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March for Life (Washington, D.C.)

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March for Life
DateEvery year since January 22, 1974 (1974-01-22)
(first anniversary of Roe v. Wade)
LocationWashington, D.C.
A girl at the 2013 March for Life

The March for Life is an annual rally and march against the practice and legality of abortion, held in Washington, D.C., either on or around the anniversary of Roe v. Wade, a decision legalizing abortion nationwide which was issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court. The participants in the march have advocated the overturning of Roe v. Wade, which happened at the end of the case Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization on June 24, 2022. It is a major gathering of the anti-abortion movement in the United States and it is organized by the March for Life Education and Defense Fund.


Demonstrators of the first March for Life in Washington, D.C. on January 22, 1974, a year after Roe v. Wade was decided
Some activists believe that abortion is a violation of human rights.
Young attendees of the 2018 March

In the 1960s American public opinion on a variety of issues, including sexuality and abortion, changed. It became much more common for people to have sexual intercourse outside of marriage. The rise of out-of-wedlock births, contraception, and abortion became controversial political issues. When the Supreme Court ruled that it was indeed constitutional for a woman to terminate her pregnancy (in the early stages), a vigorous anti-abortion movement was created.[1] The first March for Life, which was founded by Nellie Gray, was held on January 22, 1974, on the West Steps of the Capitol, with organizers claiming 20,000[2] supporters in attendance. The march was originally intended to be a one-time event, in hopes that the United States Supreme Court would reverse Roe v. Wade immediately a year after its ruling. However, after the first march in 1974, Gray took steps to institute the rally as a yearly event until Roe v. Wade was overturned by incorporating more grassroots anti-abortion activists into the march, which would be officially recognized as a nonprofit organization the same year.[3] Initially, politicians were viewed with suspicion. But as time passed, organizers of the March focused more and more on legislation and started to lobby politicians. However, the movement has become increasingly distant from the Democratic Party, as it has less and less room for anti-abortion voices, and leaned in favor of the Republican Party. For a long time, many anti-abortion Presidents, such as Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, had decided against appearing at the March. This precedent was broken in 2020, when Donald Trump became the first sitting President to attend the event in person.[4]

During the 33rd annual March for Life in 2006, the nomination of Judge Samuel Alito to the Supreme Court caused a major shift for the movement, because of the expectation that Alito would "win Senate approval and join a majority in overturning Roe."[5]

During the 2009 March for Life, the potential passage of the 110th United States Congress of the Freedom of Choice Act—a bill that would "codify Roe v. Wade" by declaring that abortion is a fundamental right, leading to the lifting of many restrictions on abortion—served as a key rallying point.[6]

In the contemporary United States, the anti-abortion movement has clashed with advocates of modern feminism, with anti-abortion activists claiming that abortion is an abuse of human rights.[7] As a result, women who identified as feminists but who also opposed legal abortion were excluded from the 2017 Women's March in the District of Columbia.[8] The movement also attracts gays and lesbians who have fallen out with the mainstream of their identities because they oppose abortion.[9] Both sides of the abortion debate have made use of novel medical advances, especially in neonatology and embryology, to justify their positions. In the case of the March for Life, president of the organization Jeanne Mancini asserted the argument that embryos were mere blobs of tissue was no longer feasible.[10]

After the 2019 March, a widely discussed confrontation occurred between a group of March for Life participants and those of the Indigenous Peoples' March.[11]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and a security measure following the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, the 2021 March for Life was moved online by its organizers, and not held in person.[12][13] Nevertheless, a small group of demonstrators marched their way towards the building of the Supreme Court, the normal endpoint of the event.[14]

In 2022, the March for Life was marked by an upbeat mood because activists felt confident, based on their belief that the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling would be overturned.[15] Many attendees were young people, including members of Generation Z.[16][17] On June 24, 2022, the court ruled in Dobbs that the legality of abortion can be chosen by the states, overturning Roe v. Wade.[18] The March for Life returned in 2023, with participants celebrating the demise of the Roe,[9] though they acknowledged that their dream of the end of abortion in the country had not yet become a reality.[9][19] Various attendees interviewed by the Washington Post disagreed on what they should advocate for next—(paid) parental leave, flexible work hours, religious conversion, making adoption easier, raising more funds for emergency pregnancy centers, or appealing to those who are neither white nor Christian—now that Roe had already been overturned.[4]


The March for Life proceedings begin around noon.[6] They typically consist of a rally at the National Mall near Fourth Street (in 2018, this was near 12th St. NW).[20] It is followed by a march which travels down Constitution Avenue NW, turns right at First Street NE, and then ends on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States, where another rally is held. Many protesters start the day by delivering roses and lobbying members of Congress.[21]


Undergraduates from the Franciscan University of Steubenville at the 2012 March for Life

In 1987, it is estimated that 10,000 participated.[22]

In 1995, which is the last year that the National Park Service made an official estimate of attendance, 45,000 attended.[23]

Between 2003 and 2012, the marches drew crowds estimated in the hundreds of thousands.[24][25][26] March organizers estimated attendance of 400,000 in 2011.[27][26][28][29] and 650,000 in 2013.[30] As with all large crowd estimates, the generated number of attendees reported differ, with some sources indicating a figure in the tens of thousands to low six figures.[31][30][32]

In 2016, the march proceeded despite a blizzard that dropped 24 inches (610 mm) of snow in D.C., with tens of thousands of attendees.[33][34]

Many young people attend the march,[35] including teenagers and college students attend the march each year, typically traveling with Catholic schools, churches, and youth groups. A columnist for The Washington Post estimated that about half of the marchers were under age 30 in 2010.[36]

In 2022 attendance was estimated to be in the tens of thousands.[37] By 2023, The Washington Post noticed that those who attended the March came from diverse religious backgrounds, white Evangelicals, Protestants, Jews, adherents of non-Christian religions, and members of secular groups. A large number of the marchers were of high-school or college age.[4]

Notable speakers[edit]


In 1987, then-President Ronald Reagan spoke remotely via telephone, and vowed to help "end this national tragedy." Jesse Helms, then Senator of North Carolina, attended and spoke. He called abortion an "American holocaust".[21]


In 2003, then-President George W. Bush spoke remotely via telephone and thanked participants for their "devotion to such a noble cause". During his telephone addresses, he tended to speak broadly of opposing abortion as opposed to offering any specific efforts being made to overturn the Roe v. Wade decision.[38]

In 2003, speakers included U.S. Representative Chris Smith, Republican of New Jersey, and Randall Terry, the founder of Operation Rescue. In his speech, Terry encouraged the youth in the audience, calling them to "fight for all you're worth."[39]

In 2004, 15 lawmakers (all Republican) spoke. Among the lawmakers who spoke were U.S. Representatives Todd Tiahrt of Kansas and Pat Toomey of Pennsylvania. Tiahrt, who also spoke at the 30th annual march, urged marchers to "help pro-lifers in your state"; Toomey supported these remarks, saying to vote for anti-abortion candidates in order to reclaim the Senate and, in turn, the courts.[38]

In 2006, U.S. Representative Steve Chabot, an Ohio Republican and prominent anti-abortion advocate in the House of Representatives, spoke to the masses on overturning Roe v. Wade. Nellie Gray, the founder of March for Life, also spoke.[5]

In 2009, approximately 20 Congress members spoke, including U.S. Representative F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr., Wisconsin Republican and former chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, and Gray.[6]


President Donald Trump addresses the March for Life at the White House Rose Garden on January 19, 2018.

In 2011, speakers included House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, House Majority Whip Kevin McCarthy, and several other members of the U.S. Congress, including then-Representative Mike Pence.[40]

In 2013, presenters included U.S. House Speaker John Boehner (via a pre-recorded video address), former senator and candidate for the 2012 Republican Party presidential nomination Rick Santorum, as well as other members of Congress.[41]

In 2016, Republican presidential candidate Carly Fiorina took part in the march.[42]

In 2017, the march included Vice President Mike Pence, Kellyanne Conway, the Presidential Counselor, the Archbishop of New York Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan, anti-abortion activist Abby Johnson, and NFL player Benjamin Watson. Vice President Pence attended and spoke at the march, becoming the first vice president and the then highest-ranking federal official to do so.[43][44] Pence was also one of the speakers at the 2010 march while serving as representative of Indiana’s 6th congressional district.[45]

In 2018, President Donald Trump addressed the 45th march via satellite from the White House Rose Garden, becoming the first U.S. President to address the rally using this technology.[46] The march was attended by U.S. House Speaker Paul Ryan, Democratic Illinois Representative Dan Lipinski, former NFL center Matt Birk,[47] and former NFL quarterback Tim Tebow's mother Pam.[48]

In 2019, Trump addressed the crowd via satellite and Pence spoke at the event in person. The President said, "I will always defend the first right in our Declaration of Independence: the right to life."[49] Political commentator Ben Shapiro also spoke at the event.[50]

President Trump at the 2020 March for Life


On January 24, 2020, incumbent President Trump became the first U.S. president to attend and speak at the March for Life.[51][52]

In 2022, two current Republican and one former Democratic House members spoke: Chris Smith, Julia Letlow, and Dan Lipinski.[53]

House Majority Leader Steve Scalise and Representative Chris Smith, co-chair of the Congressional Pro-Life Caucus, addressed the crowd at the 2023 March, as did Mississippi Attorney General Lynn Fitch.[7]

In 2024, Speaker of the House Mike Johnson, who was born from an unplanned pregnancy, spoke to the crowd.[54]

Associated events[edit]

Various anti-abortion organizations hold events before and after the March. Such events include a Luau for Life at Georgetown University and a candlelight vigil at the Supreme Court.[55] Additionally, independent films with an anti-abortion message have premiered or have been promoted in association with the March, including the Vatican endorsed film Doonby, which was shown at Landmark E Street Cinema during the 2013 march, and 22 Weeks, which premiered at Union Station's Phoenix Theatre on the eve of the 2009 march.[56]

Catholic events[edit]

Youth Rally and Mass at Verizon Center (2006), now called the Capital One Arena

In 2009, the apostolic nuncio to the United States, Archbishop Pietro Sambri, read Pope Benedict XVI's message, which told attendants that he was "deeply grateful" for the youths' "outstanding annual witness for the gospel of life".[6] In 2008, the Pope's message thanked attendants for "promoting respect for the dignity and inalienable rights of every human being."[55] In 2011, an event parallel to the Verizon Center event was held at the D.C. Armory; a total of over 27,000 young people attended the events.[57]

In 2013, a Morning Mass and Rally (preceding the March for Life) was added and held at the Patriot Center on the campus of George Mason University, including Arlington Bishop Paul Loverde, Richmond Bishop Francis DiLorenzo and more than 100 other bishops and priests from across the nation.[58] Life is VERY Good, which began with 350 participants in 2009, gathered in excess of 12,000 between its two events, held before and after the March, in 2013.[59]

Anglican events[edit]

Anglicans for Life, the anti-abortion apostolate of the Anglican Church in North America, launched the "Mobilizing the Church for Life" conference on the day before the 2016 March for Life.[60] On the following day, the primate of the Anglican Church in North America, Foley Beach, led Anglicans in the March for Life.[60]

Evangelical events[edit]

Clergy and laity at the 2017 United Methodist event for the March for Life hosted by Lifewatch, Taskforce of United Methodists on Abortion and Sexuality

At the 2016 March for Life rally, the Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission, the public policy arm of the Southern Baptist Convention, organized a conference "aimed at increasing the level of engagement in the pro-life cause".[61]

The Taskforce of United Methodists on Abortion and Sexuality, which is a part of the National Pro-Life Religious Council, holds its annual service of worship at the United Methodist Building, and the liturgy held for the 2016 March of Life featured "a sermon by Dr. Thomas C. Oden, General Editor of the Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture, former Professor of Theology and Ethics at Drew University, and Lifewatch Advisory Board member."[62][60]

Lutheran events[edit]

Before the 2016 March for Life, a Divine Service was celebrated at Immanuel Lutheran Church in Alexandria, Virginia.[60]

Virtual March for Life[edit]

In 2010, Americans United for Life launched an online virtual March. Those unable to attend the March for Life in person could create avatars of themselves and take part in a virtual demonstration on a Google Maps version of the National Mall.[63] The first online event attracted approximately 75,000 participants.[29]

The 2021 March for Life was a virtual event due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and security concerns following the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol.[64]

Media's attention[edit]

Members of the anti-abortion movement have frequently claimed that the level of media coverage of the annual March for Life is insufficient.[65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Garraty, John A. (1991). "Chapter XXXII Society in Flux, 1945-1980.". The American Nation: A History of the United States. United States of America: Harper Collins. pp. 901–6. ISBN 0-06-042312-9.
  2. ^ "History". marchforlife.org. March 25, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2017. On January 22, 1974, the first MARCH FOR LIFE was held on the West Steps of the Capitol. An estimated 20,000 committed prolife Americans rallied that day on behalf of our preborn brothers and sisters.
  3. ^ Goodman, Bethany (January 18, 2010). "History of the March". marchforlife.org. Retrieved January 28, 2017. On January 22, 1974 thousands of anti-abortion protesters attended the first March for Life. A rally was held as Members of Congress announced anti-abortion legislation and expressed their support for the anti-abortion cause. The program concluded with a "Circle of Life" march around the Capitol, followed by participants lobbying their Members of Congress.
  4. ^ a b c McDaniel, Justine; Kitchener, Caroline; Boorstein, Michelle (January 20, 2023). "With Roe dead, thousands attend March for Life in Washington". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 21, 2023.
  5. ^ a b Janofsky, Michael. "Abortion Opponents Rally, Saying the End of Roe is Near". The New York Times. January 23, 2006. Retrieved November 9, 2009
  6. ^ a b c d Drost, Michael. "Pro-life activists march on court; Call on Obama to 'save lives' by opposing pro-choice bills".The Washington Times, D.C. Area Section, A18. January 23, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2009
  7. ^ a b Shabad, Rebecca; Richards, Zoë; Jester, Julia (January 20, 2023). "Anti-abortion advocates hold annual March for Life rally for first time since Roe reversal". NBC News. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
  8. ^ Bagri, Neha Thirani (January 20, 2017). "A politically important group of women feels completely unwelcome at the Women's March on Washington". Quartz. Archived from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  9. ^ a b c Sasani, Ava; Graham, Ruth (January 20, 2023). "March for Life Kicks Off in Washington, Setting the Stage for New Ideas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 20, 2023. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
  10. ^ Green, Emma (January 18, 2018). "Science Is Giving the Pro-Life Movement a Boost". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  11. ^ Mervosh, Sarah; Rueb, Emily S. (January 20, 2019). "Fuller Picture Emerges of Viral Video Between Native American Man and Catholic Students". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  12. ^ "Dear March for Life organizers: Thank you for canceling the in-person march". America Magazine. January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  13. ^ Kelly, Caroline (January 29, 2021). "A virtual March for Life takes place under a changed Washington". CNN. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  14. ^ Boorstein, Michelle; Schmidt, Samantha (January 29, 2021). "Facing a post-Trump world, abortion opponents at March for Life strike a less partisan tone". Religion. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  15. ^ Khalil, Ashraf; Freking, Kevin; Weber, Paul J.; Pettus, Emily Wagster (January 22, 2022). "Anti-abortion protesters optimistic at March for Life in DC". Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  16. ^ Mullen, Michelle; Lai, Man Sum (January 22, 2022). "Gen Z marchers praying for an end to US abortion". BBC News. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  17. ^ Paz, Christian (January 24, 2022). "The Anti-abortion Movement's Gen-Z Victors". Politics. The Atlantic. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  18. ^ "Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, 597 U. S. ____ (2022)". Justia. May 16, 2021. Archived from the original on June 27, 2022. Retrieved June 27, 2022.
  19. ^ Hutzler, Alexandra (January 20, 2023). "March for Life eyes 'next steps' after fall of Roe v. Wade". ABC News. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
  20. ^ "2018 March for Life Info". Archived from the original on July 17, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  21. ^ a b Toner, Robin "Rally Against Abortion Hears Pledge of Support by Reagan". The New York Times. January 23, 1987. Retrieved November 22, 2009
  22. ^ Hula, Bryan (January 21, 2015). "From the Archives: March for Life History". VOX. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  23. ^ Frank Somerville; Richard O'Mara (January 24, 1995). "Keeler exhorts March for Life crowd". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved January 24, 2017. The U.S. Park Police estimated 45,000 people marched, about 10,000 more than last year.
  24. ^ Leslie Shapiro; Shelley Tan (January 22, 2017). "A century of women marching on the Mall". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2017. The event has grown throughout the years. The first march drew a few thousand protestors, while more recent marches have seen consistent crowds estimated to be in the tens to hundreds of thousands.
  25. ^ Tim Drake (January 25, 2011). "March for Life 2011". National Catholic Register. Retrieved January 28, 2017. A crowd estimated between 100,000 and 200,000 contended with a water main break on the Beltway and below freezing temperatures to demonstrate their support for a culture of life.
  26. ^ a b "Youth Turnout Strong at US March for Life". Catholic.net. Zenit.org. January 25, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  27. ^ Harper, Jennifer (January 22, 2009). "Pro-life marchers lose attention". The Washington Times. Retrieved January 27, 2011. [T]he event has consistently drawn about 250,000 participants since 2003.
  28. ^ About Us. March for Life website. Retrieved January 27, 2011
  29. ^ a b "300,000 March for Life in US Capital: Another 75,000 Participate Online". ZENIT news agency. Innovative Media, Inc. January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  30. ^ a b "Abortion Foes Aim to Compete With Turnout for Women's March". The New York Times. January 27, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2017. One of the largest turnouts was in 2013, the 40th anniversary of Roe v. Wade and the march itself. Some abortion opponents claimed that as many as 650,000 marchers showed up.
  31. ^ "Thousands converge for March on Life". CNN. January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2017. tens of thousands of protesters marched through the snow and ice, hoping to change minds
  32. ^ Johnson, Lacey (January 22, 2014). "U.S. anti-abortion marchers brave freezing cold in Washington". Reuters. Retrieved January 23, 2017. Thousands of U.S. anti-abortion activists braved frigid temperatures to rally at the annual March for Life on Wednesday
  33. ^ Michelle Boorstein; Joe Heim (January 22, 2016). "As DC shuts down for a blizzard, a small, faithful crowd still joins the March for Life". The Washington Post. Acts of Faith. Retrieved February 14, 2017. Despite the onset of a snow storm, thousands participate in the 43rd annual March for Life, commemorating Roe v Wade.
  34. ^ Nicolas Fandos (January 22, 2016). "Hundreds Brave Snow at March for Life in Washington". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018.
  35. ^ Morrow, Brendan (January 23, 2020). "Young anti-abortion marchers look forward to 'post-Roe America'". The Guardian. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  36. ^ McCartney, Robert (January 24, 2010). "Young activists adding fuel to antiabortion side". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  37. ^ Lauren Gambino (January 21, 2022). "Tens of thousands 'march for life' in Washington as fate of Roe v Wade looms". The Guardian.
  38. ^ a b Janofsky, Michael (January 23, 2004). "Words of Support From Bush at Anti-Abortion Rally". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  39. ^ Toner, Robin "At a Distance, Bush Joins Abortion Protest". The New York Times. January 23, 2003. Retrieved November 22, 2009
  40. ^ Huma Khan, Amy Bingham January 24, 2011 Activists at March for Life Rally Demand Tougher Abortion Laws, Overturn of Roe v. Wade
  41. ^ "March for Life Rally". C-SPAN Video Library. C-SPAN. January 25, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  42. ^ Michelle Boorstein; Joe Heim (January 22, 2016). "As DC shuts down for a blizzard, a small, faithful crowd still joins the March for Life". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  43. ^ Gaudiano, Nicole (January 27, 2017). "At Anti-Abortion Rally, Mike Pence is a Beacon of Hope". USA Today. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  44. ^ Fredericks, Bob (January 27, 2017). "Mike Pence Makes History by Rallying with Pro-Life Marchers". New York Post. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  45. ^ House Republicans (January 22, 2010). "Congressman Mike Pence at the 2010 March for Life". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 19, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  46. ^ "Live stream: Trump makes historic speech at March for Life 2018". USA Today. January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  47. ^ "March for Life Announces Speaker Lineup for 45th Annual March for Life in Washington, D.C. On January 19th". December 20, 2017.
  48. ^ St. Clair, Adrienne (January 19, 2018). "'You Love Every Child': President Trump Addresses March For Life". NPR. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  49. ^ "March for Life 2019: Vice President Pence makes surprise visit at DC rally". USA Today. January 18, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  50. ^ Stanglin, Doug; Miller, Ryan (January 18, 2019). "March for Life 2019: Vice President Pence makes surprise visit at DC rally". USA Today. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  51. ^ Dorman, Sam (January 22, 2020). "Trump to become first president to speak at the March for Life". Fox News. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  52. ^ "Trump, a late convert to cause, attends March for Life anti-abortion rally". Los Angeles Times. January 24, 2020. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  53. ^ March for Life Rally, C-SPAN, January 21, 2022 and Ex-Democratic Rep. Dan Lipinski to speak at March for Life by Kate Scanlon, January 21, 2022, Washington Examiner
  54. ^ Khalil, Ashraf; Richer, Alanna Durkin (January 19, 2024). "In snowy DC, the March for Life rallies against abortion with an eye toward the November elections". AP News. Retrieved January 20, 2024.
  55. ^ a b Montes, Sue Anne Pressley. "A Youthful Throng Marches Against Abortion." The Washington Post, Section A03. January 23, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2009
  56. ^ Mancari, Jim (January 30, 2013). "NET and 'Doonby' March for Life". The Tablet. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  57. ^ Michelle Boorstein, Ben Pershing January 25, 2011 "Abortion protesters see hope in GOP gains"
  58. ^ Collins, Katie (December 19, 2012). "Culture of life starts with prayer". Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  59. ^ "Life is very good (2.8.13) | The Anchor". www.anchornews.org. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013.
  60. ^ a b c d Vicari, Chelsen (January 20, 2016). "Top 5 Church Affiliated Events Coinciding with the March for Life". Institute on Religion and Democracy. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  61. ^ Zystra, Sarah Eekhoff (January 21, 2016). "Evangelicals Join March for Life as Abortions Plu". Christianity Today. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  62. ^ Evans, Cindy (January 5, 2016). "Annual Lifewatch Worship Service". Taskforce of United Methodists on Abortion and Sexuality. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  63. ^ Thousands march in D.C. demonstration against abortion, William Wan, January 23, 2010 Washington Post, January 23, 2010
  64. ^ "Statement on 2021 March for Life". March for Life. January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  65. ^ Goodstein, Laurie; Hartocollis, Anemona (January 26, 2017). "Abortion Foes Aim to Compete With Turnout for Women's March". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]