "M23 to Leave Goma, Rebel Chief Says". Voice of America. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "Nord-Kivu: les premières troupes du M23 ont quitté Saké" (in French). Radio Okapi. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Faisant semblant de quitter Goma. Des M23 en tenue de la Police nationale. Une stratégie qui trompe la vigilance au Nord-Kivu" (in French). L’Avenir. 30 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Nord-Kivu : les rebelles du M23 accusés à nouveau de pillages à Goma" (in French). Radio Okapi. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "DR Congo army returns to Goma". Al Jazeera English. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "African leaders sign deal aimed at peace in eastern Congo". Reuters. 24 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- BBC News - Bosco Ntaganda: Wanted Congolese in US mission in Rwanda. Bbc.co.uk (2013-03-18). Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
- "U.S. confirms Bosco Ntaganda turned himself in at U.S. Embassy in Kigali". Reuters. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Nazanine Moshiri (20 March 2013). "The surrender of Bosco Ntaganda – Al Jazeera Blogs". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
- Corder, Mike (22 March 2013). "International court detains Rwandan-born warlord". USA Today.
- BBC News - DR Congo: Bosco Ntaganda appears before ICC. Bbc.co.uk (2013-03-26). Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
- Congo warlord denies guilt in first appearance at Hague court. Reuters. Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
- Ntaganda Case; The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, ICC-01/04-02/06.
- "Tanzanian troops arrive in eastern DR Congo as part of UN intervention brigade". United Nations. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "M23 rebels announce end of rebellion in DR Congo". France24. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "DR Congo's M23 rebel chief Sultani Makenga 'surrenders'". BBC News. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- "Surrendering to the Big Picture: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Accountability in the Democratic Republic of Congo Following the Defeat of the March 23 Movement". 17 February 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Martina Schwikowski (8 April 2022). "M23 rebels resurface in DR Congo". DW. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
- Simone Schlindwein (30 March 2022). "Neue Kämpfe im Osten Kongos: UN-Blauhelme sterben". taz (in German). Retrieved 13 June 2022.
- James Karuhanga (26 May 2022). "Rwanda Will Not Be Drawn Into Intra-Congo Conflict - Govt Spokesperson". The New Times. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
- Katanty, Djaffar Al (26 May 2022). "Heavy fighting as Congo tries to fend off resurgent M23 rebels". Archived from the original on 13 June 2022 – via www.reuters.com.
- Al-Hadji Kudra Maliro; Justin Kabumba (13 June 2022). "Congo military accuses Rwanda of invasion; rebels seize town". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
- "DR Congo: Army 'seizes' eastern towns held by M23 rebels". bbcnews.com. 2 March 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "Clashes among DR Congo rebels leave 10 dead". Global Post. AFP. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- ICG 2022, pp. 10, 15.
- "Easing the Turmoil in the Eastern DR Congo and Great Lakes" (PDF). Crisis Group Africa Briefing. Nairobi, Brussels: International Crisis Group (181). 25 May 2022.
- Broache, Michael (November 2016). "Irrelevance, instigation and prevention: the mixed effects of international criminal court prosecutions on atrocities in the CNDP/M23 case". International Journal of Transitional Justice. Oxford Journals. 10 (3): 388–409. doi:10.1093/ijtj/ijw020.
- Koko, Sadiki (2014). "The Mouvement du 23 Mars and the dynamics of a failed insurgency in the Democratic Republic of Congo". South African Journal of International Affairs. Taylor and Francis. 21 (2): 261–278. doi:10.1080/10220461.2014.942207. S2CID 154084869.
- Mbavu Muhindo, Vincent (2014). De l'AFDL au M23 en République démocratique du Congo. L'Harmattan: Paris. ISBN 9782343040318.
- UN Group of Experts final report 2012
- Full text of the Agenda for the Dialogue between the Government of the DRC and the M23 on the situation in Eastern Congo, 16 January 2013, UN Peacemaker