Marchantiales

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Marchantiales
Marchantiales cf Conocephalum 20071111.jpg
Conocephalum conicum - a thallose liverwort
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Marchantiophyta
Class: Marchantiopsida
Order: Marchantiales
Limpr., 1877[1]
Families

See Classification

Marchantiales is an order of thallose liverworts (also known as "complex thalloid liverworts") that includes species like Marchantia polymorpha, a widespread plant often found beside rivers, and Lunularia cruciata, a common and often troublesome weed in moist, temperate gardens and greenhouses.

As in other bryophytes, the gametophyte generation is dominant, with the sporophyte existing as a short-lived part of the life cycle, dependent upon the gametophyte.

The genus Marchantia is often used to typify the order, although there are also many species of Asterella and species of the genus Riccia are more numerous. The majority of genera are characterized by the presence of (a) special stalked vertical branches called archegoniophores or carocephala, and (b) sterile cells celled elaters inside the sporangium.

Phylogeny (extant Marchantiales)[edit]

Based on the work by Villarreal et al. 2015[2]

Marchantiaceae

Marchantia

Bucegia

Preissia

Dumortieraceae

Dumortiera

Aytoniaceae

Cryptomitrium

Mannia

Asterella

Reboulia

Plagiochasma

Cleveaceae

Aitchisoniella

Clevea

Peltolepis

Athalamia

Sauteria

Monocleaceae

Monoclea

Conocephalaceae

Conocephalum

Oxymitraceae

Oxymitra

Ricciaceae

Ricciocarpos

Riccia

Targioniaceae

Targionia

Wiesnerellaceae

Wiesnerella

Monosoleniaceae

Monosolenium

Cyathodiaceae

Cyathodium

Corsiniaceae

Corsinia

Stephensoniella

Cronisia

Exormotheca

Phylogeny (extant and extinct Marchantiales)[edit]

Extinct complex thalloid liverworts are often represented by coalified compressions that preserve superficial morphological traits and do not allow exhaustively analysing their fine anatomy; though, in exceptional cases, fossils might preserve cell details.[3]

Generally speaking, extinct Marchantiales - which commonly date back to the Mesozoic - can be grouped in Marchantia-like and Riccia-like fossils according to their overall morphology. While the phylogenetic relationships among many extinct and extant Marchantiales remain equivocal, it has been suggested that some fossils are closely related to extant Marchantiales.

Marchantites cyathodoides (Townrow) H. M. Anderson (Middle Triassic), for instance, is a Marchantia-like fossil whose detailed morphological characters (e.g., thallus with midrib, reduced air chambers, rhizoids and ventral scales) suggest a nested position within Marchantiales.[4] Some Riccia-like fossils have even been assigned to families based on their overall morphology and branching patterns, such as the case of Ricciopsis sandaolingensis Li & Sun (Middle Jurassic[5]). The first phylogenetic analyses that include both extinct and extant Marchantiales have further clarified the relationships among these taxa and have revealed new relationships among families.[6] Likewise, the inclusion of fossils in total-evidence analyses implied that some groups of complex thalloid liverworts might be older than previously inferred.

Summary tree based on the work by Flores et al. 2020:[6]

Takakia ceratophylla

Marchantiophyta

Haplomitriopsida

Jungermanniopsida

Pallaviciniites sandaolingensis +

Pellidae

Metzgeriidae

Pleuroziales

Metzgeriothallus sharonae +

Metzgeriales

Jungermanniidae

Marchantiopsida

Blasiidae

Marchantiidae

Neohodgsoniales

Sphaerocarpales

Marchantiales

Lunulariaceae

Marchantites cyathodoides +

Marchantiaceae

Marchantites huolinhensis +

Marchantia

Dumortieraceae

Aytoniaceae

Cleveaceae

Wiesnerellaceae

Targioniaceae

Monosoleniaceae

Monocleaceae

Conocephalaceae

Oxymitraceae

Ricciaceae

Ricciocarpos

Riccia

Ricciopsis +

Cyathodiaceae

Corsiniaceae

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy based on work by Söderström et al. 2016[7] and synonyms from Collection of genus-group names in a systematic arrangement.[8] The order Lunulariales, proposed by Long 2006,[9] has been recently re-included in Marchantiales as a family.[10][11]

Cross section through a marchantialian thallus.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Limpricht, G. (1877). "Lebermoose". In Cohn, F. (ed.). Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien. 1. pp. 225–352.
  2. ^ Villarreal; et al. (2015). "Divergence times and the evolution of morphological complexity in an early land plant lineage (Marchantiopsida) with a slow molecular rate". New Phytologist. 209 (4): 1734–46. doi:10.1111/nph.13716. PMID 26505145.
  3. ^ Tomescu, Alexandru M.F.; Bomfleur, Benjamin; Bippus, Alexander C.; Savoretti, Adolfina (2018), "Why Are Bryophytes So Rare in the Fossil Record? A Spotlight on Taphonomy and Fossil Preservation", Transformative Paleobotany, Elsevier, pp. 375–416, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-813012-4.00016-4, ISBN 978-0-12-813012-4, retrieved 2020-11-02
  4. ^ Anderson, Heidi (1976). "A review of the Bryophyta from the Upper Triassic Molteno Formation, Karroo Basin, South Africa". Palaeontologia Africana. 30: 21–30. hdl:10539/16189 – via WireDSpace.
  5. ^ Li, Ruiyun; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Hongshan; Sun, Bainian (2019). "Ricciopsis sandaolingensis sp. nov., a new fossil bryophyte from the Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Formation in the Turpan-Hami Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China". Palaeontologia Electronica. 22 (2). doi:10.26879/917.
  6. ^ a b Flores, Jorge R; Bippus, Alexander C; Suárez, Guillermo M; Hyvönen, Jaakko (2020). "Defying death: incorporating fossils into the phylogeny of the complex thalloid liverworts (Marchantiidae, Marchantiophyta) confirms high order clades but reveals discrepancies in family‐level relationships". Cladistics. 16: 1–17. doi:10.1111/cla.12442.
  7. ^ Söderström; et al. (2016). "World checklist of hornworts and liverworts". PhytoKeys (59): 1–826. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.59.6261. PMC 4758082. PMID 26929706.
  8. ^ "Part 2- Plantae (starting with Chlorophycota)". Collection of genus-group names in a systematic arrangement. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  9. ^ Long, D. G. (July 2006). "New Higher Taxa of Complex Thalloid Liverworts (Marchantiophyta – Marchantiopsida)". Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 63 (2–3): 257–262. doi:10.1017/S0960428606000606. ISSN 0960-4286.
  10. ^ Cole, Theodor C H; Hilger, Hartmut H; Goffinet, Bernard. "Supplemental Information 1: Bryophyte Phylogeny Poster 2019 - full A0 size". doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.27571v3/supp-1. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Flores, Jorge R.; Catalano, Santiago A.; Muñoz, Jesus; Suárez, Guillermo M. (2018). "Combined phylogenetic analysis of the subclass Marchantiidae (Marchantiophyta): towards a robustly diagnosed classification". Cladistics. 34 (5): 517–541. doi:10.1111/cla.12225. ISSN 1096-0031. S2CID 52831959.
  • Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J. & Stotler, Raymond E. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 63 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:2000). ISBN 0-521-66097-1.
  • Grolle, Riclef (1983). "Nomina generica Hepaticarum; references, types and synonymies". Acta Botanica Fennica 121, 1-62.

External links[edit]